National Repository of Grey Literature 86 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The impact evaluation of alternatives suggestions for the abolition of super-gross salary
Kalíšková, Klára ; Münich, Daniel ; Prokop, D. ; Šoltés, Michal
This paper is a reaction to the public debate about the abolition of the concept of super-gross salary in the Czech income tax system. The paper evaluates the impact of four alternatives of the income tax system, which were suggested by the government, the parliament, the Pirate Party and the think-tank IDEA. The analysis is concentrated on the impact that these alternative tax reforms would have on the state budget and the income of employees at different income levels.
The impact of the super-gross salary abolition on the income tax paid by employees
Kalíšková, Klára ; Münich, Daniel ; Šoltés, Michal
This paper presents an evaluation of the impact of the proposed abolition of the super-gross salary concept in the Czech Republic. It shows that the suggested reform would cause an annual drop in the state budget income in the amount of CZK 80 billion per year. Almost a quarter of this drop would benefit the highest income decile of employees while the income tax of employees in the lowest decile would decrease by a maximum of CZK 100 per year.
Helping companies to maintain employment: fast, simple, economically meaningful (short recommendation)
Münich, Daniel
This recommendation describes the basic characteristics of deferring the due date for payment of employers’ social security and health insurance contributions from their employees’ salaries, as one of a range of necessary measures that the Czech government should bring into force as quickly as possible in order to reduce the negative economic impact of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic on companies, employees and residents and to shorten\nthe domestic economy’s future period of consolidation. The measure is in line with the recommendations in the study IDEA anti COVID-19 #2 study, which emphasises the significance of bringing in measures quickly and targeting them at the survival of wellestablished economic structures during the most difficult period.
Pre-school abilities: European comparative study
Neufussová, Monika ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Federičová, Miroslava (referee)
Pre-school education improves cognitive and non-cognitive skills of children, and the positive effects persist to adulthood. The literature provides rich ev- idence of beneficial effects of pre-school, some of them even causal. However, most studies come from the US, and the research lacks a comprehensive pic- ture of European countries concerning pre-school education. I contribute to the research by providing a comparison of European countries regarding pre- school attendance, pre-school skills, and test scores in fourth grade. In Section ??, I focus on the Czech Republic. The results show that more educated moth- ers are more likely to send children to pre-school. In most countries, children with stronger pre-school skills achieve higher results on standardized tests in fourth grade, which supports the idea of the existence of the Matthew effect. In the Czech Republic, pre-school attendance may increase fourth-grade test scores by 0.3 SD. The most important pre-school skill is the ability to read, which is associated with an increase in fourth-grade math achievement of 0.2 SD. The results contribute to the literature on pre-school education in Eu- rope; however, they should not be interpreted causally, as they are essentially a description of the pre-school context in Europe. 1
The high costs of low literacy in the Czech Republic
Krajčová, Jana ; Münich, Daniel
By means of projections, we quantify the hypothetical impact of providing better education to insufficiently literate fifteen-year-old pupils on the Czech economy’s long-term growth in the coming decades, using a number of scenarios. Our projections are not predictions of future trends, but represent hypothetical projections of future trajectories based on what is currently known about the causal relationships between educational achievements and economic growth. Insufficiently literate fifteen-year-olds – those who do not achieve score enough in functional literacy tests – face substantial economic and social difficulties later in life. Across the OECD countries, 24% of pupils fall into this category. In the Czech Republic the proportion is slightly lower (21%), and this represents some 20 thousand pupils in an age cohort. Only a negligible share of these pupils attend four-year or extended gymnazia (academic upper-secondary schools). These pupils represent about a third in elementary schools, while they represent almost half of vocational / apprenticeship secondary schools (without the Maturita / Abitur school-leaving exam). School closures during the covid-19 era will likely increase unequal access to quality education and thus the proportion of under-literate pupils.
Teachers' salaries in 2019: a glimpse of a brighter future?
