National Repository of Grey Literature 93 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Protein and amino acid metabolism in protein catabolic states - effect of leucine metabolites
Kovařík, Miroslav ; Holeček, Milan (advisor) ; Farghali, Hassan (referee) ; Hlúbik, Pavol (referee)
Protein catabolism and muscle wasting are basic features characterizing the complex metabolic syndrome, called cachexia, which is a severe complication of many diseases, in whose pathogenesis are often participant the systemic inflammatory response and endotoxemia. Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are not only an important substrate for protein synthesis, but they are also involved in the regulation of protein metabolism, insulin synthesis and secretion, and serve as the source of amino group in the alanine and glutamine formation in the muscle. Not only leucine but also some of its metabolites, - ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and -hydroxy--methylbutyrate (HMB), have protein anabolic activity and thus some of leucine effects could be induced by these metabolites. In the last years there is paid attention to the HMB, which is used as a supplement for athletes and tested for its potential use in cachexia treatment. The aim of our experiments was to study: 1) endotoxin-induced effect on metabolism of proteins and amino acids in different types of skeletal muscle and the dose dependence of these changes; 2) effects of selected leucine metabolites (KIC and HMB) on the metabolism of proteins and amino acids - in different types of skeletal muscle; under in vivo and in vitro...
Sexual dimorphism of rat gut microbiota composition and intestinal immunity
Kalousová, Pavla ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Jílek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Pavla Kalousová Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title: Sexual dimorphism of rat gut microbiota composition and intestinal immunity Background and Aim: Many factors can influence the composition of gut microbiota and the immune system. It is well-known that one of those factors is sex. This sexual dimorphism can lead to a specifically adjusted treatment of diseases for different gender and nutritional interventions. This study focuses on analysing sexual differences in gut microbiota and intestinal immunity in adult rats. Methods: Caecal content from 12-week-old female and male Wistar rats were collected and analysed by DNA-sequencing technique to characterize microbiota composition. ELISA test was performed to quantify the concentration of IgA in faeces and gut wash. Flow cytometry determined the concentration of IgA-coating bacteria in faecal samples. Results: Metagenomic analysis revealed that female gender presents 1 phylum, 4 families, 13 genera, and 13 species which are not present in male rats. Only one male-specific colonization was observed at the species level. Quantitative analysis showed a higher proportion of Firmicutes phylum in males which was associated with...
The nitrogen balance evaluation at ventilated polytrauma patients in ICU.
Slováková, Tereza ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nutritional support on energy expenditure and nutritional substrates oxidation, focused on proteins and nitrogen balance, in ventilated polytraumatized patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The study was performed on 15 critically ill patients (12 men and 3 women), their average age was 43,6 ± 17,5 years. 7 patients were examinated without nutritional support, 8 patients were examinated after administration of hypocaloric nutritional support. The examination of fasting patients was conducted after at least 4 hours of fasting. The examination of patients with nutritional support were conducted after at least 4 hours of nutritional support administration. Energy expenditure, resting energy expenditure and nutritional substrates oxidation were measured by indirect calorimetry. After statistical analysis of measured data was found, that administration of hypocaloric nutritional support did not significantly influence nutritional substrates oxidation. Protein intake correlated with total nitrogen balance (p = 0,0133) and muscular condition. Results suggest, that administered proteins were partly used as source of energy instead of muscle protein and partly used a different way, e.g. for tissue reparation. Therefore, nutritional support...
Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds
Suk, Ondřej ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Janďourek, Ondřej (referee)
Author: Ondřej Suk Title: Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of new quaternary ammonium salt compounds Diploma thesis Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Study program: Pharmacy Background: The aim of the work was to evaluate antimicrobial activity of newly proposed and prepared quaternary ammonium salts. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to measure antimicrobial activity of 8 new substances divided into three structure groups on 8 bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia bercovieri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL positive and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Out of the 3 structure groups, the highest antimicrobial potential was found with some methylmorpholine salts and benzylimidazole substituted salts. Generally, the substances were, as supposed, more efficient with the Gram-positive bacteria tribes than with the Gram-negative ones. No bactericidal effect of these substances in the concentration measured was found on the strain of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: The Gram-positive strains tested are more sensitive towards the tested substances than the Gram-negative ones. In comparison with some...
A comparison of lethal and maximum tolerated dose of standard acetylcholinesterase reactivators
Žárská, Nikola ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Marek, Jan (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate Bc. Nikola Žárská Supervisor PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Consultant Mgr. Martina Hrabinová Title of Thesis A comparison of lethal and maximum tolerated dose of standard acetylcholinesterase reactivators. Diploma thesis deals with the topic of nerve agents. Specifically, it demonstrates the reactivating effect of oxime HI-6 (at 100 % maximum tolerated dose and 5 % median lethal dose) on the acetylcholinesterase inhibited by sarin. The experiment was carried out in vivo in Balb/c mice. The treatment was administered either with oxime HI-6 alone, in the above- mentioned doses, or in combination with the parasympatholytic atropine. The change in activity of acetylcholinesterase was measured by spectrophotometrically method, modified by the Ellman, in blood and brain. There were no signs of sarin intoxication in mice, that where treated with 100 % maximum tolerated dose of HI-6, in compare to mice treated with atropine only and 5 % median lethal dose of HI-6, where the intoxication was observed. It was founded that after i.m administration of 100 % maximum tolerated dose, the HI-6 concentration reached 500 µM in plasma and 10 µM in brain. This concentration is safe, but for...
Changes in resting energy expenditure during pregnancy.
