Národohospodářský ústav

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2018-12-07
17:59

Úplný záznam
2018-12-07
17:59
Do higher wages produce career politicians? Evidence from two discontinuity designs
Palguta, J. ; Pertold, Filip
Wages paid to politicians affect both the selection of candidates into electoral races and the on-the-job performance incentives of incumbents. We differentiate between selection and incentive effects using two regression discontinuity designs based on: 1) population thresholds shifting politicians' wages and 2) electoral seat thresholds splitting candidates into those who narrowly won or lost. We find that higher wages do not increase the electoral incumbency advantage, suggesting that the incentive effect of higher wages does not impact re-election rates. We further show that higher wages motivate narrowly elected incumbents to run again much less often than past narrowly non-elected candidates.

Úplný záznam
2018-12-07
17:59
Anti-social behavior in groups
Bauer, Michal ; Cahlíková, J. ; Celik Katreniak, D. ; Chytilová, Julie ; Cingl, L. ; Želinský, T.
This paper provides strong evidence supporting the long-standing speculation that decisionmaking in groups has a dark side, by magnifying the prevalence of anti-social behavior towards outsiders. A large-scale experiment implemented in Slovakia and Uganda (N=2,309) reveals that deciding in a group with randomly assigned peers increases the prevalence of anti-social behavior that reduces everyone’s payoff but which improves the relative position of own group. The effects are driven by the influence of a group context on individual behavior, rather than by group deliberation. The observed patterns are strikingly similar on both continents.

Úplný záznam
2018-11-26
14:31
Social integration of immigrants and the attitude of the native population in European countries
Sargsyan, Vahan
In this paper, I focus on the relationships between the attitude of the native population towards\nimmigrants and immigration (ATII) in 20 European countries and the level of social integration\nand perceived discrimination of first and second generation immigrants in those countries. The\nstringency of naturalization policies in the host countries is also taken into consideration as a\nmechanism of the development of these relationships. The results confirm that a country’s naturalization policies fairly represent most ATII indicators, and that immigrants feel less discriminated against in more welcoming societies. However, no systematic relationship was revealed between the attitude of the native population and the social integration of immigrants. On the other hand, the results suggest lower perceived discrimination and higher social integration of first generation immigrants in countries where the naturalization status of immigrants is more secured, and the possibility of dual nationality is more restricted. The results also show that the perceived discrimination of immigrants does not decline with the duration of residence in the host countries, but the latter revealed a positive relationship with the social integration of immigrants.\n

Úplný záznam
2018-11-26
14:31
Discrimination against workers with visible tattoos: experimental evidence from Germany
Jibuti, Daviti
We use a correspondence testing approach to study discrimination against applicants with visible tattoos in the German labor market. The method has been widely employed in discrimination literature; however, the majority of papers examine objects of discrimination that are exogenously given (gender, race, ethnicity, etc.). The design of our experiment allows us to study the extent of discrimination against choice-based characteristics. We send fictitious applications to online job postings in the banking sector. Otherwise identical applications differ only in the picture attached: in the treatment group the applicants have a visible tattoo. The\nextent of discrimination is measured by the difference in callback rates. We find that candidates without visible tattoos have, on average, a 13 percentage point higher callback rate, or an increase in the callback rate of 54%. Following Akerlof and Kranton (2000), our results once more highlight the centrality of identity.

Úplný záznam
2018-11-26
14:31

Úplný záznam
2018-11-15
12:43
Dopad zavedení karenční doby v roce 2008 na pracovní neschopnost
Pertold, Filip
Vláda České republiky (ČR) schválila plán na zrušení tzv. karenční doby – neproplácení prvních tří dnů pracovní neschopnosti. Tato studie shrnuje nejdůležitější závěry výzkumného článku Filipa Pertolda o krátkodobých dopadech reformy pracovní neschopnosti, která karenční dobu zavedla, tj. snížila finanční náhradu za první tři dny čerpání v roce 2008 nemocenské na nulu.

Úplný záznam
2018-11-15
12:40
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results.

Úplný záznam
2018-11-15
12:40
Entrepreneurship in the information age: an empirical analysis of the European regions
Pleticha, Petr
Decelerating productivity in recent years raised questions about technology diffusion in the economy. This study focuses on one particular diffusion channel, entrepreneurship, and inspects the mechanics through which it interacts with digitalization. The composite indicator of digitalization is split into separate components which enables analyzing digitalization’s interplay with entrepreneurship as a dynamic process. Based on the econometric analysis of Eurostat regional data covering the period 2008-2015, I find significant links between digitalization and entrepreneurship. Specifically, digitalization is associated with an increase in the rate at which firms are created and with a decrease in their survival rate after 3 years. The paper demonstrates that the interaction is dynamic in its nature as the effects of initial stages of digitalization reverse or vanish in its later phases. A sectoral analysis shows the persistence of the results across industries.\nMoreover, there is evidence that professional, scientific and technical activities are especially sensitive towards digitalization, experiencing strong, yet short-term shock in the firms’ birth, death, and survival rates. Accounting for geographic variation reveals heterogeneity between regions but not large enough to affect the overall results.

Úplný záznam
2018-11-15
12:40
Dopady vyšších platů politiků na volby do zastupitelstev obcí
Palguta, Ján ; Pertold, Filip
Tato studie zkoumá, zda má zvýšení platů představitelů samosprávy potenciál motivovat občany ke kandidatuře a zlepšit výběr zvolených zastupitelů. Zkoumáme, jaký vliv mají platy na počet politických subjektů, jež do voleb vstupují (tj. na politickou soutěž), a dále na výběr zastupitelů s ohledem k jejich vzdělání, předešlému povolání, pohlaví a věku. Pro identifikaci kauzálních efektů platů využíváme existenci skokových nárůstů platových odměn příplatků starostů podle velikosti obce.

Úplný záznam