National Repository of Grey Literature 79 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Review of methods for the post-processing of topological optimization results
Kopačka, Ján ; Ježek, Ondřej ; Gabriel, Dušan ; Šotola, Martin ; Rybanský, David ; Maršálek, Pavel ; Halama, R. ; Tejc, J. ; Pašek, M. ; Kovář, L.
The research report is an output of the sub-project TN1000024/08: Automation and production system optimization in cooperation with MECAS ESI Ltd on the development of methods for post-processing of topological optimization (TO) results. In this report a detailed survey of these methods is introduced as necessary tool for seamless integration of the results TO with subsequent numerical simulations and additive manufacturing. The selected method for post-processing based on a level-set approach using radial basis functions has been implemented and successfully tested on a well-known 2D Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) beam test problem.
Aristotleś conception of man as zoon politicon and its relevance today
Krejča, Jiří ; Koloušek, Martin (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
Aristotle's conception of man as zoon politicon and its relevance today Abstract The thesis analyses Aristotle's conception of man as zoon politikon, which is the basis of his ethical and political thought. In addition to the concept of man, this thesis explores the broader ethical and political context of Aristotle's thought. Concepts such as rationality, free action and justice are discussed. It then goes on to define the very concept of man as a political creature. The starting point is Aristotle's biological writing, the Historia Animalium, where man is presented as one of the political species found in nature. The biological basis is then elaborated by a political and ethical investigation that places man in the context of the polis. Subsequent explorations further develop a holistic and complex conception of man. Aristotle's conception of human life, reason and happiness is explained. This is followed by an examination of man in interpersonal relations in the community. Attention is focused on the relations between master and slave, man and woman, individual and community. By synthesizing the findings, it is then possible to develop a delineation of the concept of man as zoon politikon that is not dependent on the environment of the ancient Greek city-state. Five basic elements of this conception are...
Relationship between law and morals in the contemporary society
Pastoráková, Mária ; Maršálek, Pavel (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
ZÁVĚR Soudobou společnost charakterizuje řada jevů, které přispívají k nárůstu komplexity sociální skutečnosti. Vývoj je velice dynamický a probíhá do velké míry spontánně - není kontrolován z jednoho či několika center, nýbrž je výsledkem aktivity mnoha různých nehierarchizovaných subjektů a skupin. Jednotící obecný rámec společnosti je rozrušován a v oblasti hodnotové orientace dochází k partikularizaci. Společenská morálka se proměňuje - do pozadí ustupuje objektivní vzorec správného života, který je nahrazen akceptací různých životních stylů. Paralelně s tím se jako primární morální hodnota prosazuje princip snášenlivosti a tolerance. Nastoluje se otázka, do jaké míry je další existence společnosti tímto vývojem ohrožena, nebo-li zda je morální a hodnotový konsenzus tím, co společnost stmeluje a umožňuje tak její další pokračování. Stoupenci konzervativního názorového proudu se domnívají, že morální shoda je vitální podmínkou společenského života a vnímají právo jako efektivní nástroj k vyjádření resp. prosazení hodnot společnosti. Naproti tomu převažující liberální názorová pozice je, pokud jde o dopad morálního relativismu na společnost optimističtější a brání se obecnému stanovení omezujícího hodnotového rámce realizace svobody jednotlivce, pokud výkon individuální svobody neohrožuje svobodu jiného....
Legal responsibility
Pražák, Pavel ; Beran, Karel (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
- Legal responsibilty Pavel Pražák The purpose of my thesis is to analyze the institute of legal responsibility that is very often used in the Czech doctrine and in legal acts. The reason for my research is to clarify the clear content of this term. The thesis is composed of two parts, each of them using a different method. Part One is deductive. It is divided into eight chapters. Chapter One is introductory and defines the term "responsibility" according to the common Czech language and clears the terminology used in the thesis. Chapter Two examines mechanisms of Roman law similar to the contemporary legal responsibility. It deals primarily with the institutes of "nexum" and "stipulatio". Chapter Three concentrates on the function and role of legal responsibility in law. It defines its most universal function as well as its concrete roles. Chapter Four is subdivided into four subchapters and provides an outline of relevant Czech doctrinal concepts of legal responsibility, such as the concept of active responsibility or the sanction doctrine. It also deals with the classification of the concepts provided by Josef Macur in the 80's. Chapter Five describes the German doctrine in the field of legal responsibility. It clears the German terminology, deals with the doctrine of "Schuld und Haftung" and...
