National Repository of Grey Literature 18 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Changes in individual isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in experimental hypertension and metabolic syndrome: genetic and molecular-biological aspects
Hojná, Silvie ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Pelouch, Václav (referee) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee) ; Cífková, Renata (referee)
Changes in individual isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in experimental hypertension and metabolic syndrome: genetic and molecular-biological aspects Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Resistance of immature heart muscle to insufficient oxygen
Charvátová, Zuzana ; Ošťádal, Bohuslav (advisor) ; Vízek, Martin (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Škovránek, Jan (referee)
Dle údajů Světové zdravotnické organizace jsou v zemích střední a východní Evropy nejčastější příčinou úmrtí choroby srdce a cév. Více než polovinu z tohoto množství zaujímá jediné onemocnění, jímž je akutní a chronická ischemická choroba srdeční (ICHS). Cílem klinických i experimentálních kardiologů, kteří se výzkumem prevence a terapie ICHS zabývají, je proto tuto nepříznivou situaci zlepšit. ICHS vzniká jako důsledek nerovnováhy mezi množstvím kyslíku (a substrátů) dodávaného srdeční buňce a množstvím kyslíku, které buňka aktuálně potřebuje ke splnění metabolických nároků. Při ischemii (na rozdíl od hypoxie) je navíc kromě dodávky živin narušen i odvod produktů a nežádoucích zplodin buněčného metabolizmu. Výsledkem je pak přechod srdečního svalu na anaerobní metabolizmus, hromadění metabolitů a porucha energetické a iontové homeostázy; to vede k poruchám kontraktility a konečným důsledkem omezení perfuze myokardu může být zánik srdeční buňky a vznik infarktu myokardu. V tom, zda poškození bude reverzibilní či ireverzibilní, hraje rozhodující roli délka trvání ischemie. Jedinou možností, jak zabránit či alespoň zmírnit nevratné poškození srdečního svalu, je včasné obnovení průtoku krve koronárním řečištěm v postižené oblasti. Rozsah ischemického poškození srdečního svalu nezávisí pouze na intenzitě a...
The enzymes of catecholamine metabolism in experimental hypertension.
Loučková, Anna ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Klevstigová, Martina (referee)
Catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are significantly involved in regulation of blood pressure. The most important enzymes participating in their metabolism are tyrosin hydroxylase, DOPA dekarboxylase, dopamine β-hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. This thesis summarizes current knowledge about these enzymes, focusing on their role in the development of essential hypertension. Experimental models are often used in the study of hypertension because of their practical and ethic reasons. Most findings were obtained in spontaneously hypertensive rats, due to their similarity to human essential hypertension. Metabolism of catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive rat differs in many aspects from that of normotensive controls. The primary cause of this type of hypertension has not yet been distinguished from compensatory responses. However, prevention or slow-down the disease-development process can be achieved by various interventions. This information may help to identify new treatments for human hypertension.
Impact of antidiabetic substances to development of insulin resistance and neurodegenerative changes in mouse models of type 2 diabetes
Mikulášková, Barbora ; Čabala, Radomír (advisor) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that patients suffering from metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2), insulin resistance or obesity are at a higher risk of cognitive functions impairment and developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairment of insulin signalling in the brain could contribute to two pathological changes which leads to AD development that include insoluble senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, containing an abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein (Tau). This work is focused on investigating of insulin signaling in hippocampi in the brains of mice models of insulin resistence, impact of disturbed insulin signaling on hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and possible benefical efect of insulin sensitizing agents on insulin signaling and Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampi of diabetic mice. The first, we examined insulin signaling and phosphorylation of Tau in hippocampi in two mouse models of TDM2 - lipodystrofic A-ZIP F-1 mice and monosodium glutamate obese mice (MSG mice). We did not observe any changes in insulin signaling and Tau phosphorylation in hippocampi of A-ZIP F-1 mice compared to controls. In the hippocampi of MSG mice there was attenuated phosphorylation of kinases of insulin signalling including Ser9 of glycogen synthase...
Effect of insulin on blood glucose and oxidative stress
Žourek, Michal ; Rušavý, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Vondra, Karel (referee) ; Filipovský, Jan (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
The author deals with oxidative stress and its effects on the pathogenesis of various diseases including the development of insulin resistance. The work is divided in the usual way overview of current knowledge on the issues, methods, results, discussion and conclusions. Part of this work is to describe an animal experiment in the waking state, whose introduction to our department was one of the tasks of this graduate work.
The importance of endocrinefunction of adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance syndrome
Kaválková, Petra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Karásek, David (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
(AJ) Adipose tissue produces numerous adipokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones which may influence the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. The ability of adipose tissue to store lipids and thus protect other organs and tissues from ectopic lipid accumulation and development of insulin resistance (IR) is largely dependent on the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. The amount and function of these cells may be the key factor in creating "healthy" adipose tissue or on the contrary "unhealthy" adipose tissue eventually leading to metabolic derangements. The regulation of the amount of body fat by converting preadipocytes into mature adipocytes may be crucial in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. One of the reasons for development of insulin resistance can be the inhibition of the differentiation process of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes with consequent ectopic lipid accumulation caused by the secretion of preadipocyte factor - 1 (Pref - 1). Pref - 1 has been discovered recently as a protein produced by preadipocytes but not by mature adipocytes. Pref - 1 is a member of the protein family sharing similarity with epidermal growth factors which regulate the differentiation of...
