National Repository of Grey Literature 84 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Use of spectroscopic methods in colorectal cancer detection.
Miškovičová, Michaela ; Petruželka, Luboš (advisor) ; Soumarová, Renata (referee) ; Kiss, Igor (referee)
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and a global health problem. Approximately 8,000 new cases are diagnosed annually in the Czech Republic and about half of them die from this malignancy, with 20 % patients being under 60 years of age. It is still true that the greatest hope for successful treatment and management of the disease is given to patients by early diagnosis of cancer. There is still a remarkably high proportion of detection of colorectal cancer in the advanced stage, which is mainly due to the absence of reliable and sensitive clinical methods. The still unfavorable epidemiological situation is a clear challenge to further strengthen all activities aimed at active prevention and early diagnosis. Colorectal cancer is the best preventable disease of the gastrointestinal tract, it lasts for several years, when an invasive lesion gradually develops through a precursor lesion. This offers a sufficiently long diagnostic window, Therefore, attention is currently being focused to find affordable, sensitive and minimally invasive techniques that can provide early, simple, rapid, inexpensive and reliable diagnosis of this disease and could thus support or replace conventional diagnostic methods in the future. In our work, we focused on the use of completely new diagnostic...
Sequence variants in metastatic colorectal cancer and their evolution during the disease course and treatment
Jandová, Eliška ; Boublíková, Ludmila (advisor) ; Vymetálková, Veronika (referee)
A deeper understanding of the molecular background of colorectal cancer (CRC) can help explain the development of the disease and its resistance to treatment, predict disease progression, and improve treatment prognosis. Some minimal molecular testing has been incorporated into standard clinical management to determine if a particular patient will benefit from a particular therapy, but more and more new genetic alterations are being discovered that appear to be associated with the development of resistance. Tissue biopsy of the tumor is the gold standard in terms of molecular testing, but there is an increasing demand for more non- invasive methods such as liquid biopsy. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed sequence variants present in primary tumor, metastases, and cell-free tumor DNA - ctDNA of patients with metastatic CRC. The objectives were to analyze sequence variants of the primary tumor and identify possible pathogenic variants, to analyze differences between DNA of the primary tumor and metastases, to evaluate the use of ctDNA as a diagnostic tool, and to identify potential tumor-specific markers in ctDNA that can be used to monitor disease progression. Our results suggest the feasibility of using ctDNA for diagnostic purposes or even to monitor disease progression, but...
Possibilities of primary prevention of colorectal cancer in terms of nutrition
Stárková, Klára ; Holcátová, Ivana (advisor) ; Kudlová, Eva (referee)
This diploma thesis is devoted to the possibilities of primary prevention of colorectal cancer from the point of view of nutrition. Although the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer have been decreasing in the Czech Republic in recent years, it is still one of the most common cancers. It is a cancer, the occurrence of which can be influenced up to 50 % by a healthy lifestyle. The theoretical part is devoted to the latest findings in the field of influencing factors, although some have not yet been sufficiently explored. Processed meat, frequent modification of the diet by grilling, frying or baking (especially red meat and processed meat), overweight and obesity, regular alcohol consumption and smoking are identified as proven carcinogens. On the contrary, the protective factors are sufficient dietary fibre intake, sufficient physical activity and probably sufficient consumption of fish, milk and milk products, fruits and vegetables. In the practical part, two groups were examined - people aged 18-50 and patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Both groups were asked about eating habits, lifestyle factors and information about the possibilities of primary prevention of colorectal cancer. The assumption was that people aged 18-50 eat less risky and are better informed than patients...