Gierová, Lucie ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of this work was to determine changes in resting energy expenditure in three periods of pregnancy using indirect calorimetry and assess correlations between the obtained resting energy expenditure values and anthropometric parameters. Methods To determine resting energy expenditure was used indirect calorimetry, which measured oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, from which this value was calculated. Measurements were performed in seven healthy pregnant women. Measurements took place over three periods. The first examination took place from the 17th to the 27th week of pregnancy, the second from the 28th to the 35th week of pregnancy and the third from the 36th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Results We found that resting energy expenditure values increased with pregnancy length (REE1 = 1670 ± 148 kcal/day; REE2 = 1717 ± 230 kcal/day; REE3 = 1984 ± 209 kcal/day). Also, correlations have been found with age, body weight, fat free mass and fat mass, body surface area, body mass index, and other parameters. Conclusion During pregnancy many changes happen, including metabolic changes. We acknowledged that with increasing duration of pregnancy REE increases, most significantly at the end of pregnancy. This increase is related to a large number of factors, as correlation...
Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of body composition during pregnancy.
Nosková, Andrea ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) is a non-invasive and rapid method of determining the amount of body fluids and their distribution within the extracellular and intracellular space based on tissue resistance. The device is able to estimate the mass of fat and muscle tissue due to different amounts of water. The aim of the thesis was to determine the structure of human body in different phases of pregnancy by means of bioimpedance spectroscopy. There are not many research institutes in the Czech Republic dealing with the development of metabolic and physical changes during pregnancy. Seven pregnant women were involved in the clinical observational study. They had physiological pregnancy, good metabolic health, non-smokers and non-drinkers. Except one woman, they were all primiparous. These pregnant women were examined a total of three times by the Body composition monitor (BCM). The measured values showed increase of weight in all examined cases by roughly about 13,3 kg (median). Ratios lean mass tissue/height 2 ratios (LTI) and fat/height 2 ratios (FTI) has reached their maximum at the end of the third trimester. The amount of total fluid (TBM), intracellular fluid (ICW) and extracellular fluid (ECW) increased gradually. The highest peak of all fluids was reached in the third trimester and with...
Resting energy expenditure during lacatation.
Klečka, Michal ; Hronek, Miloslav (advisor) ; Kovařík, Miroslav (referee)
Background The aim of diploma thesis was to evaluate resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate oxidation in Czech lactating women and their relation to measured anthropometric parameters. Methods The indirect calorimetry was used to asses REE. Subsequently, the oxidation of substrates was calculated. At the same time were measured anthropometric parameters of breastfeeding women. Then the correlation was investigated. The total amount of examination were three times. First was in the time three weeks after birth, the second one was three months postpartum and the last was six months after birth. Results The mean values of REE in lactating women were 1577±93 kcal/day in the time of three weeks after birth. Three months after birth it was 1622±140 kcal/day. Six months after birth it was 1545±80 kcal/day. Significant positive correlation was proved between REE and triceps skinfold thickness (r = 0,98; P < 0,05) and also chest circumference (r = 0,99; P < 0,05). Both were three weeks after birth. Breastfeeding women had a value of lipid oxidation 60 % of substrate oxidation three weeks postpartum, which decreased to 46 % three months postpartum due to sharp increase (from 8 % to 18 %) of carbohydrate oxidation value. This increase could correspond to the preferential use of glucose by the mammary...
Role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases
Vlková, Kateřina ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Kudláčková, Zděnka (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Kateřina Vlková Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, PhD. Title of the bachelor thesis: The role of uric acid in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases The basic biological function of uric acid in the human body is to protect cells from oxidative damage. More precisely, its behavior depends on the physico-chemical environment in which it is located. Under certain conditions and higher concentration in serum, it may act as a prooxidant and participate in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases. These are mainly kidney disease, non-alcoholic steatosis of the liver, diabetes mellitus II. type and metabolic syndrome. These diseases can precede cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular failure may be caused by some mechanisms. These mechanisms include especially oxidative stress, inflammation, reduced availability of nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction, proliferation of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, insulin resistance or metabolic disorders. The cause of cardiovascular disease associated with uric acid has not been proved. It can only serve as a intermediator of harmful effects on vascular tissue and myocardium. Keywords: uric acid, oxidative stress, inflammation,...
The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women
Imrichová, Tamara ; Kovařík, Miroslav (advisor) ; Hronek, Miloslav (referee)
8 2. ABSTRACT Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Student: Tamara Imrichová Supervisor: PharmDr. Miroslav Kovařík, Ph.D. Title of master thesis: The influence of physical activity on energy metabolism parameters of pregnant and lactating women Background: The aim of our work was to compare changes in the parameters of energy metabolism and then evaluate the relationship between these parameters and the parameters of physical activity of pregnant and lactating women. Methods: Evaluation of energy metabolism was carried out by the method of indirect calorimetry. The calorimeter can estimate the resting energy expenditure (REE) and oxidation of individual nutritional substrates (after determining the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine). To determine the parameters of physical activity, women were given to complete a 7 days questionnaire, which was evaluated on the basis of recalculation using metabolic equivalents. Results: In our study, we observed an increase in REE during pregnancy in the third trimester and an increase in volume of oxygen consumption (VO2) and volume of carbon dioxide production (VCO2) compared to lactating women. The values of respiratory and non-protein respiratory quotient remained unchanged. In case of oxidation...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 93 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
12 KOVAŘÍK, Martin
7 KOVAŘÍK, Michal
1 Kovařík, M.
12 Kovařík, Martin
2 Kovařík, Matěj
7 Kovařík, Michal
1 Kovařík, Milan
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.