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A Comparative Analysis of the Economic Transitions of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Central and Eastern European Countries
Solieva, Viktoriya ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Kučera, Tomáš (referee)
Economic transition is a pivotal part of the economic development of the post- communist countries. Some countries were more successful than others in the develop- ment of adequate reforms that allowed the economy to grow. In this study I provide a comparative analysis of the experience of economic transition in the Republic of Uzbek- istan and Central and Eastern European countries. To do so, I use the key features of economic transition and provide statistical evidence together with data analysis, which allows me to draw conclusions on similarities and differences between the experiences of the countries of interest. Furthermore, I am able to provide some policy recommen- dations, including a switch of inflation-fighting methods and a suggestion regarding existing monopolies. This research contributes to the studies on economic transition and, additionally, to the studies on the new economic reforms in the Republic of Uzbek- istan. Keywords: Economic Transition, Uzbekistan, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Visegrad group, Comparison
Teacher salaries in 2021: peak reached so what next?
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, Vladimír
In the long term, the level of teacher salaries co-determines the attractiveness of the teaching profession and ensures sufficient interest in choosing to embark on a career in teaching. The selectivity of the profession, both in the process of university preparation and during the career itself, stimulates the quality of teachers’ work. However, these are long-term processes, occurring through continuous entry into and exit out of the profession and through further training. Therefore, the effects of teacher salaries on interest in the profession, teacher quality and educational outcomes can only be traced over a period of years, or rather decades. The level of teacher salaries relative to other salaries in the economy is an important indicator. Until 2017/2018, teacher salaries in the Czech Republic (CR) were among the lowest in the EU and top ten most economically advanced countries in the world (OECD). In 2021, however, thanks to an unusually dynamic rate of increase for several years in a row, salaries of Czech teachers reached levels significantly closer to the average of OECD and EU countries, reaching 122% of the average salaries in the Czech economy. Thus, in just a few years, the government of Andrej Babiš achieved what no previous government had managed to do: it succeeded in making significant steps towards fulfilling its ambitious commitment, which few people had believed was possible given the lack of success the past. In the coming years, maintaining the achieved relative level of teacher salaries will require increasing them at the rate of nominal wage growth in the economy. However, relative teacher salaries are likely to fall slightly to 119% in the 2022 outlook. Based on promises made in the summer following the government’s negotiations with unions, salaries are likely to remain at the same level in 2023. Teacher salaries will certainly not reach the 130% level promised by the previous and current governments, let alone the salaries of the wider pedagogical workforce.
Differences in the strictness of grading and its impact on student educational aspirations
Münich, Daniel ; Protivínský, Tomáš
For students and their parents, school grades are a key piece of information that helps to shape educational and career ambitions. We find that 87% of Czech ninth graders with an A in mathematics want to go to university. Among students with a C, only 39% have the same aspiration. There is wide variation in the strictness of grading across Czech primary schools. On average, grades awarded can differ by as much as a full letter grade between stricter and more moderately grading schools. Even when they in fact have measurably equivalent skills, students from schools that grade more strictly have lower academic aspirations than students from schools that grade more moderately. Grades on report cards are also often among the admissions criteria for secondary schools and high schools. Differences in the strictness of grading and the crucial roles of grades in planning future educational paths can therefore lead to misguided decisions by students and parents, inefficiencies in the education system, and suboptimal allocation of talent.
Monthly unemployment reports during COVID-19
Grossmann, Jakub ; Münich, Daniel
These reports concisely summarize, describe, and comment on the evolution of unemployment in the Czech Republic during the covid-19 pandemics. The monthly reports are mainly based on the data from Czech unemployment offices and they are usually produced within one day after the data release.
Financial support for students in higher education in the Czech Republic: a system overhaul is required
Münich, Daniel ; Kořínek, Otakar
Financial support for students in higher education in the Czech Republic has not received the attention it deserves over the past decade. Not only has the general public lost little sleep over this matter, but academics and politicians have largely ignored it, too. Information, statistics, and analysis of the targeting and impacts of current student financial support are at best piecemeal and at worst non-existent, which is symptomatic of the little public and policy interest in this matter. As a result, over the past few years there have been only a few minor tweaks made to the existing outdated and underfunded system. International comparisons show that the total amount of financial support for students in the Czech Republic is very low. A large share of that support is also provided across-the-board, meaning that support for the most socio-economically needy students and prospective students is very low. The average total monthly support provided both directly and indirectly to students under 26 years of age is between some 5,300 CZK [euro 200] for those from the poorest backgrounds and 2,700 CZK [euro 110] for others. Support for students aged 26 and above is only around 500 CZK [euro 20] per month, regardless of their economic background. In European comparison, the support for socio-economically weak students is extremely low. Only a very small proportion of students are eligible for publicly funded social scholarships, which provide only minimal financial support in any case. No data is currently collected on the demographic or social status of scholarship recipients. Similarly, there is no data measuring the extent to which children from poorer backgrounds are deterred from university study by the low level of available support. The amount of funding made available through social scholarships and the breadth of the pool of students eligible for them is not regularly increased in response to inflation or students' rising living costs, but is revised in connection with ad hoc raises made to the minimum wage and living wages.
Teachers’ salaries in 2020 and beyond: will the Czech Republic rest on its laurels?
