National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Contemporary Critique of Juristocracy
Píša, Radek ; Kysela, Jan (advisor) ; Reschová, Jana (referee) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee)
(Contemporary Critique of Juristocracy) This theses deals with a comparative research of judiciaries of the United States, Israel and the Czech Republic. Consequently, it reaches a conclusion that all of these countries are undergoing a substantive political crisis, which leads to unhealthy empowerment of a judiciary system. The judiciary in abovementioned countries is moreover incapable of meeting challenges connected to the legislative deferrals, since the courts are unable to disconnects themselves from a social reality. The countries selected for the study was chosen in order to achieve as diverse sample as possible. That should lead to universally applicable outcome. Besides this empirical line of research, there is a deeper normative line attached. I believe it is vital to foresee a future political arrangement in a positive manner, even though there is a substantial risk of authoritarian regime's emergence during this transition. Still, the worst thing we can do is to kick a can of contemporary political imagination down the road forever. That prevents progress, but it also highlights another threat of authoritarian regime in name of protecting "freedom" against democracy or "democracy" against freedom. Regarding the content of the thesis, I pursue an abovementioned idea about highly...
Political Role of Courts and Judges from a European and Comparative Perspective
Vikarská, Zuzana ; Kysela, Jan (advisor) ; Wintr, Jan (referee) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee)
1 Political Role of Courts and Judges from a European and Comparative Perspective Zuzana Vikarská The submitted dissertation examines European apex courts (i.e. the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights) and aims to answer the research question whether these judicial institutions are political and, if so, in what sense. The author puts forward five perspectives from which the political role of courts and judges can be analysed. The first dimension perceives judges as human beings who are influenced not only by legal rules but also by various non-legal influences, including political ones. In the first dimension, the notion of politics therefore stands in contrast to a certain idea of legal purity and separation of law from politics. This first dimension covers various jurisprudential perspectives on judicial decision-making, but also issues such as transparency of judicial institutions or the quality of judicial reasoning. The second dimension looks at the nomination procedures that lead to judicial appointments at the European apex courts. In this case, politics means the participation of political actors in the process of selecting candidates for the judicial functions. In this meaning, the notion of politics stands in opposition to the notion of expertise. The...
A theoretical conception of liability in private law
Janeček, Václav ; Beran, Karel (advisor) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee) ; Elischer, David (referee)
(English) What is liability?1 This "big" question has proven to be too tough for many private law theorists during the past 60 years. A dominant Czech approach to liability is the so-called theory of sanction: liability is a secondary duty imposed due to breach of a primary duty. At the same time, however, liability is conceptualized as an active institute, i.e. as liability to fulfil an obligation. This implies a specific "Czech" problem of liability: a paradoxical situation where a man can be liable because he was sanctioned, and also be sanctioned because he was liable. Liability in this sense seems to be an inherently flawed and meaningless concept, since both theories aspire to describe liability to the same extent (co-extensively). The most recent trend in Czech legal theory is thus a sceptical approach that completely eliminates the concept of liability from legal discourse. This is contrary to an ongoing and presumably meaningful debate on liability in foreign non-Czech literature that supports the most recent analytical and normative approaches to European legal regulation and its developments. Unlike in Czech language, this literature treats liability (Haftung) and responsibility (Verantwortung) as two discrete concepts. But why is this so? Wher does the "Czech" problem of liability come...
Non state justice systems & pluralism of law
Ivančo, Alex ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee)
The theme of this thesis is the assessment of the prerequisites for the pluralism of law and non-state justice systems to improve the possibilities of solving disputes in society. The main research question is whether non-state justice systems fulfil a social role in providing justice. The thesis should offer a descriptive analysis of the concept of legal pluralism and methodological procedures for the inclusion of non-state justice systems in the state. The outcome of the work should be an overview of the possibilities of interaction between different legal systems, whether formal or customary, of the different ways of resolving disputes in this environment, and of the contribution of such proposals to the reform of the legal environment that count on the real situation in society. The thesis of procedural pluralism and participatory methods of solving disputes that have a user, a citizen in the center of these systems is offered as a starting point for new designs. The final part of the work will therefore explore current approaches to improving legal systems that aim to increase participation of user based on their needs, and will include some cases for comparing individual programs to improve legal systems.
