National Repository of Grey Literature 65 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Proposal for a personal income tax reform: how to help low-income employees and increase consumption spending for half the public expenditure (analytical paper)
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Kalíšková, Klára ; Prokop, D. ; Šoltés, Michal
This analytical paper is a reaction to the public debate about the abolition of the concept of super-gross salary in the Czech income tax system. The paper evaluates the impact of three alternative sets of the new income tax parameters on the state budget and taxpayers. It shows that the government proposed version of the tax reform will lead to a CZK 86 billion cost for the state budget while not improving the situation of employees with the lowest salaries. The authors suggest two alternative settings of the tax reform, which are less damaging for the state budget and at the same time lead to a higher decrease in taxes for the lowest income groups.
Essays in Econometrics of Matching Markets: Identification, Estimation and Practice
Drlje, Marin ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Zimmerman, Seth (referee) ; Le Barbanchon, Thomas (referee)
A large literature estimates various school admission and graduation effects by employing variation in student admission scores around schools' admission cutoffs, assuming (quasi-) random school assignment close to the cutoffs. In this dissertation I focus on this variation, both from the theoretical and practical standpoints. In the first paper, I present evidence suggesting that the samples corresponding to typical applications of regression discontinuity design (RDD) fail to satisfy these assumptions. I distinguish ex-post randomization (as in admission lotteries applicable to those at the margin of admission) from ex-ante randomization, reflecting uncertainty about the market structure of applicants, which can be naturally quantified by resampling from the applicant population. Using data from the Croatian centralized college-admission system, I show that these ex-ante admission probabilities differ dramatically between treated and non-treated students within typical RDD bandwidths. Such unbalanced admission probability distributions suggest that bandwidths (and sample sizes) should be drastically reduced to avoid selection bias. I also show that a sizeable fraction of quasi-randomized assignments occur outside of the typical RDD bandwidths, suggesting that these are also inefficient. As an alternative,...
Surviving Auschwitz with pre-existing social ties
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Jelínek, T.
Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the ability of prisoners to get help from friends present in the camp. We study the case of several hundred prisoners of a small, low-security Nazi agricultural labor camp located in todayís Czech Republic, who were ultimately on transports to Auschwitz, a deadly extermination and labor camp. We ask whether their chances of surviving the Holocaust depended on how many of their former co-laborers from the agricultural camp were present on their transports to Auschwitz, which included another 9 thousand Czech male prisoners. We uncover a large, 10 percentage point survival advantage to having arrived in Auschwitz with at least 50 former co-laborers from the agricultural labor camp. This evidence is similar to that provided by Costa and Kahn (2007) for a US Civil War POW camp, and consistent with the fundamentally selective accounts provided by survivors.
Essays on Local Politics
Kuliomina, Jekaterina ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Bagues, Manuel (referee) ; Baltrunaite, Audinga (referee)
In the first chapter I analyse whether electing more women to municipal councils can affect female political candidacy in the future. I use cases of close elections in Czech municipalities and a regression discontinuity design (RDD). I find that fewer female candidates run in elections following the marginal election of an additional woman in the prior electoral cycle. The effect is stronger in those municipalities where the marginal female candidate joined two or more other female candidates in the council, indicating that sufficient representation, as viewed by the politicians or the community, was a likely mechanism behind the observed effect. In the second chapter I question whether personal characteristics of local politicians such as gender, education and occupation influence municipal budget allocation. I find no evidence that any of these characteristics matter for budget allocation, deficit or debt. These findings hold even in the smallest municipalities, where the influence of every single council member on council decisions should be larger. In the final chapter I analyze how a temporary increase in council responsibilities, budget and interaction with the community in a municipality can affect the candidacy of local independent politicians. I take the flooding in the Czech Republic in 2002 as a...
Employment effects of minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic
Grossmann, J. ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Smolka, V.