Münich, Daniel ; Smolka, Vladimír
In relative terms, teachers’ pay in the Czech Republic was lower than in most EU and OECD countries until 2017/18. Thanks to an unusually fast pace of growth in the past few years, in 2021, teacher’s pay will almost reach the average for OECD countries and the EU, which is around 90% of the average salary for a university-educated employee in the national economy. Andrej Babiš’s outgoing government will thus fulfil its Summer 2018 program statement. The level of teachers’ pay is a factor in attracting interest in teaching as a profession. Raising interest is necessary not only in order to recruit sufficient numbers of teachers, but to allow selectivity into the profession, allowing for more emphasis on the quality of teaching. These are long-term processes that gradually build the overall quality of the country’s teaching staff, through continuous arrivals and departures from the profession. Therefore, the impact of the teachers’ pay rates on attracting interest in the profession, the quality of teachers’ work, and pupils’ educational outcomes can only be observed over many years, or even decades.
Demographic Approach in Measuring Human Capital of Kazakhstan
Narkulov, Murat ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Münich, Daniel (referee) ; Fiala, Tomáš (referee)
Demographic approach in measuring human capital of Kazakhstan Abstract This work is intended to provide reader with information about the value of human capital stock in Kazakhstan using well-known so-called education-based and lifetime labor income-based approaches. Author tries to research the reproduction model of human capital in conjunction with institutional factors in transition, such as socio-demographic, political and economic changes, historical development and the current level of human capital in KazakhstanThe main goal of this study is determination of main components of human capital development in Kazakhstan, especially from demographic viewpoint through the evaluations of modern reproduction of human capital in Kazakhstan. The results of estimations indicate that the human capital stock has significantly increased in Kazakhstan during the period studied (from 2003 to 2008) and that it surpass the value of physical capital in the country. The potential of human capital augmentation has been estimated as favorable for upcoming years in Kazakhstan. Key words: human capital, population quality, Kazakhstan, demography, working age-population, education.
Empirical Essays on Unemployment, Inflation and Access to Human Capital
Franta, Michal ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Blien, Uwe (referee) ; Galuščák, Kamil (referee)
This dissertation consists of three distinct topics within labor macroeconomics, applied microeconomics, and applied time-series econometrics. The first essay extends the standard methodology used in analyzing unemployment duration. The extension is applied on empirical data for the Czech Republic and France. Furthermore, unemployment dynamics are examined in terms of unemployment incidence and duration for the Czech Republic, 1992-2007. The second essay belongs to the field of the economics of education. It contributes to the discussion on the equal access to higher education. The theoretical (structural) model of an individual schooling decision is set up and the implied reduced form is estimated on a unique data set of all secondary school graduates in the Czech Republic in 1998. Finally, the third essay deals with the inflation dynamics. It draws on extensive research in the modeling of the inflation process in developed countries. Nevertheless, the focus is on developing countries where specific economic and consequently econometric issues have to be considered.
Esaays on Corporate Bankruptcy
Vychodil, Ondřej ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; White, Michelle J. (referee) ; Weill, Laurent (referee)
Research Journal Articles Working Papers Research in Brief Series Dissertations Other Publications Featured Article Dissertations Date: Wednesday, August 25, 2010 - 10:30 Ondřej Vychodil: "Essays on Corporate Bankruptcy" Dissertation Committee: Gérard Roland (chair) Libor Dušek (local chair) Evžen Kočenda Jan Hanousek Abstract: The dissertation consists of three chapters on corporate bankruptcy: In the first chapter (joint with Ondřej Knot), we develop a model of a debt-contracting problem under bankruptcy regimes differing by a degree of softness. In the model, the degree of softness is associated with the extent to which the absolute priority rule can be violated. We show that when the degree of softness can be set individually for each project, then the debtor's tendency to excessive risk-taking can be eliminated and the first best solution can be attained. When it is given exogenously by a bankruptcy law, then a completely tough law results in a lower distortion from the first best than a soft law with a moderate degree of softness. The second chapter documents that the recent Czech bankruptcy practice tended to delay the ultimate exit of a firm when it can be expected to have a harsher ex-post effect on the firm's employees. Bankruptcy duration is regressed on unemployment rate, size and other...
Essays on Labor Economics: Labor Market Laboratory in Central Europe
Dinga, Marián ; Münich, Daniel (advisor) ; Blien, Uwe (referee) ; Moritz, Michael (referee)
The first part of this dissertation evaluates the impact of a large and territorially concentrated foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow on local labor market outcomes in the Czech Republic. A difference-in-differences technique is employed for estimating the impact of a joint investment of Toyota and Peugeot on local labor market indicators. The results indicate a positive and statistically as well as economically significant effect of a large investment project on the local unemployment outflow rate, which is driven mainly by increases in the aggregate unemployment exit hazard rates for unemployment durations smaller than nine months. However, the impact on long-term unemployed was negligible. Moreover, a simple cost--benefit analysis suggests that investment incentives paid from a state budget would pay off only in a horizon of twelve years. In the second chapter, I analyze the causal effect of investment incentives on regional allocation of FDI in the Czech Republic during 2001-2007. An institutional setup of investment incentives provided foreign investors with financial incentives depending on the particular district's unemployment rate. The identification strategy is based on a regression- discontinuity approach, as the scheme's design introduces three unemployment thresholds...

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