National Repository of Grey Literature 39 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Structure and function of the invasion apparatus of microsporidia
Dohnálek, Vít ; Doležal, Pavel (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that cause significant economic damage and can infect humans. They had evolved highly specialized invasion apparatus that is unique to them. During the invasion the sporoplasm is released from the spore wall and it is transferred to the host cytoplasm through the polar tube. Current research on the invasion apparatus has been focused mainly on the polar tube that is its most prominent structure. Polaroplast and posterior vacuole remain out of the main interest, although they are necessary for the activation and execution of the invasion. If the right combination of environmental factors occurs, the organization of the polaroplast begins to change, the posterior vacuole starts to swell and the polar tube is discharged. Sporoplasm is eventually pushed through the tube into the host cell by growing posterior vacuole. The mechanism has not been explained yet however plenty of theories are trying to explain the germination. This work summarizes current theories and knowledge of structure and function of particular parts of the invasion apparatus. Key words: Microsporidia, invasion, polar tube, intracellular parasitism, germination
Diversity and evolution of anaerobic Heterolobosea
Pánek, Tomáš ; Čepička, Ivan (advisor) ; Oborník, Miroslav (referee) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
9 ABSTRACT This thesis is focused on the phylogeny, diversity, and cell structure of obligately anaerobic Heterolobosea (Excavata: Discoba). Using culture-based approach, we have discovered their hidden species diversity and described 11 new species. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that obligately anaerobic heteroloboseans evolved at least twice independently (Creneidae and Psalteriomonadidae). Psalteriomonadidae is a major anaerobic lineage of Heterolobosea as it includes 16 species and 5 genera. Most psalteriomonadids have acristate mitochondria, although Pseudoharpagon pertyi probably possesses remnants of mitochondrial cristae. Creneidae are represented just by a single species, Creneis carolina, which displays unique cell structure and life cycle. Architecture of its flagellar apparatus is not readily comparable with any other eukaryotes and at least some cytoskeletal elements have undergone unprecedented evolutionary positional changes. Anaerobic heteroloboseans are just rarely detected by environmental, culture-independent approaches. Thus, it is impossible to estimate their real species diversity. Nevertheless, our current data on anaerobic jakobids, another lineage of Discoba, indicates that the culture-based approach is relatively powerful to discover species diversity of anaerobic excavates. In...
Controllable Fractional-Order Analogue Electronic Circuits
Dvořák, Jan ; Vávra, Jiří (referee) ; Šimák, Boris (referee) ; Jeřábek, Jan (advisor)
Disertační práce se zabývá syntézou a analýzou nových obvodových struktur neceločíselného (fraktálního) řádu s řiditelnými parametry. Hlavní cíl této práce je návrh nových řešení filtračních struktur fraktálního řádu v proudovém módu, emulátorů prvků fraktálního řádu a také oscilátorů. Práce obsahuje návrh tří emulátorů pasivního prvku fraktálního řádu, tři filtrační struktury a dva oscilátory navržené na základě využití pasivního prvku fraktálního řádu v jejich obvodové struktuře a dvě obecné koncepce filtrů fraktálního řádu založené na využití aproximace přenosové funkce fraktálního řádu. Na základě obecných koncepcí jsou v práci navrženy filtry fraktálního řádu typu dolní a horní propust. Díky aktivním prvkům s přeladitelnými parametry, které jsou užity v obvodových strukturách je zajištěna řiditelnost řádu filtru, jeho pólového kmitočtu a některých případech i činitele jakosti. Vlastnosti všech zapojení jsou ověřeny počítačovými simulacemi za pomoci behavioralních simulačních modelů aktivních prvků. Některé z uvedených obvodů byly realizovány na DPS a jejich vlastnosti ověřeny experimentálním měřením.
