National Repository of Grey Literature 52 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Neural mechanisms in the pathogenesis of spontaneous hypertension in the rat
Vavřínová, Anna ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Neckář, Jan (referee)
Both sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems are involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the mostly used animal model of genetic hypertension, is characterized by multiple molecular, morphological and functional alterations at different levels of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems. The study of young prehypertensive SHR allows to reveal the abnormalities preceding hypertension development, whereas adult SHR with established hypertension offers a better model for the treatment of human essential hypertension. The aim of my PhD Thesis was to describe abnormalities in sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems in SHR under different conditions. Firstly, ontogenetic differences which might contribute to hypertension development were determined. Secondly, the effect of chemical sympathectomy induced by guanethidine in adulthood on cardiovascular parameters and on the compensatory mechanisms counteracting the reduction of blood pressure were studied. Thirdly, stress-induced cardiovascular response and stress-induced changes of sympathoneural and sympathoadrenal systems were described in adult SHR. My Thesis brought several important results. The increased adrenal catecholamine content and the...
Regulatory mechanisms affecting etiopathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Cinkajzlová, Anna ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Krčma, Michal (referee) ; Kříž, Jan (referee)
Subclinical inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of obesity- related complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Macrophages are considered important players participating in the initiation and progression of subclinical inflammation within as well as outside of adipose tissue. The first part of this dissertation thesis was focused on macrophage characterization and their quantitative and qualitative changes accompanying metabolic improvements after bariatric surgery. We have demonstrated that the number of macrophages in subcutaneous adipose tissue is reduced regardless of their M1 or M2 polarization manifested as positivity of both the M1- associated CD40 antigen and the M2-associated CD163 and CD206 antigens 6 months after bariatric surgery. Thus, as suggested by previously published data, subcutaneous adipose tissue macrophages seem to have a mixed phenotype. We further confirmed a higher number of non- classical monocytes, which play a role in the control of vascular integrity, in obese subjects as well as a classical monocyte-derived origin of CD163 positive monocytes. Our data also support the previous suggestion of the soluble form of CD163 antigen being a suitable marker of metabolic complications of obesity. The second part...
The influence of very-low calorie diet and pharmacologic interventions on adipose tissue metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Gregová, Monika ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Žourek, Michal (referee)
(EN) Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are among metabolic disease with increasing incidence and prevalence. Last decade has been devoted to intensive research focused on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying development of these diseases. Besides environmental factors, lifestyle and amount and composition of food, adipose tissue is a key player in the pathogenesis of obesity and its metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR) and T2DM. Primary aim of our work was to evaluate the role of recently discovered adipokine omentin and the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and in peripheral monocytes (PM) in patients with obesity and T2DM with respect to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. A total number of 118 subjects enrolled in the study were divided into three groups: patients with obesity and T2DM (T2DM group), obese non-diabetics (OB) and healthy lean subjects as a control group (KO). Study subjects underwent several types of interventions - 2 to 3 weeks of very-low calorie diet (VLCD, energy intake 600 kcal per day), regular physical activity program or bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, LSG). Results indicate that low serum omentin concentrations may contribute to development of obesity-associated...
The changes in endocrine function and inflammatory profile of adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes of patients with obesity: the influence of physical activity and bariatric surgery
Trachta, Pavel ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Maruna, Pavel (referee) ; Štechová, Kateřina (referee)
(EN) Research in the field of obesity, diabetes mellitus and their complications in recent years is increasingly focused on pathophysiological mechanisms of their onset and potential prevention and treatment. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of two different interventions - sleeve gastrectomy and physical activity - on anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal parameters and mRNA expression of proinflammatory factors in subcutaneous adipose tissue along with mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes in patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. A total of 15 obese women with hypertension were included into the physical activity study. These patients underwent a 3-month training program, which included 30 minutes of aerobic exercise three times a week. 13 obese women were included into sleeve gastrectomy study and were followed-up for 2 years after surgery. Our results indicate that in both studies obese groups had at baseline significantly increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors relative to control groups. Both interventions decreased body weight and low-grade inflammation. Physical activity had no significant effect on blood pressure, lipid profile and mRNA expression of the components of the renin-...
Molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome with focus on new hormones produced by adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle
Kloučková, Jana ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee) ; Bužga, Marek (referee)
1 Abstract The cluster of obesity, insulin resistance and other associated comorbidities represents a significant health risk for the affected individuals as well as the whole population. Chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is considered one of the main mechanisms respon- sible for the progression from simple obesity to a fully developed metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to explore two different approaches that could potentially ameliorate adipose tissue inflammation - therapeutic hypothermia and the adipocytokine clusterin. In the first part, we showed that a period of deep hypothermia associated with the an- oxic phase of cardiac surgery significantly delayed the onset of systemic inflammatory re- sponse induced by surgery. The relative gene expression of the studied genes was not altered during the hypothermic period, but was significantly increased in five out of ten studied genes (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, HIF1-α, GLUT1) and decreased in two genes (IRS1, GPX1) at the end of surgery. We conclude that deep hypothermia delays the onset of local adipose tissue hy- poxia and inflammation. These results could partially explain the positive effects of therapeu- tic deep hypothermia on postoperative morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery patients. In the second part, we examined plasma...
