National Repository of Grey Literature 119 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The risks of reforming doctoral studies
Grosman, Jiří ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Münich, Daniel
The system of financing doctoral studies in the Czech Republic has long been inefficient. A reform currently underway aims to significantly increase the efficiency of the system. In this short text, we draw attention to potential problems associated with the distribution of public financial support for doctoral studies among universities. It would be problematic to distribute support based predominantly on degree completion rates. Allocation of public support for doctoral studies should take into account the results of evaluations of the quality of science produced by universities and their success in career placement of graduates, in addition to justifiable national disciplinary priorities.
Work motivation effects of tax change proposals on employees
Kalíšková, Klára ; Münich, Daniel ; Šoltés, Michal
In this study, we analyse the impact of the changes to taxes and compulsory contributions for employees as proposed in the government's consolidation package unveiled in May 2023. We also look in detail at the impact of the restrictions on the low-income spouse allowance. While existing analyses focus primarily on quantifying redistributive effects and the impact on tax revenue, our analysis also looks at the transformation of incentives to work, i.e., incentives to work or not work and incentives to work more or less. We show how the proposal will change average, marginal and participation tax rates. While the average tax rate tells us about the tax burden on income and how much of the cost of labour is paid in taxes and levies, the other two indicators are related to the incentive to work. The marginal tax rate describes the incentive to work more or fewer hours, and the participation tax rate the incentive to participate in (or leave) the labour market. We thus provide an ex ante analysis of the expected effects of the government package on the tax rates of different groups of the population and their work motivation. Ex post analysis of the behavioural effects of this package, i.e. its impact on labour market participation or the number of hours worked, is naturally not possible before the actual implementation of the tax measures.
How to save the state budget and correct the shortcomings in revenue taxation? Modelling the impact of changes to the personal (employee) income tax
Prokop, D. ; Kalíšková, Klára ; Šoltés, Michal ; Münich, Daniel ; Ostrý, M.
The structural deficit of the state budget is partly made up of a shortfall in tax revenues of about CZK 150 billion from 2020 onwards. In order to stabilize public finances, in addition to spending reforms, the maximum of these tax losses must be recovered. However, revenue can be strengthened also in other ways than by taxing employees. An estimated CZK 70 to 115 billion can be raised through other types of taxes. The proposed changes to the personal income tax (PIT) must therefore balance the expected collection from other sources and respond to other specificities of the income tax set-up in the Czech Republic. These include, among others, the small progression and the existence of a number of discounts that cannot be fully used by people with lower incomes. This leads to a relatively high burden on low-income employees with limited collection of the PTI.
Unemployment rising slightly, especially for women: quick analysis of registered unemployment
Grossmann, Jakub ; Münich, Daniel
The effects of the covid-19 crisis on registered unemployment have almost subsided. Excluding annual seasonal effects, the registered unemployment rate rose slightly in August '23. Nevertheless, the Czech unemployment rate remains one of the lowest in the EU27. The gender gap in the unemployment rate has widened in recent months due to faster unemployment growth among women. Occupational, educational and age differences persist. However, despite the worsening economic situation, unemployment remains low.
No cooling of the Czech labour market yet: quick analysis of registered unemployment
Grossmann, Jakub ; Münich, Daniel
The effects of the covid-19 crisis on registered unemployment have almost subsided. Excluding annual seasonal effects, the registered unemployment rate fell slightly in April '23. The Czech unemployment rate thus remains the lowest in the EU27. The gender gap in the unemployment rate has increased markedly over the past year and remains stable. Occupational, educational and age differences persist. The predicted cooling of the labour market due to the economic downturn has not yet materialised.
