National Repository of Grey Literature 42 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Role makrofágy produkovaného cytokinu IMPL2 v regulaci systemického metabolismu během bakteriální infekce u \kur{Drosophila melanogaster}
The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to verify whether ImpL2, produced by activated immune cells, is responsible for changes in systemic metabolism during the immune response during the acute phase of bacterial infection in Drosophila melanogaster. The theoretical part includes previously known information about the immune system of mammals and D. melanogaster, especially about polarization and cellular metabolism of macrophages, as well as knowledge about the roles of the ImpL2 gene and its mammalian homologue Igfbp7. The practical part of the bachelor thesis deals with the role of the ImpL2 gene in the induction of changes in systemic metabolism during the immune response. The effect of the cytokine IMPL2 on selected metabolic genes in adipose tissue after Streptococcus pneumoniae infection was tested by means of macrophage-specific RNA interference. The work also clarifies whether this signaling factor has an effect on the concentration of selected metabolites in circulation and in macrophages during the acute phase of bacterial infection.
Metabolic and genetic risks of development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients after liver transplantation and its impact on patient and graft survival
Míková, Irena ; Trunečka, Pavel (advisor) ; Červinková, Zuzana (referee) ; Brůha, Radan (referee)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs frequently not only in the general population, but also in liver transplant (LT) recipients. The data about prevalence, evolution, causes and significance of steatosis in patients after LT are limited. In a large retrospective study in LT recipients with histological evaluation of steatosis, we found high prevalence of steatosis (56,4 %) and steatohepatitis (10,4 %), the prevalence of steatosis increased after LT. Pretransplant predictors of steatosis included alcoholic cirrhosis and high BMI, whereas increased alkaline phosphatase and mycophenolate mofetil given initially were protective. Posttransplant predictors of steatosis included BMI, serum triglycerides, alcohol consumption and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas increased serum creatinine was protective. Presence of significant steatosis/steatohepatitis was not associated with increased grade of fibrosis. There was no difference between the occurrence of steatosis in surviving and lost grafts. Survival of patients with/without significant steatosis was similar with a trend to higher long-term mortality of patients with significant steatosis. In the evaluation of the impact of TM6SF2 rs58542926 and PNPLA3 rs738409 genotypes of the donor and recipient on pathophysiology of steatosis...
Differences in food intake among obese and non-obese pacients with diabetes
Číhová, Anna ; Škrha, Jan (advisor) ; Šatný, Martin (referee)
Basis: Disorders of glucose metabolism, including prediabetes and diabetes, and obesity are very common diseases, the prevalence of which continues to rise worldwide. Overweight and obesity are usually associated with type 2 diabetes, and some authors use the term diabesity for the joint occurrence of these two diseases, but even in patients with type 1 diabetes, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing. The basic measure in the treatment of an obese diabetic is a diet leading to weight reduction, ideally to achieve optimal body weight. Objective: This work focuses on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in patients with diabetes, respectively in individual types of diabetes and on the differences in food intake of obese and non- obese patients with diabetes, with the aim of determining whether overweight and obesity, or excessive energy intake, are related to worse diabetes compensation. Methodology: In the practical part of this diploma thesis, two methods of data collection were chosen, a questionnaire survey and anonymous data collection from electronic medical documentation. All data obtained were continuously recorded and then statistically analysed using the Welch t-test and the chi-squared test in the TIBCO STATISTICA 13 program. Findings: In the entire research population...
Incidence of hyperlipoproteinemia and atherosclerotic changes in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood or adolescence
Čepelová, Michaela ; Kraml, Pavel (advisor) ; Češka, Richard (referee) ; Papajík, Tomáš (referee)
The survival of children and adolescents with Hodgkin lymphoma has improved dramatically over the last decades, but even young adult long-term survivors are at increased risk of developing multiple cardiovascular late sequelae of previous treatment. We evaluated the presence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipoproteinemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity) in young adult Hodgkin lymphoma survivors, who were disease- free for a minimum of 10 years after the end of their treatment, and in age- and gender- matched healthy volunteers. We assumed higher prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors together with earlier development of atherosclerotic changes in this specific population. All survivors and volunteers uderwent physical examination, duplex ultrasonography of both common carotid arteries, all participants completed questionnaire on their eating habits and physical activities We performed biochemical analyses, including lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin levels, markers of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The HL survivors showed unfavorable lipid profiles, markers of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation compared to those of healthy controls. We found a higher prevalence of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and...
Effect of metformin on glucose tolerance in relation to fat content in diet
Kuchaříková, Petra ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Škop, Vojtěch (referee)
Prevalence of obesity and associated diseases like type 2 diabetes has increased rapidly during last years. These diseases closely relate to each other. Obesity leads to insulin resistence, which directly precedes type 2 diabetes. Metformin is the most prescribed medicament for type 2 diabetic patients and insulin resistant people. It improves glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is strogly involved in metformin action. The latest studies using transgenic models lacking AMPK suggest, that notable part of mechanisms involved in metformin action is independent on AMPK. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are abundant in sea fish, have beneficial effects on metabolism. These fatty acids lower plasma lipids and exert cardioprotective effects. n-3 PUFA also prevent development of insulin resistence and type 2 diabetes in rodents. The aim of this thesis was to characterise acute effects of metformin on glucose homeostasis, impact of short term diet intervention with diet rich in n-3 PUFA on metformin action and the role of insulin stimulated signalling pathways and AMPK. Results suggest that early effect of metformin is dose dependent and that single dose of metformin...