Impact of leptin and ghrelin on food intake and metabolic parameters in obese ovariectomized female mice
Matyšková, Resha ; Maletínská, Lenka (advisor) ; Jurčovičová, Jana (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
The thesis is focused on the effect of leptin and ghrelin receptor antagonists on food intake and metabolic parameters in ovariectomized (OVX) female mice on a high fat (HF) diet. In the first part of the thesis, diet-induced obesity was introduced in two strains of mice (NMRI and C57BL/6). Diet-induced obesity resulted from overconsumption of a HF diet containing 60 % of fat; a standard (St) diet contained only 9 % of fat. The strain C57BL/6 was more susceptible to a HF diet than the NMRI strain and was chosen for further experiments on food intake. In the second part of the thesis, OVX C57BL/6 female mice on a HF diet were introduced as a model of common obesity in women after menopause and overconsumption of high caloric food. OVX mice on a HF diet accumulated more than 4 times higher amount of the white adipose tissue compared to those on a St diet, had significantly elevated glucose, insulin and leptin levels and attenuated sensitivity to effect of centrally administered leptin, an adipokine that decreases food intake. Central leptin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome parameters were improved after 4 weeks of estradiol treatment. Because both ovariectomy and HF diet result in enhanced sensitivity to ghrelin, the hormone produced predominantly by the stomach that stimulates appetite, in the...
Monocyte adhesion to endothelium and atherogenesis
Kauerová, Soňa ; Králová Lesná, Ivana (advisor) ; Kraml, Pavel (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
Despite the availability of effective therapy of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, cardiovascular mortality continues to be very high in the Western world. Inflammatory changes occurring in the arterial wall as well as in the adipose tissue play a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. Macrophages are involved in the process of atherogenesis as early as atherosclerosis begins to develop, when, still as monocytes, they migrate and adhere to the arterial wall as a result of endothelial activation and stimulation by pro-inflammatory substances. Adipose tissue has long been recognized as an important endocrine organ, with part of adipose tissue made up by a large amount of macrophages capable of producing a large number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the development of low-grade chronic inflammation important in the development of atherosclerosis. In samples of subcutaneous, visceral and perivascular adipose tissue (SAT, VAT, and PVAT, respectively) obtained from healthy subjects (living kidney donors, LKD), we analyzed macrophages and their polarization, gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the effect of substances released by VAT on the level of monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. In some analyses, we included samples of SAT, VAT and PVAT obtained...
The importance of endocrinefunction of adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance syndrome
Kaválková, Petra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Karásek, David (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
(AJ) Adipose tissue produces numerous adipokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones which may influence the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. The ability of adipose tissue to store lipids and thus protect other organs and tissues from ectopic lipid accumulation and development of insulin resistance (IR) is largely dependent on the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. The amount and function of these cells may be the key factor in creating "healthy" adipose tissue or on the contrary "unhealthy" adipose tissue eventually leading to metabolic derangements. The regulation of the amount of body fat by converting preadipocytes into mature adipocytes may be crucial in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. One of the reasons for development of insulin resistance can be the inhibition of the differentiation process of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes with consequent ectopic lipid accumulation caused by the secretion of preadipocyte factor - 1 (Pref - 1). Pref - 1 has been discovered recently as a protein produced by preadipocytes but not by mature adipocytes. Pref - 1 is a member of the protein family sharing similarity with epidermal growth factors which regulate the differentiation of...
Impact of antidiabetic substances to development of insulin resistance and neurodegenerative changes in mouse models of type 2 diabetes
Mikulášková, Barbora ; Čabala, Radomír (advisor) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that patients suffering from metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (TDM2), insulin resistance or obesity are at a higher risk of cognitive functions impairment and developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impairment of insulin signalling in the brain could contribute to two pathological changes which leads to AD development that include insoluble senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, containing an abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein (Tau). This work is focused on investigating of insulin signaling in hippocampi in the brains of mice models of insulin resistence, impact of disturbed insulin signaling on hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and possible benefical efect of insulin sensitizing agents on insulin signaling and Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampi of diabetic mice. The first, we examined insulin signaling and phosphorylation of Tau in hippocampi in two mouse models of TDM2 - lipodystrofic A-ZIP F-1 mice and monosodium glutamate obese mice (MSG mice). We did not observe any changes in insulin signaling and Tau phosphorylation in hippocampi of A-ZIP F-1 mice compared to controls. In the hippocampi of MSG mice there was attenuated phosphorylation of kinases of insulin signalling including Ser9 of glycogen synthase...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 18 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
2 KUNEŠ, Jan
1 Kuneš, Jakub
2 Kuneš, Jan
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