National Repository of Grey Literature 65 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
"The Concept of Sovereignty of Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf and its Role in the Constitution of Modern Concept of State".
Belling, Vojtěch ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Reschová, Jana (referee)
It is a topos of postmodern law and political philosophy to speak about the "change" of the concept of sovereignty, and to put the current forms of state existence in opposition to the "classical" theory of sovereignty. The theoretical content of this "classical" doctrine is too easy identified with the empirical reality of the Westphalian state system and understood as an apotheosis of the autonomous, independent states and legal systems. In this thesis I have therefore tried to investigate the logical core of the doctrine of sovereignty of two important political philosophers of the 17th century, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel Pufendorf. Based on the analysis of the central works of both authors, in the light of the latest research, the work shows that their understanding of sovereignty can only be understood with the help of the analysis of the concept of fictitious (or fictitiously) created artificial (moral) person. Sovereignty is no term for an empiricial force or violence, but the name for an imaginative absolute power that is connected to the artificial sphere of fictitious legal reality which is radically separated from the empirical world. The "sovereign power of the Commonwealth" is related to the fictional character of the state, which is identical to the concept of people (populus). The...
Legal theoretical and philosophical aspects of formal and material truth in judicial proceedings
Ondřejek, Pavel ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
Ve své práci se pokusím nastínit některé aspekty problematiky zjišťování skutkového stavu, konkrétně problematiku různého pojetí formální a materiální pravdy. Téma je to podle mého názoru aktuální, neboť v současném rychle se měnícím právním řádu České republiky se snaha po urychleném návratu mezi vyspělé právní kultury mnohdy nesetkala se stejným úsilím po teoretickém zdůvodnění té či oné právní úpravy. V zásadě stejný závěr lze učinit podle mého názoru o procesu sbližování českého práva s právem Evropské Unie. Otázkami pojetí formální a materiální pravdy se ve své judikatuře zabýval několikrát i český Ústavní soud, přičemž ne všechny jeho závěry lze bez kritických připomínek přijmout. Jako příklad uvedu nález Ústavního soudu v kauze navrácení zámku Opočno, kde základem odůvodnění ÚS bylo tvrzení, že česká právní úprava občanského soudního řízení neopouští ani ve sporném řízení tzv. zásadu materiální pravdy, jejíž dodržování je předpokladem pro dosažení účelu soudního řízení, totiž zajistit spravedlivou ochranu práv a oprávněných zájmů účastníků řízení.4 Pojetí formální a materiální pravdy s sebou nese přirozeně řadu filosofických aspektů. Samotný pojem pravdy je předmětem zkoumání filosofie, konkrétně filosofické disciplíny ontologie. Problematikou poznatelnosti se zabývá teorií poznání, nazývaná též...
The question is, what law applies
Krzyžanková, Katarzyna ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
The aim of this paper is to provide the identification and the analysis of the major factors which affect the answer to the question: What is found legal [i.e. according to law] in the particular case? Primarily analytical - descriptive method in association with the multidisciplinary approach is chosen to illuminate the complex nature of this issue. In other words, the diverse pieces of knowledge stemming from the various social science sub- disciplines such as psychology, sociology, jurisprudence, ethnology and anthropology are brought together to reveal frequently hidden constituents of the response to the question 'quid iuris?' The paper consists of 6 chapters. The introductory chapter, which offers a preliminary insight into the problem, is followed by the four major parts that gradually, as a whole, give a steadily more accurate picture of different variables reflecting in the answer, what is legal. More precisely, in Chapter 2 the mutual relation between the law on the one side and human culture and human instincts on the other side is investigated. A dissection of an extensive body of the anthropologically oriented literature leads to the deduction that the appearance of law is mostly influenced by the human culture and that universal instincts have an effect just on the resemblance of...
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INSTITUTION OF STATE CITIZENSHIP IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND THE CONTEMPORARY SITUATION
Hřebejk, Jiří ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Hofmannová, Helena (referee) ; Svatoň, Jan (referee)
The thesis entitled "Development of the Institution of State Citizenship in the Czech Republic and the Contemporary Situation" deals with the theoretical concept of the institute of citizenship, the content of the term, the historic origins of the archetype of modern citizenship in the ancient world and in the territory of the present Czech Republic, its stipulation in private law regulations, and its gradual transformation into a public institute. The thesis is a genesis of the constitutional and legal regulation in Czechoslovakia between 1918 to 1992, in the Czech Republic as the subject of the Czechoslovak Federation between 1969 and 1992, and in the autonomous Czech Republic from 1993 to the present. The thesis also refers to the international conventional regulation of the institute of citizenship, which is the expression of the sovereignty of a state, but multilateral international agreements between countries create a uniform platform of this institute, mainly within Europe. Court jurisdiction is also discussed, namely of the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic in relation to the content and interpretation of the institute of citizenship in the legislation of the Czech Republic.
Human Rights in Private Law
Ondřejek, Pavel ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
121 Summary Shrnutí v anglickém jazyce The presented work challenges traditional view on human rights as rights guaranteed only against the state. In contemporary world, in which states delegate powers either on supranational structures or on private entities, it is hardly acceptable for the individual to remain unprotected against comparable interferences with his constitutional rights caused by private persons. The classical doctrines of human rights protection lead in this situation to the decrease of level of protection of individuals. Therefore certain models of application of human rights norms in private law are to be scrutinized. How public and private law intertwine in contemporary law was shown on the examples of private military contractors that accompany modern armies in wars as well as transnational corporations operating in the Third World and exploiting indigenous peoples there. Notwithstanding the aforementioned it is clear that it was primarily private law that determined various areas of the "constitutional" status of individuals before modern constitutions of states came into force. From various models of application of human rights norms in private law, the example of models of direct and indirect horizontal application as well as non-application of human rights norms was described and...
Legal systems of the contemporary world focusing on confrontation of Continental and Anglo-American legal system
Lukešová, Václava ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
134 Summary The aim of this rigorous work is to provide a basic summary of three of the world's legal systems and some ethnic laws, which have an important influence on the legal order of many states. Further, I have focused on the comparison of the two main legal systems, Continental and Anglo-American. In order to describe characteristic features of legal systems or ethnic laws, I have used, as the most important distinguishing criterion aspect of sources of law, which have a very significant value regarding the origin, character, creation of laws and approach to them. Comparative law, as a specialization in legal science, using as a main method of research, the comparative method plays an important role in this process. For this reason, I've devoted to it an independent Chapter in this work. In the third as far as the eighth Chapter, which are the kernel of the whole rigorous work, I've outlined basic characteristic, geographical differentiation, historical development and legal sources of all three world legal systems and chosen ethnic laws. The work is finished by a conclusion summarizing all findings of the previous Chapters. ¨ Key words: comparative jurisprudence, legal system, sources of law

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