The importance of endocrinefunction of adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance syndrome
Kaválková, Petra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Karásek, David (referee) ; Kuneš, Jaroslav (referee)
(AJ) Adipose tissue produces numerous adipokines, pro- and antiinflammatory cytokines and hormones which may influence the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome. The ability of adipose tissue to store lipids and thus protect other organs and tissues from ectopic lipid accumulation and development of insulin resistance (IR) is largely dependent on the adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. The amount and function of these cells may be the key factor in creating "healthy" adipose tissue or on the contrary "unhealthy" adipose tissue eventually leading to metabolic derangements. The regulation of the amount of body fat by converting preadipocytes into mature adipocytes may be crucial in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. One of the reasons for development of insulin resistance can be the inhibition of the differentiation process of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes with consequent ectopic lipid accumulation caused by the secretion of preadipocyte factor - 1 (Pref - 1). Pref - 1 has been discovered recently as a protein produced by preadipocytes but not by mature adipocytes. Pref - 1 is a member of the protein family sharing similarity with epidermal growth factors which regulate the differentiation of...
The role of incretin hormones in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Marchal, Anna ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Brabcová, Iveta (referee)
Incretins are gut hormones secreted by cells located in the small intestine in response to ingestion of nutrients. The aim of this thesis is to describe their effect on the control of glucose homeostasis. Incretin receptors are widely distributed in multiple tissues and organs suggesting their complex effects including the regulation of glucose homeostasis and food intake by various mechanisms including both peripheral and central effects. Owing to their ability to regulate insulin secretion and glucose metabolism incretins have a potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Incretin-based therapy strategies are discussed and compared in this thesis. Analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1, one of the incretin hormones, have the ability to lower body weight and therefore are considered as a possible obesity treatment both in patients with and without diabetes. The role of incretins in pathophysiology of obesity and studies carried out in order to evaluate its potential in the treatment of this disease are depicted. The thesis also involves an overview of possible role of incretins in metabolic effects of bariatric surgery. Keywords: Incretin hormones, GIP, GLP-1, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity.
Endocrine role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kratochvílová, Helena ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Taxová Braunerová, Radka (referee)
Adipose tissue as an active endocrine organ is explored in a number of processes associated with metabolic disorders. This work is aimed on studying the effect of endoscopically implantable weight-reducing device - duodeno-jejunal bypass liner - on subclinical inflammation of adipose tissue in obese patients, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Specifically, for patients implanted with duodeno- jejunal bypass liner we determined anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal characteristics, and mRNA expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue proinflammatory (TNF-α, leptin, CCL- 2, CX3CL1, CD40, CD80, CD86, CD206, CD163 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory genes (Adiponektin, IL-10) before, one month and ten months after the intervention. The implantation of duodeno-jejunal bypass liner significantly decreased body weight, waist circumference, and improved metabolic and glycemic control. In addition, C-reactive protein a highly sensitive indicator of inflammatory processes in the body was reduced ten months after implantation. In the case of mRNA expression of CD86 (a marker of activated B lymphocytes and macrophages) there was temporarily increase in adipose tissue one month after the surgery and the subsequent significant decrease after ten months. mRNA expression of other...
Diabetes mellitus and impairment of intestinal barier function
Hoffmanová, Iva ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Keil, Radan (referee)
Introduction: Impairment of intestinal barrier function is involved in pathogenesis of immune mediated diseases (such as type 1 diabetes mellitus or celiac disease) and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus). Aims of study: The first aim was to analyze impairment of mucosal part of intestinal barrier in both type of diabetes and to describe differences when compared to celiac disease, which is a typical condition associated with impairment of intestinal barrier function. The second aim was to find a correlation between duration or compensation of diabetes and intestinal barrier desintegration in patients with both type of diabetes, and to find a correlation between body mass index and intestinal barrier desintegration in patients with type 2 diabetes. The third aim was to assess influence of gluten-free diet on improvement of small intestinal mucosal integrity in patient with celiac disease. Methods: The study was performed on 166 individuals including healthy controls and five group of patients with: type 1 diabetes mellitus with fading insulitis (T1D), type 1 diabetes mellitus with ongoing insulitus (T1D/INS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), untreated celiac disease (CLD), and celiac disease on gluten-free diet (CLD-GFD). We tested the marker of epithelial apoptosis - cytokeratin 18...

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1 Haluzík, Michal
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