Diabetes mellitus type II in the light of metabolic syndrome
Hrnčířová, Eliška ; Rudolf, Kamil (advisor) ; Doseděl, Martin (referee)
DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN THE LIGHT OF METABOLIC SYNDROME Author: Eliška Hrnčířová ¹ Tutor: MUDr. PharmDr. Kamil Rudolf, Ph.D. ¹, š ¹ Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové š II. intern gastroenterology clinic University Hospital Hradec Králové Background: My thesis deals with diabetes mellitus, a common chronic civilization disease, the essence of its creation, including the issue of the treatment, regime measures and it also mentions the associated health problems connected to the diagnosis. The Aim of the study: The main purpose of this work based on a small sample of patients was to verify their level of information and knowledge of the disease, compliance, participation in home blood glucose measurements and to determine the health complications associated with diabetes and its treatment. Methods: The study was carried out by questionnaire in a paper form. Data were obtained in a pharmacy during a short interview with 209 randomly selected diabetics type II. The questionnaire included two main characteristics of respondents (gender, age) and 6 simple targeted questions. Results: In the survey 59 % female and 41% male took part. The mean age of patients was 66.9 years. Respondents were diagnosed with DM on average 11.1...
Relation among BMI, hyperinsulinemia and selected biochemical indicators
Dobrovodová, Monika ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Herink, Josef (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Monika Dobrovodová Supervisor of master thesis: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Advisor of master thesis: prof. MUDr. Karel Martiník, DrSc. Title of master thesis: Relation among BMI, hyperinsulinemia and selected biochemical indicators This thesis is focussed on specification of relations among BMI, insulinemia, age of the patients, C-peptid blood levels and glycemia and also searching relations among selected parameters of lipid spectrum in group of selected patients. Measuring of body height and weight and investigation of fasting glycemia, insulinemia, total cholesterolemia, blood levels of HDL and LDL and also C-peptid were done at 3472 patients. Afterwards few basic indexes of insulin resistance and sensitivity were counted. In this group was proven, that fasting insulinemia and C-peptid levels are increasing in according to increasing BMI. Also fasting glycemia is increasing modestly. Insulin resistance and sensitivity indexes used in this theses depends on BMI. Although statistically significant differences between age groups were proven according to insulin resistance and sensitivity indexes, we can't see clearly increasing or decreasing tendency in according to...
Depression and Insulin Resistance
Hess, Zdeněk ; Rosolová, Hana (advisor) ; Šimon, Jaroslav (referee) ; Souček, Miroslav (referee) ; Beran, Jiří (referee)
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome and depression are considered to be important risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is estimated to be around 25% of the adult population in industrialized countries, including the population of Czech Republic. The prevalence of depression is estimated to be around 15% of the same adult population. It is not clear yet on the base of poor literature, which is so far available, whether there is a causal relationship between these factors or not. Objective: To try to find a relationship between metabolic syndrome and depression in a population sample using clinical and metabolic parameters. Methods: The prevalence of depressivity or other psychopathologies was evaluated with the use of self-report questionnaires in a randomly selected population sample of 259 people living in Pilsen. The questionnaires were mailed to the subjects. Those of them who responded were invited to the examination of anthropometric and laboratory parameters defining the metabolic syndrome and to the examination of some other parameters. The occurrence of risk factors of the metabolic syndrome of insulin resistance and the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome was investigated. Metabolic syndrome of insulin resistance...
Regulation of immunometabolism in white adipose tissue
Gazdová, Tatiana ; Horáková, Olga (advisor) ; Beňová, Andrea (referee)
High-fat diet promotes the development of diet-induced obesity, which leads to further complications such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The underlying cause for development of obesity associated pathologies is disruption of adipose tissue homeostasis. Excessive lipid accumulation and rapid white adipose tissue expansion stimulate infiltration, proliferation, and activation of immune cells involved in inflammation propagation. Immune cells within white adipose tissue have the ability to modulate adipocyte function as well as whole-body metabolism. These interactions and function modulations are the core topics of immunometabolism, a rapidly developing field of research focused on interpreting how immune system modulates metabolism on cellular as well as systemic level. In obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, for example M1 macrophages and neutrophils, outnumber homeostasis-promoting anti-inflammatory immune cells in white adipose tissue and alter the tissue environment. As a result, pro-inflammatory cytokines prevent adipocytes from adequately responding to extracellular stimuli. The resulting interactions between immune cells and adipocytes maintain inflammation and promote ectopic lipid accumulation. Experimental studies suggest that white adipose tissue inflammation can be...
Physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of selected endocrinopathies. Their relationship to adipose tissue matebolism and insulin resistance
Ďurovcová, Viktória ; Kršek, Michal (advisor) ; Saudek, František (referee) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee)
The pathogenesis of insulin resistance is a complex and still intensively studied issue. Endocrine and paracrine activity of the adipose tissue together with mi- tochondrial dysfunction are the most discussed potential factors included in the development of insulin resistance. In the first part of our study we examined the involvement of the adipose tissue and its secretory products in the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance in patients with Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly and simple obesity. We focused on three important regulators of metabolic homeostasis - fibroblast growth factors 21 and 19 (FGF-21 and FGF-19) and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP-4). We found significantly elevated circulating levels of FGF-21 and FABP-4 ac- companying insulin resistance in both patients with simple obesity and patients with obesity connected to Cushing's syndrome, as compared to healthy controls. The concentrations of both substances were comparable between hypercortisolic and obese patients. This finding together with the absence of correlation be- tween the levels of FGF-21 resp. FABP-4 and cortisol suggest that the reason for elevation of their concentrations is obesity and its metabolic consequences themselves rather then the effect of hypercortisolism on FGF-21 and FABP-4 production. We found no...

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