This study examines the direct effects of four minimum wage increases in the Czech Republic during 2012-2017 on the employment of low-earning workers in the business sector. This series of minimum wage increases followed a period of 7 years during which the national minimum wage was not raised. During the period studied, the monthly minimum wage was raised by 37.5 % overall, from 8,000 to 11,000 CZK. To estimate the effects of the minimum wage increases we make use of the fact that various companies or parts of companies reported different shares of employees who were paid at or below the level of the new minimum wage. We estimate whether, within a given company, homogeneous groups of employees in which a greater proportion were previously paid less than the new minimum wage were disproportionately badly affected in terms of their employment (or hours worked) after the change than groups of employees unaffected by the raise to the minimum wage. Our results show that the national minimum wage increases in 2013, 2015, 2016 and 2017 did not have any significant negative effects on employment. They did, however, have a positive effect on salaries. Even at the start of 2019, the minimum wage in the Czech Republic remains low in comparison to other European countries and affects only a small proportion of workers. Our findings however cannot be taken as an indication that potential future minimum wage increases would also have negligible effects on employment. It is thus essential to regularly assess in detail what the effects of future increases to the minimum wage would be.
Vliv institucí na přeshraniční rozptyl
Schwarz, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
This thesis, building on existing studies on border effect, analyzes price dispersion among cities in the European region over the last twenty years (1990-2009). An extensive overview of the literature reveals that the authors completely neglect the entrepreneurial aspect of the arbitrage process, even though arbitrage is the main power behind the law of one price. Once we understand arbitrage as productive entrepreneurial activity, institutional quality should be one of determinants of arbitrage attractiveness and should, therefore, influence the price dispersion. To test this hypothesis I express the quality of institutions as one of the factors influencing total costs of arbitrage, together with population density in cities used as a proxy for competition intensity, and distance. The regression analysis proves that all three variables explain a part of observed price dispersion - the higher is the density and the better are the institutions, the lower is the predicted dispersion. This result can also be viewed as a small contribution to the emerging literature empirically testing the theory of productive and unproductive entrepreneurship.
Impact of institutions on Cross-Border Price dispersion
Schwarz, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
This thesis, building on existing studies on border effect, analyzes price dispersion among cities in the European region over the last twenty years (1990-2009). An extensive overview of the literature reveals that the authors completely neglect the entrepreneurial aspect of the arbitrage process, even though arbitrage is the main power behind the law of one price. Once we understand arbitrage as productive entrepreneurial activity, institutional quality should be one of determinants of arbitrage attractiveness and should, therefore, influence the price dispersion. To test this hypothesis I express the quality of institutions as one of the factors influencing total costs of arbitrage, together with population density in cities used as a proxy for competition intensity, and distance. The regression analysis proves that all three variables explain a part of observed price dispersion - the higher is the density and the better are the institutions, the lower is the predicted dispersion. This result can also be viewed as a small contribution to the emerging literature empirically testing the theory of productive and unproductive entrepreneurship. Keywords: border effect, price dispersion, price convergence, law of one price, institutional quality, entrepreneurship
Company names and their influence on company productivity
Hanousek, Jan ; Jurajda, Štěpán
Our analysis reveals that a company’s name may be related to its economic productivity. The name’s alphabetical position, the use of “national”4 words, and the inclusion of English phrases within the name all play a role. This study looks at the association between certain characteristics of a company’s name and growth in the company’s turnover, growth in value added and profit from shares using company data from 17 EU countries over a period of more than 15 years. We distinguish between companies in countries where Romance languages, Slavic languages and Germanic languages are spoken. The effects of company names vary across these language-country groups. The link between the alphabetical position of the name and the company’s economic productivity is strongest in the services sector. For example in France and Poland moving the company’s name from the end of the alphabet to the beginning can result in increased turnover by as much as two percentage points. The influence of “national” words in the company’s name is connected with higher long-term growth in turnover, in particular in Poland, France and Norway. In Poland the use of “national” words can increase long-term growth in turnover by nearly four percentage points. The influence of including English words in the company’s name varies across the languagecountry groups. While in the Romance group English words have a negative infuence, in Germanic group of countries they have mixed effects, and in Slavic language speaking countries they have a clear positive effect. This study adds to existing analyses in the field of marketing and linguistics that have focused in particular on the origin of brand and company names, and to research into the effects of company names on share profits.
Birds of a feather: the importance of selecting the right field of study for finding the right partner
Bičáková, Alena ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Zapletalová, L.
Selective pairing is a tendency toward choosing a life partner with the same level of attained education, resulting in educational homogamy, a phenomenon which has been the focus of extensive research for sociologists, demographers and economists. The present study, based on a research paper by Bičáková and Jurajda (2016), looks into an as yet unexplored aspect of selective pairing: the degree of field-of-study homogamy, mapping the degree to which couples within the EU countries are formed by people who have chosen the same field of study.

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