The Concept of Sovereignty of the People and the Political Party System in the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918-1938) and in the Czech Republic since 1993
Havel, Tomáš ; Kysela, Jan (advisor) ; Pithart, Petr (referee) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee)
The idea of sovereignty of the people offers a concept which allows searching for legitimacy of power. The legitimacy of power is one of the key structures establishing a relation between those who govern and those who are governed. Whether this relation is accepted, acceptable, functional, desirable or undesirable is a matter of finding the very definition of sovereignty of the people as such. The aim of this doctoral thesis, titled The Concept of Sovereignty of the People and the Political Party System in the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918 - 1938) and in the Czech Republic since 1993, is, firstly, to define the concepts of the people, on one hand, and sovereignty, on the other hand, in the historical, political and legal context from the ancient times up to now while reflecting the role of political parties in relation to the sovereignty of the people. Secondly, this thesis aims at exploring and describing the functioning of the party systems in the interwar Czechoslovakia and in the Czech Republic after 1993. Thirdly, this thesis seeks to answer the following questions: who represents the people in liberal democracies which are based on sovereignty of the people; how do the people exercise their power; and what is the role of the political parties in this process.
Judge-made Law. Comparison between the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Supreme Court of the United States
Dumbrovský, Tomáš ; Tichý, Luboš (advisor) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee) ; Zemánek, Jiří (referee)
JUDGE-MADE LAW COMPARISON BETWEEN THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION AND THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES Keywords: judge-made law; the European Union; the Court of Justice of the European Union; the Supreme Court of the United States; judicialization of governance; Kelsenian court; European constitutional space; European constitution; normativity; constitutional pluralism; sovereignty; federalism; post-communist states; new Member States of the European Union. Standard page (that is 1800 characters per page) and word count (including footnotes; without the contents, bibliography and annexes): 327 standard pages; 82 795 words. The Ph.D. thesis offers a complex reconceptualization of the constitutional system in the European Union. The constitutional systems of the Member States have been substantially transformed during the 20th century. Meanwhile a new constitutional system functioning in the Member States alongside their own systems has emerged - the constitutional system of the European Union. These two fundamental changes are difficult to grasp through an existing theoretical framework. That is because the framework is based on a set of outdated concepts: (i) Rousseau's concept of volonté générale that forms the basis of the parliamentary supremacy in a constitutional system; (ii)...
The Principle of Proportionality and Its Application in the Field of Human Rights Norms
Ondřejek, Pavel ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Holländer, Pavol (referee) ; Bröstl, Alexander (referee)
1 Abstract (in English langugage) In the presented dissertation thesis I tried to argue that if we want to apply the principle of proportionality correctly in case of a collision of fundamental rights or in case of a collision between a fundamental right and a countervailing interest, it is not sufficient only to refer to this principle within the argumentation. On the contrary, it is necessary to recognize a structure of this principle and to apply its components. In order to recognize the structure and components of the proportionality principle, it is necessary to understand the role and effects of human rights in legal orders. I assume that theoretical backgrounds of this principle contribute to the better understanding of the objective tension between the individual's autonomy and general will of the society. Another important aspect in the correct application of this principle is the institutional balance between the legislature and the judiciary and overcoming of the "counter-majoritarian problem". In the contemporary, not only Czech, but also foreign practice we may observe lots of examples in which courts do not pay appropriate attention to the proportionality principle. When solving hard cases, sometimes they made only a reference to this principle without further elaboration. From the...
Material Tensions between Natural Law and Positive Law and Approaches to its Solution
Kříž, Jakub ; Holländer, Pavol (advisor) ; Kysela, Jan (referee) ; Večeřa, Miloš (referee)
1 Material Tensions between Natural Law and Positive Law and Approaches to its Solution Jakub Kříž Abstract The title of my dissertation - "Material Tensions between Natural Law and Positive Law and Approaches to its Solution" - refers to everlasting contrapositions of two different approaches to law: (i) natural law tradition which is concerned with a necessary continuity between law and the requirements of practical reasonableness and that describes law as "rational standard for conduct"1 and (ii) tradition of legal positivism, which understands law only as a social fact. Actually, in the world of jurisprudence, there is no single natural law theory on one side2 and unique legal positivism on the other side.3 It is 1 MURPHY, Mark C. Natural Law Jurisprudence. Legal Theory. 2003, No. 9, p. 244, MURPHY, Mark C. Natural Law Theory. In: GOLDING , Martin P., EDMUNSON, William A. (eds.). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. s.l. : Blackwell Publishing, 2006, p. 15. 2 For many of them we can mention classical natural law theory of the thomistic philosophy, new natural law theory of G. Grisez and J. Finnes, legal realism of J. Hervada, "modern" natural law theories such as L. Fuller's concept of the Rule of Law and the inner morality of law or R. Dworkin's theory of the unique right...

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1 Holländer, Pavel
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