Formation of pole assymetry during the Xenopus laevis oocytes growing
Pácalová, Eliška ; Vávra, Jiří (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
A frog Xenopus laevis is an important model organism used in developmental and cell biology and physiology. Oocytes of this species are frequently used for study of mechanisms of oogenesis and membrane proteins. Through oogenesis an animal-vegetal axis is established by asymmetric distribution of determinant molecules which are important in embryogenesis and establishment for another body axes. The main aim of this thesis is to overview transport mechanisms for establishment of asymmetric molecule (especially mRNA) and organelles asymmetry to animal and vegetal poles and their regulation. Key words: Xenopus laevis, oocyte, animal pole, vegetal pole, cytoskeleton, intracellular transport, mitochondrial cloud, METRO, early pathway, late pathway
Mechanism of uric acid transport in intestinal epithelium
Vrzáčková, Aneta ; Vávra, Jiří (advisor) ; Zimmermannová, Olga (referee)
Uric acid is main metabolite from purine degradation pathway in humans a higher primates. Serum uric acid level is controlled on one side by absorbtion and on the other side by excretion. This proceses run in kidney nephrone and in intestinal epithelium. This thesis will be summarize the newest knowledges about intestinal epithelium cells transport protein, which excreted or reabsorbed uric acid from lumen of intestine. The thesis will be contain informatin about the transport protein family, protein - substrate interaction, regulation and it's importance in other tissue. Possibilities of regulation the urate handling system in intestinal epithelial, physiological and pathological importance will be contained in this work too. Key words: Uric acid, enterocyte, transport protein, epithelial cell
The role of growth factors and cytokines in regulation of mammalian oocyte maturation
Marcollová, Kateřina ; Procházka, Radek (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Reproduction is key for species survival. Oocytes are blocked in prophase I of meiosis in follicle. Gonadotropin stimulation leads to follicle growth and competent oocyte. First polar body extrusion is a sign of meiotic division resumption. Oocyte is blocked at prophase I by a high cAMP level, activating PKA, that inhibits MPF. CNP binds to NPR2, that stimulates the generation of cGMP in granulosa cells, which diffuses to oocyte where it competes with cAMP on PDE3A. LH and FSH released from pituitary gland initiates signaling cascade restoring meiotic division. Synthesis of AREG, EREG and BTC activates EGFR and MAPK pathways in somatic cells which contribute to reduction of gap junction permeability, lowering NPR2 activity, that leads to reduction of cGMP production and transport. Less cGMP diffuses to oocytes, which leads to PDE3A activation and cAMP hydrolysis. This causes MPF activation and meiotic division resumption. MAPK together with PI3K participate on increasing production of hyaluronic acid, thereby cumulus cells expansion and oocyte ovulation. Oocyte maturation and growth is improved with utilization of in vitro technics and oocyte cultivation with growth factors and cytokines. FLI medium, combining FGF2, LIF and IGF-1, increases oocyte cultivation success and blastocyst quality of farm...
Effect of ABCG2 allelic variants on the transport of uric acid
Vávra, Jiří ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Ježek, Petr (referee)
Uric acid is a main metabolite of purine degradation in humans and in higher primates. Its increased plasmatic level is called hyperuricemia and may be the cause of gout and many other similar diseases. Uricemia is controlled by many transporters, which are located in proximal tubule of human kidney. When some transporter have abnormal function, the physiological plasmatic level of uric acid may be impaired. In genome wide association study (GWAS) it was discovered that some hyperuricemia or gout patients have ABCG2 protein damaged. This protein carries out uric acid from epithelial cell to the urine. The goal of this diploma thesis is the determination of transport capacity of ABCG2 allelic variants found via GWAS (Institute of Rheumatology of 1st medical faculty UK in Prague) in vitro with Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. Uric acid secretion was compared with wild type variant. Keywords: Uric acid, GWAS study, Xenopus laevis, membrane transport protein, ABCG2
Structure and function of the invasion apparatus of microsporidia
Dohnálek, Vít ; Doležal, Pavel (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that cause significant economic damage and can infect humans. They had evolved highly specialized invasion apparatus that is unique to them. During the invasion the sporoplasm is released from the spore wall and it is transferred to the host cytoplasm through the polar tube. Current research on the invasion apparatus has been focused mainly on the polar tube that is its most prominent structure. Polaroplast and posterior vacuole remain out of the main interest, although they are necessary for the activation and execution of the invasion. If the right combination of environmental factors occurs, the organization of the polaroplast begins to change, the posterior vacuole starts to swell and the polar tube is discharged. Sporoplasm is eventually pushed through the tube into the host cell by growing posterior vacuole. The mechanism has not been explained yet however plenty of theories are trying to explain the germination. This work summarizes current theories and knowledge of structure and function of particular parts of the invasion apparatus. Key words: Microsporidia, invasion, polar tube, intracellular parasitism, germination

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