National Repository of Grey Literature 44 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Cardioprotective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 inhibitors.
Thořová, Markéta ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most common causes of death in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Nowadays, a large number of drugs target cardiovascular problems. One of the very promising therapies is the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors have gained a wide interest in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (DM2) due to their ability to lower blood glucose levels independently of insulin action. However, in addition to their main effect on glycemic control, there is increasing evidence of their beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system beyond their hypoglycaemic effects. These drugs reduce hyperglycemia, hypertension, and improve diabetic retinopathy through multiple mechanisms, many of which have not been fully explained. The main focus has been on identifying the mechanisms through which these drugs affect the heart and blood vessels, whether by reducing blood pressure, affecting cardiac cells, or improving metabolic processes in blood vessels. Key words: SGLT2, inhibitors of SGLT2, cardioprotective effect, diabetes mellitus, heart
The effect of chronic cold on Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) in rat heart
Šeovićová, Maja ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Nováková, Olga (referee)
Acute cold exposure is a significant stressor activating heat production by shivering after the prolonged exposure cellular oxidative stress increases. Chronic exposure to cold lasting at least 2 weeks leads to the development of cold acclimatization. The main thermogenic role is taken over by non-shivering thermogenesis taking place in brown adipose tissue, which significantly increases its weight due to cold. Cardiac hypertrophy, hypertension and impaired renal function are frequently observed pathologies of acclimatization at 4-5 řC. Our laboratory recently introduced a model of mild chronic cold acclimatization at 8 řC, during which no damage to the heart or kidneys occurs and has proven cardioprotective effect on reducing infarct size. Hence, the influence of this cold acclimatization model on the other cellular and molecular processes needs to be investigated. The cardioprotective effect of cold acclimatization includes changes in β-AR signaling, activation of anti-apoptotic pathways or augmentation of the antioxidant system. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of cold acclimation and subsequent reacclimation on proteins regulating Ca2+ levels in the rat heart (SERCA2 and phospholamban) and on the stimulation of regulatory proteins β-arrestin 1/2 and protein kinase PDPK1. The...
Mechanism of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Hadravová, Kateřina ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Benák, Daniel (referee)
Cardiomyopathies are a group of chronic cardiac diseases of unclear etiology. We can separate them by morphological and functional signs into restrictive, dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a relatively common disease in which the development of cardiac hypertrophy is not based on risk factors such as hypertension or atherosclerosis. Compared to acquired cardiac hypertrophy the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is mainly caused by hereditary mutations. These mutations are mostly in genes for myosin heavy chain β and myosin binding protein C. Cardiac hypertrophy also presents with changes in the extracellular matrix caused by matrix metaloproteinases. They have a big impact on the morphology of cardiomyocytes and their loss, which in turn cause hypertrophy or left ventricle dilation. From medical point of view emphasis is put on prevention and early diagnosis using blood biomarkers. Among singnificant biomarkers are micro-RNAses, vascular endothelial growth factor B, NAD - dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3, growth/differentiation factor 15, glycoprotein 130 and calmodulin - dependent proteinkinase II. Causal treatment doesn't unfortunately exist, therefore symptomatic treatment is deployed using β blockers and calcium channel blockers. Newly used drugs include an...
Cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines in oncological treatment
Tekáčová, Kateřina ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Vávra, Jiří (referee)
Anthracyclines are antitumor antibiotics used during chemotherapy in cancer patients. Treatment with anthracyclines has good results but a side effect is significant cardiotoxicity. This bachelor thesis describes the mechanisms of action of anthracyclines which are essential in cancer therapy and may be risky for patients. The thesis also defines the term of cardiotoxicity and summarizes factors that may increase the risk of cardiotoxicity. The most commonly used agents in the anthracycline series are briefly described. Cardiotoxicity can be detected by cardiac markers, especially particular troponin and diagnostic methods. The last chapter describes the groups of substances that reduce the cardiotoxic effects of anthracyclines. Key words: heart, anthracyclines, cardiotoxicity, chemotherapy, onkology treatment
The effect of pineal melatonin on insulin production
Hovorková, Adéla ; Bendová, Zdeňka (advisor) ; Horníková, Daniela (referee)
