National Repository of Grey Literature 2 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Cardioprotective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 inhibitors.
Thořová, Markéta ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Nowadays, a large number of drugs target cardiovascular problems. One of the very promising therapies is the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors have gained a wide interest in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (DM2) due to their ability to lower blood glucose levels independently of insulin action. However, in addition to their main effect on glycemic control, there is increasing evidence of their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system beyond their hypoglycaemic effects. These drugs reduce hyperglycemia, hypertension, and improve diabetic retinopathy through multiple mechanisms, many of which have not been fully explained. The main focus has been on identifying the mechanisms through which these drugs affect the heart and blood vessels, whether by reducing blood pressure, affecting cardiac cells, or improving metabolic processes in blood vessels. Key words: SGLT2, inhibitors of SGLT2, cardioprotective effect, diabetes mellitus, heart
Atrial structure and function in vertebrates - comparative approach.
Thořová, Markéta ; Sedmera, David (advisor) ; Galatík, František (referee)
The atria are small cavities that receive, store, and then pump blood into the heart chambers. Throughout evolution, the atria and the whole heart have developed from a simple heart tube to a complex four-cavity organ whose rhythm and function can be observed by non-invasive methods. The four-cavity organ can be found in mammals and birds, which belong to the endothermic group, but also in ectothermic crocodiles. In humans, the structures of the atrial appendages, the so-called ears, are of particular interest and may vary in shape between individuals. A three-lobed organ can be found in reptiles and also in amphibians, with two atria and one chamber. Although there is only one chamber, its spongy structure minimizes the mixing of different blood types. Fish have a heart with only two cavities. Despite the differences in the final structure of the heart across vertebrate species, there are common features that are considered essential to ensure normal functions, such as the pectinate muscles. The knowledge arising from this work may contribute to further research, particularly in the context of evolution, physiology, and pathology.

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