Circulating biomarkers in colorectal cancer and their application in diagnosis and prognosis
Červená, Klára ; Vymetálková, Veronika (advisor) ; Boublíková, Ludmila (referee) ; Václavíková, Radka (referee)
Despite all the advances in the field of clinical and molecular oncology, the numbers related to the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain at unacceptable levels. In recent years, liquid biopsy consisting of circulating biomarkers has come to the forefront of research, offering many advantages over conventional biopsy, such as providing timely information on tumor heterogeneity and the ease of repeated sampling. This dissertation thesis aimed to identify novel candidate circulating biomarkers from microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and cell-free DNA that could be used for earlier diagnosis, better prognosis, or prediction of therapy response of CRC patients and thus further advance personalized medicine. The main results of this work are: 1) Circulating microRNAs in plasma (miR-122-5p and miR- 142-5p) can distinguish patients with rectal cancer and cancer-free individuals and could predict therapy response in patients (both in primary and metastatic CRC patients). 2) Gene amplification of the long non-coding RNA MALAT1 can represent an important step in the transition of healthy mucosa to adenoma tissue. Plasma MALAT1 is overexpressed in patients with colorectal adenomas and CRC patients compared to cancer-free individuals and has the potential as a predictive biomarker for CRC...
Circulating tumor DNA in urine and its use as a potential biomarker of colorectal cancer
Surkovová, Veronika ; Ptáčková, Renata (advisor) ; Dračínská, Helena (referee)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a serious disease whose incidence has been steadily increasing. There is a high chance of cure and a good quality of life, if the treatment is started in the early stages of this disease. The so-called liquid biopsy, in which biomarkers from various body fluids are obtained and analyzed, could help with early detection of the disease, monitoring of the patient's condition and appropriate determination of the diagnosis. The aim of this study is to isolate and analyse circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from the urine of patients with advanced CRC. In these patients the ctDNA was detected in plasma. The method used for analysis is based on the principle of PCR with the formation of heteroduplexes, followed by the separation of "wild type" and mutated DNA fragments by denaturing capillary electrophoresis. Unlike plasma samples, the presence of KRAS mutations was not confirmed in urine samples. Neither the established procedure for plasma analysis, the attempt to enrich ctDNA by so-called purification, nor other tested isolation kits using the selected detection method allowed detection of the KRAS mutation in urine via ctDNA. Although urine ctDNA testing in general appears to be a promising method for improving the treatment level of (colorectal) cancer, and although its use could...
Development of diagnostic method in colorectal cancer
Pešková, Tereza ; Fikrová, Petra (advisor) ; Vašinová, Martina (referee)
The bachelor thesis is a review focused on colorectal cancer (CRC), its incidence, prevention, treatment, but especially on the methods of diagnosis that help to detect this disease. In the first part of the thesis, the colon is anatomically and histologically described. Next is presented the disease of the CRC, its origin, occurrence, symptoms, prevention, and finally treatment options. In the next part, the work focuses on specific methods of diagnosis. One of the most effective method for early detection of cancer is a screening program that uses the methods of examination of occult bleeding into the stool and colonoscopy. Colonoscopy itself is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of CRC. Despite the development of new and more modern methods for diagnosis, colonoscopy is still one of the most widely used and most reliable methods. Furthermore, radiological methods, especially computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are described. These methods have made a great move towards detecting lesions more accurately and earlier. These methods are also still often combined with colonoscopy to provide a more comprehensive and detailed picture for diagnosis. These new methods, such as virtual colonoscopy, positron emission tomography combined with CT (PET/CT), or...
The role of circulating microRNAs in the therapy response prediction in colorectal cancer patients.
Landecká, Aneta ; Vymetálková, Veronika (advisor) ; Hlaváč, Viktor (referee)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers both in the world and in the Czech Republic. Predispositions for the development of CRC include genetic and epigenetic changes, as well as environmental and microenvironmental factors. These tumours often respond very well to treatment, especially in the early stages, but some patients experience early recurrence of the disease. As the incidence of CRC has not declined in recent years, this is a current problem requiring a new approach aimed at improving diagnosis, survival and quality of life of patients with CRC. For this reason, liquid biopsy, which is a minimally invasive approach to the patient and allows real-time monitoring of changes in the body, is increasingly gaining prominence. One of the biomarkers that can be detected by liquid biopsy are small non-coding RNA molecules - microRNAs (miRNAs). In this thesis, the gene expression of two miRNAs, namely miR-122-5p and miR-142-5p, was analyzed in plasma and tissues of CRC patients and in plasma of a control group of healthy blood donors. In our study, we identified significant changes in the expression levels of both miRNAs in CRC patients compared to healthy cancer- free subjects. Specifically, higher expression levels of both miRNAs were observed in CRC patients compared to the...