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, Vladimír
As far as the relative level of pay for teachers compared to other university-educated employees is concerned, the Czech Republic has long occupied a very low position relative to other developed countries. As recently as 2018, the country ranked lowest on this front among all the OECD countries. The relative level of teachers’ pay is one of the factors that determine the attractiveness of the teaching profession. The teaching profession needs to be attractive not only in order to ensure a sufficient supply of teaching staff but also to enable selectivity in teacher recruitment, with an emphasis on teacher quality. The national data for 2019, which have recently been published and on which this study is based, show that this situation has begun to improve substantially. If the pledges originally made by the current government are anything to go by, this situation ought to further improve substantially during 2020 and 2021. In 2019 primary school teachers’ average pay reached 123.5% of the average salary in the national economy, up from 114.3% in 2018. This means that teachers’ relative pay level exceeded the previous record, which was set almost fifteen years ago in 2006. The speed of increase in teachers’ salaries in 2019 was far greater than the speed of increase in the salaries of other university-educated public sector employees and very substantially greater than that in the private sector. During 2018-2019 teachers’ mean and median pay rose by more than 28%. The equivalent growth among university-educated employees in the public sector was 19.8% and in the private sector just 14,1%.\n
Czech teachers’ pay: a new hope
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, V.
Teachers’ pay has long been lower in the Czech Republic than in almost all the other most economically developed countries. That is a natural consequence of the fact that the Czech Republic spends around one third less of its gross domestic product (GDP) on regional schooling than is usual in developed countries.\nIf Czech teachers’ average monthly salary was, relative to the salaries of other tertiary educated employees in the Czech Republic in 2018, comparable to the equivalent ratio in EU countries on average or in Finland or Germany, it should stand at around 53,000 or 56,000 CZK rather than the current 36,000 CZK.\nRelative to the average salary in the national economy, average teachers’ salaries rose year on year in 2018 by 2.9 percentage points to nearly 115%. Nevertheless, this only marked a return to the levels of 2008, i.e. ten years ago, prior to the global financial crisis. Teachers’ salaries were raised substantially in 2017-2018, but at the same time salaries for all tertiary educated employees rose substantially across the whole public sector. The raise in teachers’ salaries was thus hardly ahead of the game.\nIn relative terms, teachers at the beginning of their careers in the under 30 age bracket are the best paid. In 2018, ‘only’ 69% of non-teachers in this age group received higher salaries than their teacher peers (tertiary educated, same age and gender in the same region). Next best is the situation among the oldest teachers, in the 50-59 and 60+ age brackets. Teachers in the middle age bracket, 30-49 years, receive the worst pay in relative terms: 80% of demographically equivalent employees earn more than the teachers’ average salary.\nCzech teachers’ salaries are highly equalized, or even egalitarian, both in national and international comparison. In the youngest age bracket the variability in pay is comparable with that of administrative staff and other university educated public sector employees. However, whereas pay grades and variability increase with age (and experience) among non-teachers, teachers’ pay rises extremely slowly with age (experience) and its variability remains low.\nIn 2018 the already low share of overall teachers’ pay allocated to merit-based bonuses decreased. The substantial raise to teachers’ salaries in that year was achieved partially at the expense of further reducing the already very low levels of merit-based pay.\nUnder Bohuslav Sobotka’s government in 2014-2017, raising teachers’ pay was not a priority above and beyond increasing salaries across the whole public sector more generally. A turn for the better in this respect only became apparent during the first year of the new government in 2018. Further development on this front is however still in the realm of promises, or at best rough estimates for 2019.\nThe pre-election pledges made by ČSSD and ANO in this area are not mutually comparable. While ČSSD took the average salary in the national economy in 2021 as the basis for its calculations, the second took average teachers’ salaries in 2017. Thus, in 2021 teachers should be paid 49,530 CZK per month according to ČSSD and 47,367 CZK according to ANO. The latter figure was adopted into the government’s statement of policy. However, ANO’s promise is problematic because it does not anticipate the concurrent growth of salaries in other professions, which can only be broadly predicted.\nIf teachers’ pay were to increase by 7.5% annually from 2020 onwards, the level of teachers’ pay relative that of other tertiary educated public sector employees in the Czech Republic would match the equivalent ratio across the EU as a whole only in 2030, i.e. a decade from now. To reach the relative levels in Germany or Finland would take 13-15 years.\nPrevious political promises in the more distant past regarding raises to teachers’ pay were vague, short-lived and rarely fulfilled. The consequence of that has been to substantially reduce the public’s belief in such pledges. In order to permanently and substantially increase the long existing low level of interest in the teaching profession among the youngest generations these pledges must be given greater credibility. It is not only essential that the current commitments be fulfilled, but also that they be extended well beyond a single term of election. Help in achieving this may come through key political parties declaring their consensus, the introduction of statutory salary indexation for teachers and a more responsible approach to compiling the mid-term state budget outlook.
