National Repository of Grey Literature 71 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Who supported their employees during the first wave of the pandemic? An analysis of the financial support granted through the Antivirus B programme
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Doleželová, P. ; Zapletalová, Lucie
This study examines the structure of Czech firms’ use of the Antivirus B programme in the second quarter of 2020, i.e. during the first “spring wave” of the Covid-19 epidemic. We compare application of the programme benefits with the structure of the economy and with the structure of demand shocks, approximated by the drop in hours worked against those worked in the second quarter of 2019. The study provides an example of how this type of programme could be continuously monitored in the future. The study’s findings can be useful when making long term decisions about how to set up tools such as kurzarbeit in Czech legislation.
Impact of institutions on Cross-Border Price dispersion
Schwarz, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Horváth, Roman (referee)
This thesis, building on existing studies on border effect, analyzes price dispersion among cities in the European region over the last twenty years (1990-2009). An extensive overview of the literature reveals that the authors completely neglect the entrepreneurial aspect of the arbitrage process, even though arbitrage is the main power behind the law of one price. Once we understand arbitrage as productive entrepreneurial activity, institutional quality should be one of determinants of arbitrage attractiveness and should, therefore, influence the price dispersion. To test this hypothesis I express the quality of institutions as one of the factors influencing total costs of arbitrage, together with population density in cities used as a proxy for competition intensity, and distance. The regression analysis proves that all three variables explain a part of observed price dispersion - the higher is the density and the better are the institutions, the lower is the predicted dispersion. This result can also be viewed as a small contribution to the emerging literature empirically testing the theory of productive and unproductive entrepreneurship. Keywords: border effect, price dispersion, price convergence, law of one price, institutional quality, entrepreneurship
LATE estimators under costly noncompliance in student-college matching markets
Drlje, M. ; Jurajda, Štěpán
A growing literature exploits a feature of centralized college admission systems where students with similar admission scores in a neighborhood of a school’s admission threshold are or are not offered admission based on small quasi-random differences in admission scores. Assuming that the students at the margin of admission differ only in the treatment assignment, this literature relies on admission scores to instrument for admission or graduation. We point out that non-compliance with the centralized matching assignment typically corresponds to enrolling in one’s preferred program a year after the initial assignment, introducing significant non-compliance costs. We show that with costly non-compliance, the exclusion restriction, the key assumption of the LATE theorem, is violated, leading to biased estimates when instrumenting for graduation, i.e., for a treatment taking place after non-compliance costs are incurred. We use data from a student-college matching market in Croatia to illustrate the empirical importance of this potential source of bias and propose a method inspired by Lee (2009), which recovers the treatment effect bounds under the assumption that the costs of non-compliance are not related to the treatment assignment.
Czech kurzarbeit: evidence from the first pandemic wave
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Doleželová, P.
We describe the firm-type structure of the use of the main Czech kurzarbeit program (called Antivirus B) during the spring 2020 pandemic wave. Evidence based on the Structure of Earnings Survey shows large participation gaps in favor of large employers, and disproportionately high intensity of use of the program by manufacturing companies, in particular those exhibiting a declining wage bill already prior to the pandemic. Compared to other industries, manufacturing is thus able to ‘cover’ by kurzarbeit support the largest share of the decline in hours worked between the 2nd quarters of 2019 and 2020, with the exception of the hospitality and culture industries, which were directly affected by pandemic measures, such as restaurant closures.
Wages, minimum wages, and price pass-through: the case of McDonald's restaurants
Ashenfelter, O. ; Jurajda, Štěpán
We use highly consistent national-coverage price and wage data to provide evidence on wage increases, labor-saving technology introduction, and price pass-through by a large low-wage employer facing minimum wage hikes. Based on 2016-2020 hourly wage rates of McDonald’s Basic Crew and prices of the Big Mac sandwich collected simultaneously from almost all US McDonald’s restaurants, we find that in about 25% of instances of minimum wage increases, restaurants display a tendency to keep constant their wage ‘premium’ above the increasing minimum wage. Higher minimum wages are not associated with faster adoption of touch-screen ordering, and there is near-full price pass-through of minimum wages, with little heterogeneity related to how binding minimum wage increases are for restaurants. Minimum wage hikes lead to increases in real wages (expressed in Big Macs an hour of Basic Crew work can buy) that are one fifth lower than the corresponding increases in nominal wages.
Forced migration, staying minorities, and new societies: evidence from post-war Czechoslovakia
Grossmann, Jakub ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Roesel, F.