Tcf4 transcription factor in the intestinal epithelium renewal and pathology
Müllerová, Tereza ; Janečková, Lucie (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
TCF4 (T-Cell Factor 4, sometimes also TCF7L2) is an important effector of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway. The transcription factor is produced in many different isoforms with tissue-specific expressionand diametricallyopposing functions.In the intestine,TCF4 is a key factor in epithelial regenerationandmaintenance of stem cell homeostasis. Its depletion causes loss of the proliferatingcrypt compartment and complete breakdown of the intestinal mucosal architecture. The processes in which it acts are therefore vital and must be strongly regulated by the Wnt signalling pathway. Disturbances in TCF4 expression or alternative splicing often lead to a wide range of complex pathologies such as colon cancer, ileal Crohn's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Clinico-pathological characteristics of mucin-producing colorectal carcinoma
Sojka, Ladislav ; Levý, Miroslav (advisor) ; Boublíková, Ludmila (referee) ; Klos, Dušan (referee)
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with persistently high mortality. As a consequence, high demands are placed on research into this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of colorectal carcinoma in the Czech Republic in comparison with worldwide data. We focused on the evaluation of the latest findings in screening and diagnosis, investigated prognostic factors, and also focused on the therapeutic options of CRC. Furthermore, mucin-producing carcinomas are described in detail and mucin itself was confirmed as a risk factor for the prognosis of CRC patients. The experimental part of the study focused on gene mucin MUC13 and the MUC13 - miR-4647 axis, which is associated with adverse prognosis in CRC patients. Samples of CRC and samples of adjacent non-malignant mucosa tissue were used. The samples were collected from patients who underwent surgery at the General University Hospital in Prague, at the Thomayer University Hospital in Prague and at the University Hospital in Pilsen (Czech Republic). The collection of samples took place between 2011 and 2015. The total of 187 samples were collected from patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The subjects of the study all provided information on their lifestyle habits, body mass index...
Prevention of the Colorectal cancer through the view of the public in the Pilsen region
This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of public awareness of the colorectal cancer and its prevention. The aim of this work is to map the lay public knowledge of the colorectal cancer prevention in the Pilsen region. The theoretical part deals with the anatomy and physiology of the large intestine and the disease itself. It's focused on the symptoms of cancer and on the examination methods and treatment options. Big emphasis is put on prevention projects, because with the colorectal cancer prevention is absolutely essential. The research part was done through the qualitative research method via semi-structured interviews. The respondents were randomly selected with the help of the snowball method (so called Snowball Sampling). The interviews were performed via questions prepared in advance. The research set was composed of twenty respondents from the Pilsen region. The interviews were recorded and then manually transcribed on paper. It emerged from the collected information that most of the respondents know the causes, symptoms and risk factors related to the cause of the colorectal cancer. Nonetheless our respondents still underestimate primary prevention in large measure. The responses show that the respondents would be willing to change their lifestyle only if somebody close to them got ill. It is shown that the respondents older than 50 years have additional information about the prevention of the colorectal cancer. The gender of the respondents plays an important role in deciding whether to make use of the screening examination and undergo the occult bleeding test. Based on the research, women accept preventative measures more than men. All of the respondents give the prevention great importance. The research shows the need to inform and motivate the patients to primary and secondary prevention. The result of this work is creating a proposal for a card, which could be used in a short intervention about the prevention of the colorectal cancer.

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