Teaching quality, education, economic growth and prosperity in the Czech Republic
Münich, Daniel ; Krajčová, Jana ; Protivínský, T.
This study reports in detail on how Czech society will suffer financially in the future if it is unable, or unwilling, to invest greater resources and systemic efforts into improving teaching quality. Our simulated estimates demonstrate that the financial impact of foregoing potential improvement would be huge. The paradox of this high level of unrealized societal gain can be explained in various ways. Either Czech society is still insufficiently aware of the extent of the societal advantages that they forgo by failing to improve teaching quality, or a substantial part of the society is currently failing to consider the long-term impact. It may also be that the Czech political-educational system is currently unable to translate a realization of the extent of this loss into concrete measures and investments.
The school homework load in the Czech Republic and in international comparison
Korbel, Václav ; Münich, Daniel
This study does not aspire to detect any causal effects of HW on pupils’ school outcomes nor any other desirable or adverse aspects of HW. Nevertheless, we show that the estimated (non-causal) relationship between HW load and pupils’ results is substantially different depending on whether we look at differences between countries, between schools or within schools. We thus illustrate that simplified or even ignorant presumptions about these relationships may lead to mistaken conclusions, for example that greater HW loads causally worsen pupils’ results, which it might be tempting to assume on the basis of international comparisons. This study’s findings reveal that Czech pupils have a very low HW load in comparison to pupils from other countries. This does not, however, automatically mean that Czech teachers should start to give their pupils more HW. First of all, there is no evidence, even from other countries, that greater HW loads automatically improve learning outcomes. Second, debates about HW load tend to disregard other key questions related to the amount of HW suitable in the local educational context. While providing answers to these questions is beyond the scope of this current study, these should be the subject of further research and expert debate. Good teachers should, furthermore, be capable of assessing the suitability or otherwise of setting HW in their particular local and educational contexts.
Three Essays on Unethical Behavior
Korbel, Václav ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Glätzle-Rürtzler, Daniela (referee) ; Ibañez-Diaz, Marcela (referee) ; Münich, Daniel (referee)
This dissertation consists of three essays that explore how unethical behavior develops in adolescence. All three essays use a methodology of lab-in-the-field experiment, but each investigates questions related to unethical behavior from a different perspective. The research presented in this thesis focuses on unethical behavior in two populations: the general population of adolescents and juvenile delinquents. Combining findings from the general and problematic population of adolescents helps us to understand what factors contribute to delinquency and more importantly, what factors may attenuate it. In the first essay, we investigate whether adolescents cheat more when making a decision in groups compared to deciding as individuals and whether the process of group formation matters. The results show that, in general, groups cheat more but the results are driven primarily by younger adolescents while there is no difference between individuals and groups among older adolescents. Interestingly, the process how groups are formed does not play a role. This suggests that tendencies to cheat develop still in the adolescence and that the context in which decision is made, is important. The second essay studies how willingness to obey rules differs between juvenile delinquents and adolescents from the...

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31 Münich, Daniel
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