Forced migration traumatizes millions displaced from their homes, but little is known about the few who manage to stay and become a minority in a new society. We study the case of German stayers in Sudetenland, a region from which Czechoslovakia expelled ethnic Germans after World War Two. The unexpected presence of the US Army in parts of 1945 Czechoslovakia resulted in more anti-fascist Germans avoiding displacement compared to regions liberated by the Red Army. We study the long-run impacts of this local variation in the presence of left-leaning stayers and find that Communist party support and local party cell frequencies, as well as far-left values and social policies are more pronounced today where anti-fascist Germans stayed in larger numbers. Our findings also suggest that political identity supplanted German ethnic identity among anti-fascist stayers. The German staying minority shaped the political identity of newly formed local societies after ethnic cleansing by providing the ‘small seed’ of political development.
Proposal for a personal income tax reform: how to help low-income employees and increase consumption spending for half the public expenditure (analytical paper)
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Kalíšková, Klára ; Prokop, D. ; Šoltés, Michal
This analytical paper is a reaction to the public debate about the abolition of the concept of super-gross salary in the Czech income tax system. The paper evaluates the impact of three alternative sets of the new income tax parameters on the state budget and taxpayers. It shows that the government proposed version of the tax reform will lead to a CZK 86 billion cost for the state budget while not improving the situation of employees with the lowest salaries. The authors suggest two alternative settings of the tax reform, which are less damaging for the state budget and at the same time lead to a higher decrease in taxes for the lowest income groups.
Essays in Econometrics of Matching Markets: Identification, Estimation and Practice
Drlje, Marin ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Zimmerman, Seth (referee) ; Le Barbanchon, Thomas (referee)
A large literature estimates various school admission and graduation effects by employing variation in student admission scores around schools' admission cutoffs, assuming (quasi-) random school assignment close to the cutoffs. In this dissertation I focus on this variation, both from the theoretical and practical standpoints. In the first paper, I present evidence suggesting that the samples corresponding to typical applications of regression discontinuity design (RDD) fail to satisfy these assumptions. I distinguish ex-post randomization (as in admission lotteries applicable to those at the margin of admission) from ex-ante randomization, reflecting uncertainty about the market structure of applicants, which can be naturally quantified by resampling from the applicant population. Using data from the Croatian centralized college-admission system, I show that these ex-ante admission probabilities differ dramatically between treated and non-treated students within typical RDD bandwidths. Such unbalanced admission probability distributions suggest that bandwidths (and sample sizes) should be drastically reduced to avoid selection bias. I also show that a sizeable fraction of quasi-randomized assignments occur outside of the typical RDD bandwidths, suggesting that these are also inefficient. As an alternative,...
Surviving Auschwitz with pre-existing social ties
Jurajda, Štěpán ; Jelínek, T.
Survivor testimonies link survival in deadly POW camps, Gulags, and Nazi concentration camps to the ability of prisoners to get help from friends present in the camp. We study the case of several hundred prisoners of a small, low-security Nazi agricultural labor camp located in todayís Czech Republic, who were ultimately on transports to Auschwitz, a deadly extermination and labor camp. We ask whether their chances of surviving the Holocaust depended on how many of their former co-laborers from the agricultural camp were present on their transports to Auschwitz, which included another 9 thousand Czech male prisoners. We uncover a large, 10 percentage point survival advantage to having arrived in Auschwitz with at least 50 former co-laborers from the agricultural labor camp. This evidence is similar to that provided by Costa and Kahn (2007) for a US Civil War POW camp, and consistent with the fundamentally selective accounts provided by survivors.
Essays on Local Politics
Kuliomina, Jekaterina ; Jurajda, Štěpán (advisor) ; Bagues, Manuel (referee) ; Baltrunaite, Audinga (referee)
In the first chapter I analyse whether electing more women to municipal councils can affect female political candidacy in the future. I use cases of close elections in Czech municipalities and a regression discontinuity design (RDD). I find that fewer female candidates run in elections following the marginal election of an additional woman in the prior electoral cycle. The effect is stronger in those municipalities where the marginal female candidate joined two or more other female candidates in the council, indicating that sufficient representation, as viewed by the politicians or the community, was a likely mechanism behind the observed effect. In the second chapter I question whether personal characteristics of local politicians such as gender, education and occupation influence municipal budget allocation. I find no evidence that any of these characteristics matter for budget allocation, deficit or debt. These findings hold even in the smallest municipalities, where the influence of every single council member on council decisions should be larger. In the final chapter I analyze how a temporary increase in council responsibilities, budget and interaction with the community in a municipality can affect the candidacy of local independent politicians. I take the flooding in the Czech Republic in 2002 as a...

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