National Repository of Grey Literature 41 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Biological theories of temperament
Řežábková, Marika ; Bahbouh, Radvan (advisor) ; Stehlík, Luděk (referee)
The master thesis deals with theories of temperament from the perspective of their linkages with biological essence of man. In theoretical chapters, it is examined how research of temperament has evolved over time, and there are presented the most important biology- oriented theories, ranging from classical antique temperaments, to Pavlov's differentiation of personalities according the reactivity of nervous system, and finally to Eysenck's, Gray's and Cloninger's modern theories of temperament. Empirical research is dedicated to the testing of interdependencies between temperamental questionnaires. 4Elements Inventory test based on an element approach theory and Cloninger's TCI-R test representing biological approach in temperament observation were analyzed on a research sample, and correlation and regression analysis was performed. If we have to assign the most similar dimensions of both tests to each other according to content analysis, we would expect relationships between the Harm Avoidance and Fire (negative), Novelty Seeking and Air, Reward Dependency and Water and Persistence and Earth. The relationship of Novelty seeking and Air (r = 0.73) and negative relationship of Harm Avoidance and Fire (r = -0.74) were confirmed as the strongest relationships. The correlation between Reward...
The Effect of Meditation Techniques on Selected Cognitive Functions
Kosík, Petr ; Stehlík, Luděk (advisor) ; Novák, Ondřej (referee)
This bachelor's thesis deals with the effect of one selected type of meditation, namely mindfulness meditation, on attention as one category of cognitive functions. The theoretical part of the thesis provides characterization of the mindfulness type of meditation in comparison to the concentrative type of meditation. Then, it discusses the construct of mindfulness and its various conceptualizations in Western research literature and also concerns its original conception in the Buddhist religious context. Alongside this, it provides information about possible conceptualizations of meditative cultivation of mindfulness and about selected clinical programs including mindfulness meditation as one of their intervention tools. Thereafter, it presents classification of individual domains of attention used in current literature and outlines possible ways of their operationalization. The very core of the first part of the thesis comprises a summary of current findings about the influence of mindfulness meditation on selected attentional domains and a reflection of the limitations of current studies. The second part of the thesis proposes an experimental research project, which would examine the efficiency of mindfulness meditation, compared with concentrative meditation, with regard to their effect on selected...
Intrapsychic conflicts and their experiencing during the regulation of activity and behavior
Ondrejková, Marta ; Stehlík, Luděk (advisor) ; Novák, Ondřej (referee)
This bachelor thesis examines internal conflicts and their effect on inner experience and behaviour. The theoretical part of the thesis involves the description of the basic characteristics of conflict based on their content and categorisation; emotional, cognitive and behavioural components that contribute towards the creation of conflict; the dynamics of conflict and the possibilities of the regulation of the resulting tension. The goals of our work are to depict the impact of the internal conflict on the human mind and to identify the various approaches to conflict resolution. We have suggested dividing the intervention techniques into two main categories -direct and indirect techniques. In the empirical part of the thesis, we compare the effectiveness of such techniques in a form of an experiment. The participants are divided into the experimental groups according to the intervention technique applied. The measurements before and after the intervention will be evaluated with regards to the extension and severity of the internal conflict. Key words: Internal conflict - emotions - cognitive processes - behaviour - emotion regulation
Time perception and related cognitive biases
Katrňák, Marek ; Höschlová, Eva (advisor) ; Stehlík, Luděk (referee)
The thesis aims to describe and explain phenomenon of time perception and variables influencing the proces. Many cognitive biases are related to time perception, influencing our judgemental and decision- making processes. The thesis consists of three main parts. First one explains time perception from phenomenological as well as neurological point of view. The aim is also to uncover individual aspects of time perception such as succession, duration, subjective passage of time and time perspectives. Second, broader part is dedicated to judgement and decision-making processes, cognitive biases and biases related specifically to time perception. I focus on phenomenons of intertemporal decision, temporal discounting, time saving bias, planning fallacy and sunk cost fallacy. The effort was to reveal variables entering the proces while offering practical approaches to eliminate impact of such biases. The third part proposes a research aiming to explain the influence of educational intervention on planning behavior and examines it's relation to time perspectives. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
A use of principles of behavioral economics in public policy
Vintr, Jáchym ; Stehlík, Luděk (advisor) ; Vranka, Marek (referee)
This thesis offers a review of selected psychological insights used in behavioral economics. The basic theoretical concepts are summarized in the literary review section. This section focuses mainly on the prospect theory proposed by Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky, as well as other heuristics and cognitive biases that influence human decision-making. The thesis also deals with Richard Thaler's concept of nudges. Policies in selected countries are mentioned to illustrate succesful examples of behavioral insights that have already been implemented. The thesis then focuses on the issue of college dropout in the context of possible behavioral interventions. The number of college students who fail to finish their studies succesfully increases substantially in Czechia. Foreign research suggests that it is possible to use nudges based on behavioral insights in college environment. A proposed research project, based on randomised controlled trial, aims to test nudges that could support an integration of students into the college environment which should lead to decrease in the college dropout rate.