Both production and secretion of insulin depend on the circadian rhythms. These are set by the internal circadian clock reacting to the external stimuli such as the light or the darkness. The central clock synchronization of the rhythmic processes in the organism is formed by the structure so-called suprachiasmatic nucleus. Secretion of melatonin, aka "hormone of the night," is controlled by the central clock and serves to align them with the peripheral clocks. Peripheral clocks are located, for example, in pancreas, liver or other body organs. Langerhans' islets in pancreas consist of -, - and -cells. These play an important role in maintaining glucose homeostasis as they produce hormones insulin and glucagon, key blood glucose level regulators. This text describes how the corruption of circadian system by a light pulse at night impacts insulin secretion. A phase shift results in melatonin secretion anomaly (increase), which inhibits insulin levels and thus gives rise to elevated glucose levels. Hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance because of a long-term rhythm corruption may result in type 2 diabetes. Key words: circadian rhythm, SCN, melatonin, MT1 receptor, MT2 receptor, β-cell, insulin, glucagon, insulin resistance, type 2. diabetes
The role of uncoupling proteins (UCP) in cardioprotection
Furmánková, Tereza ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Adamcová, Kateřina (referee)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world's leading cause of death. Almost 18 million people die of CVD each year, and the prevalence continues to rise for both men and women. It is now clear that the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential can play an important role in the pathophysiology of the heart and it is involved in cardioprotective mechanisms. Mitochondrial membrane potential can be affected in a various of ways, one of them is the stimulation of uncoupling proteins. An elaboration of previous findings in this work has shown that uncoupling proteins have the effect of reducing oxygen radicals, inhibiting apoptosis, affect the production of ATP and atherosclerotic plaques and protect the heart from lipid toxicity. There are several ways to regulate their gene expression, and influencing these pathways may be a way to achieve cardioprotection. Key words: uncoupling proteins, mitochondria, cardioprtoection, thyroid hormones, fatty acids, adipose tissue, reactive oxygen species, FGF21
The effect of season on mitochondrial swelling of rat heart after cold acclimation
Kašík, Petr ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Holzerová, Kristýna (referee)
Risk of death from cardiovascular disease is substantially increased throughout winter season and by exposure of organism to acute cold stress. However, several studies have suggested that some cold acclimation models could act cardioprotectively. The thesis is focused on effects of acute and chronic cold acclimation on swelling of rat heart mitochondria. Mitochondrial swelling is, besides other things, caused by massive influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondria especially during ischemia-reperfusion injury. By that, mitochondria permeability transition pore is being opened and subsequently, this could end up in mitochondrial burst and cell death, eventually. Lower rate of mitochondrial swelling indicates greater mitochondrial resistance. The results express higher mitochondrial resistance after acute cold exposure and chronic cold acclimation. Key words: cold, mitochondria, Ca2+ ions, swelling, MPTP, myocardium, ROS, ischemia
The role of PGC1 in cardioprotective mechanisms
Jeřábková, Adéla ; Horníková, Daniela (advisor) ; Kolář, David (referee)
One of the leading causes of death worldwide is cardiovascular diseases. Researchers are, therefore, dealing with the mechanisms that induce a cardioprotection. Cardioprotection is a general pathophysiological term under which we understand myocytes protection against damage by ischemia and subsequent reperfusion impairment, inflammation, hypertension, and toxic and degenerative changes, including some types of apoptosis. One of the less common ways of cardioprotection is a cold adaptation. Adaptive thermogenesis is an important part of energy homeostasis and protection against obesity, metabolic disorder threatening heart. The PGC family of proteins plays a very important role in adaptive thermogenesis. This thesis summarizes the current state of literature in cold adaptation issues, especially the role of PGC1α and its effects at the cellular and tissue level. mRNA expression of PGC-1α is strongly induced in brown fat and skeletal muscles of mice exposed to cold. PGC-1α also increases the transcriptional activity of PPAR-γ and thyroid hormone receptor protein on UCP-1 (uncoupling protein). UCPs (uncoupling proteins) are small proteins localized to the inner side of the mitochondrial membrane to facilitate the transport of protons, which they release into concentration gradient without ATP...
Cellular senescence escape mechanisms - anti-cancer barrier
Davidová, Eliška ; Hodný, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Horníková, Daniela (referee)
Cancer is one of the most dangerous diseases of the modern world. Therefore, many world laboratories engaged in research into the causes leading to the outbreak of this insidious disease. In this context, it has already been found that the normal animal cells do not divide indefinitely, but have a finite replicative life span. After this period, cells undergo either apoptotic processes or enter into so-called senescence, typical for proliferation arrest, but preserved metabolic processes. Further research has revealed that senescence serves as an effective anticancer program and currently is shed light on its significance in relation to various physiological or pathological processes associated with aging. In this work, the focus is on the role of senescence as a barrier for cancer development, and effectiveness. It can be assumed, that if the senescent cycle arrest functioned perfectly, the incidence of cancer among people would be recorded in much lower extent. The aim of this thesis is the current knowledge about the physiological and pathological roles of senescence and possible causes of overcoming this barrier, the result may be the uncontrolled cell division and tumorigenicity.

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2 Horníková, Dita
1 Horníková, Dominika
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