Chapters in cross-country analysis of science
Macháček, Vít ; Srholec, Martin (advisor) ; Münich, Daniel (referee) ; Lariviere, Vincent (referee) ; van Leeuwen, Thed (referee)
Vít Macháček Chapters in a cross-country analysis of science Dissertation Thesis Prague, October 25th, 2023 Abstract The dissertation consists of three independent chapters: Chapter 1 - Predatory publishing in Scopus: Evidence on cross-country differences - presents evidence on how predatory journals have infiltrated research systems across various countries. The chapter builds on data from the Scopus database in combination with the content of the so-called Beall's list. Based on this data we identify 324 potentially predatory journals. Then we compare the number of papers in these journals with the total number of papers for each country. The results reveal considerable heterogeneity across countries. While the most affected countries - Kazakhstan and Indonesia - published 17 % of their output in the journals indexed on Beall's list, the share was below 1 % in developed countries. The second chapter - Researchers' institutional mobility - bibliometric evidence on academic inbreeding and internationalization - analyzes researchers' career paths at 1,130 universities included in the Leiden Ranking 2020. Researchers affiliated with one of these universities and publishing in 2018 were split into categories according to the affiliation stated on their earliest publication: i) insiders published their first...
Do we have too many university graduates? What lifetime earnings profiles can tell us
Hrendash, Taras ; Jurajda, Štěpán ; Münich, Daniel ; Doleželová, P. ; Mrázek, P.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Czech Republic has experienced dynamic growth in its university-educated workforce. This trend was initially driven by the foundation and growth of private universities in the Czech Republic in the late 1990s, followed from 2005 onwards by a substantial opening-up of public universities. The share of the population aged between 30 and 34 with higher education has more than doubled over the course of three decades. From an economic perspective, do we now have too many university graduates in the Czech Republic? The answer to this question is crucial when it comes to deciding the extent to which the state should – financially or otherwise – support future growth in the numbers of university students and graduates, and how much it should encourage citizens to pursue initial or lifelong university education. The answer is also an important factor in debates about the need to increase the currently low financial support available to university students. The study we present here provides descriptive statistics about employees’ wages and salaries, which serve as a useful basis for any discussion of this important question. We compare trends in university-educated employees’ wages and salaries for cohorts born in 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. The shares of university graduates in these cohorts differ substantially. Further, we observe trends in the earnings ratio for these cohorts between university- and secondary-educated employees, i.e., the percentage differences between the mean or median earnings of employees with higher education and those of employees with only secondary education.
Teacher salaries in 2022 and beyond: out of the abyss and back again
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, Vladimír
The relative amounts of teachers‘ salaries helps to define the attractiveness of entering the teaching profession and can be a component in ensuring sufficient interest in the profession. Selectivity into teaching, both at entry and throughout the career, determines the quality of education. These processes are realised in the long term through continuous entries and exits from teaching, and ongoing training during the career. Therefore, the effects of teacher salaries on interest in entering the profession, the quality of teachers' work, and ultimately a country's educational outcomes can only be tracked over the long term.
Women's employment before and during the Covid-19 pandemic: The case of Armenia
Sargsyan, Lusine ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Pytliková, Mariola (referee)
The Covid-19 pandemic had a significant impact on female labor market outcomes in Armenia. This study uses Armenian Labor Force Surveys data from 2019, 2020, and 2021 to examine women's probability of working in the labor market during the Covid-19 pandemic that started in March 2020. Employing the linear probability model (LPM) approach, I find that 30-39 years old women with vocational education had a lower probability of working during specific quarters in 2020 and 2021 compared to tertiary education graduates. Additionally, the presence of a child under four years in the household gradually reduced the probability of working during 2020, and married women had the lowest probability of working during the first quarter of 2020. This research sheds light on the gender-specific impacts of the pandemic on the labor market in Armenia and provides insights for future policy considerations.
A Comparative Analysis of the Economic Transitions of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Central and Eastern European Countries
Solieva, Viktoriya ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Vítek, Leoš (referee)
v Abstract Economic transition is a pivotal part of the economic development of the post-communist countries. Some countries were more successful than others in developing adequate reforms that allowed the economy to grow. In this thesis, I provide a comparative analysis of the experience of economic transition in the Republic of Uzbekistan and Central and Eastern European countries. To do so, I use the key features of economic transition and provide statistical evidence together with data analysis, which allows me to conclude similarities and differences between the experiences of the countries of interest. Furthermore, I can provide some policy recommendations, including a switch to inflation-fighting methods and a suggestion regarding existing monopolies. This research contributes to the studies on economic transition and, additionally, to the studies on the new economic reforms in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Keywords: Economic Transition, Uzbekistan, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Visegrad group, Comparison

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37 Münich, Daniel
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