Social Competencies of IT professionals
Kubásková, Monika ; Horáková Hoskovcová, Simona (advisor) ; Stehlík, Luděk (referee)
This diploma thesis describes the topic of social competencies of IT professionals. It is divided into two parts - theoretical and empirical. The theoretical part describes competencies at a general level. It includes the definition of this term and the development of a competence-based approach. The next part speaks about components of competencies and theoretical approaches that understand competencies in different ways. Next chapter is about social competencies, their definition and specification or similarity with other concepts (for example emotional and social intelligence). There are also mentioned some theoretical approaches with an emphasis on the understanding of social competencies by U. P. Kanning. The following chapter discusses different ways of measuring social competencies with a brief description of the most frequently mentioned diagnostic methods. The theoretical part concludes with a chapter devoted to social competencies within the IT field. On the example of several studies, it presents key social competencies for IT professionals in different positions, rated from different angles. The previous information is supplemented by practical results. The empirical part contains the results of a research project that aims to map the social competencies of IT professionals. The results...
Validation of Bayesian Model of Causal Inferences Made on the Basis of Perceived Coincidences
Stehlík, Luděk ; Bahbouh, Radvan (advisor) ; Buriánek, Jiří (referee) ; Lukavský, Jiří (referee)
1 SUMMARY In general this thesis deals with the question whether or to what extent human thinking is rational in terms of the optimality of the way people achieve their goals and in terms of the consistency between people's beliefs and the structure of the world. This question is quite difficult to answer unequivocally because the answer will always depend on the nature of the particular task and the exact way in which we define rationality. Among other things, that's the reason why we can meet two contradictory schools of thought within the so-called Great Rationality Debate, one of which is convinced of the systematic irrationality of human thinking (in the sense of the systematic deviation of human thinking from normative predictions stemming from the principles of rational thinking as they are captured by the statistical theory of probability, formal logic or decision theory), while the other one considers human thought to be more or less rational, and finds the source of its (alleged) failure elsewhere. In the case of the latter, however, the question is how to explain the apparent existence of irrational behavior and interindividual differences in such behavior. One possible answer to this question is illustrated by Griffiths and Tenenbaum's Bayesian model of causal reasoning based on perceived...
The Possibilities of Utilisation of Current Knowledge in the Field of Mirror Neurons in Psychological Practice for Empathy Training
Poupětová, Veronika ; Kulišťák, Petr (advisor) ; Stehlík, Luděk (referee)
Mirror neurons are very specific nerve cells that are both motor and sensory in nature. Mirror neurons are a relatively new discovery first identified by a team of neurophysiologists at the University of Parma. These neurons were first observed in primates, and then later in humans in several regions of the cerebral cortex. A large amount of research on mirror neurons have shown that they play an important role in imitation, language acquisition and empathy. The theoretical part of this work summarizes what is currently known about mirror neurons. It emphasizes the relationship between mirror neurons, autism, empathy, and its training. This theoretical framework is followed by pilot research, which consists of two components: the quantitative part consisted of a questionnaire survey to ascertain the level of empathy of the participants using the Index of Interpersonal Reactivity. The participants were the parents of autistic children who were compared with a control group. A statistically significant difference in empathy levels between the two groups was not observed but there was a tendency for higher scoring in some questionnaire scales in experimental group The second part of this work is an analysis of observations of the interactions between parents and autistic children. Additionally, two...
Cognitive Complexity and Its Measurement
Say, Nicolas ; Stehlík, Luděk (advisor) ; Fabianová, Ivana (referee)
Conceptualization of cognitive complexity addressed many key ideas that are still explored by contemporary psychology. Cognitive complexity is measure influencing manner in which social reality is construed and how such construction affects decision making. Research in cognitive complexity is limited by a number of publications dedicated to its study. Literature addressing cognitive complexity is fragmented, lacking in rich theoretical work based on the original conceptualization of cognitive complexity. It rather studies and measures separate aspects related to cognitive complexity. In this theses, cognitive complexity is explored in a somehow investigative manner to unite original theory and recent research in related topics. Present theses emphasize different approaches to measurement of cognitive complexity as well as proposes a new method for its measurement that should provide leads for new studies concerned with cognitive complexity. Keywords: Cognitive complexity, conceptualization, measurement, methods
Possibilities of using Interpretative phenomenological analysis in psychological research
Plachý, Jakub ; Takács, Lea (advisor) ; Stehlík, Luděk (referee)
Potential for Applying Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to Psychological Research Abstract: This bachelor's thesis deals with Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) and the potential for applying it to psychological research. The aim of this work is to describe the theoretical frame and philosophical foundation of this method, which is explicitly related to phenomenology. The thesis is based on the original book of Jonathan Smith, the founder of IPA, and also on writings of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology. It explicates some usage of phenomenological concepts such as transcendental reduction in the frame of IPA, and it analyses differences in meaning of these concepts in the frame of IPA and the frame of Husserl's system, i.e. transcendental phenomenology (₮F). It helps to clarify the degree to which IPA can be considered "phenomenological" in the real sense of the word. IPA is briefly compared with those methods and a detailed comparison is made with the Descriptive phenomenological-psychological method (DFPM). The work offers a review of psychological IPA research and fields for which the method can adequately be used. There is also the author's own presentation of ongoing IPA research about death in the empirical section. Key words: IPA, Edmund Husserl, phenomenology,...

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2 Stehlík, Libor
1 Stehlík, Lukáš
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