Legal and philosophical aspects of free will
Kutílek, Lukáš ; Maršálek, Pavel (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
This thesis seeks an answer to a question of whether social normative systems, particularly law and morality, are consistent with the most recent scientific and philosophical findings. Those in fact often conclude that the human will is not free and that the human decision- making is only a physiological process governed by the laws of physics. Such findings thus, at a first glance, collide mainly with the concept of responsibility, through which law and morality are implemented. Therefore, the paper begins with a brief introduction of the current state of knowledge concerning free will and presents mainly determinism and indeterminism. The conclusion of the first part called Free Will and Determinism introduces a view of the world, which best suits the current state of knowledge and is further referred to as Physicalism. The second part called Law, Morality, Physicalism, briefly presents law and morality as regulators of human behavior, for which the concept of free will is fundamental. The focus of the thesis then shifts towards the institutions of criminal and civil law, that seem to be threatened by Physicalism the most. However, general consistency of Physicalism and the examined normative concepts is concluded, while it is argued that within the physicalistic view of the world, law and morality...
The Concept of Autonomy : (conditions of modern subjectivity and historicity of the concept of law)
Janoščík, Václav ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
of the diploma thesis Janoščík Václav The Concept of Autonomy (Conditions of modern subjectivity, of the concept of law and of historicity) Submitted thesis aims at articulation of the concept of autonomy in its complexity. At first it pursues specific contexts of the notion to arrive at its structure. At first we try to explore prospective of analytical philosophy of law to situate the concept of autonomy to the heart of the idea of law. This efforts unfolds itself by an unorthodox interpretation of natural right theory of Herbert Hart's early work. Second chapter discusses the framework of the philosophy of history, that are based on the idea of an autonomous subject. Seemingly paradoxical linkage of Heidegger's fundamental ontology and Kosík's dialectics of the particular articulates the historical function of the autonomy. Next chapter connects Kosík with Cornelius Castoriadis in the perspective of social theories. Also in their normative core we can identify our notion of autonomy. Fourth chapter follows the theory of disenchantment of the world of Marcel Gauchet. We reformulate it as a realization of the ideal of autonomous subject in order to contextualize the concept historically. Last topic of the first part is the framework of the intellectual history. Here we situate Dieter Henrich and...
Legal theoretical and philosophical aspects of formal and material truth in judicial proceedings
Ondřejek, Pavel ; Gerloch, Aleš (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
Ve své práci se pokusím nastínit některé aspekty problematiky zjišťování skutkového stavu, konkrétně problematiku různého pojetí formální a materiální pravdy. Téma je to podle mého názoru aktuální, neboť v současném rychle se měnícím právním řádu České republiky se snaha po urychleném návratu mezi vyspělé právní kultury mnohdy nesetkala se stejným úsilím po teoretickém zdůvodnění té či oné právní úpravy. V zásadě stejný závěr lze učinit podle mého názoru o procesu sbližování českého práva s právem Evropské Unie. Otázkami pojetí formální a materiální pravdy se ve své judikatuře zabýval několikrát i český Ústavní soud, přičemž ne všechny jeho závěry lze bez kritických připomínek přijmout. Jako příklad uvedu nález Ústavního soudu v kauze navrácení zámku Opočno, kde základem odůvodnění ÚS bylo tvrzení, že česká právní úprava občanského soudního řízení neopouští ani ve sporném řízení tzv. zásadu materiální pravdy, jejíž dodržování je předpokladem pro dosažení účelu soudního řízení, totiž zajistit spravedlivou ochranu práv a oprávněných zájmů účastníků řízení.4 Pojetí formální a materiální pravdy s sebou nese přirozeně řadu filosofických aspektů. Samotný pojem pravdy je předmětem zkoumání filosofie, konkrétně filosofické disciplíny ontologie. Problematikou poznatelnosti se zabývá teorií poznání, nazývaná též...
The position of sharia within the legal systems of Arab states in the Near East
Lvová, Michala ; Maršálek, Pavel (advisor) ; Kühn, Zdeněk (referee)
The position of sharia within the legal systems of Arab states in the Near East The aim of the thesis is to produce a brief but coherent overview of the position of the Islamic law - sharia - within the contemporary legal systems of Arab states in the Near East. This particular part of the Arab and Islamic world was chosen primarily because of two reason: First, the necessary condition for a direct research of available sources is at least basic knowledge of the appropriate language - in this case, Arabic. This is also the reason why other states, which are historically and geographically part of the Near East, were excluded here, especially Turkey and Iran. Second: the Near East region was chosen as a complex part of the Arab world. States in the Northern Africa were excluded because their cultural position is different from that of the states in the Near East. The method chosen tu fulfil the purposes of this thesis was to first briefly summarise the contemporary state of the Czech literature specialised in the field of the Islamic law. The second chapter offers a short introduction in sharia, its origin, sources, schools of law, and basic branches and other concepts. The following three chapters deal each with one of the selected three Arabic states: Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Syria. In each of...

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1 Maršálek, Petr
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