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Theories of Judicial Decision-Making confronted the Functioning of Czech Courts
Blažková, Kristina ; Kysela, Jan (advisor) ; Wintr, Jan (referee) ; Šimíček, Vojtěch (referee)
Theories of Judicial Decision-Making confronted the Functioning of Czech Courts Abstract Judicial decision-making in hard cases is not a rationalisation which legitimates a choice made based on non-legal grounds, but a relatively predictable, determined and just process which draws legitimacy from the rationality of legal thinking and is significantly influenced by the judge's effort to make the best decision possible considering his conception of law and general training. Based on this proposition the dissertation thesis explores the effect of the judge's conception of law and his judicial function on his legal argumentation and his decision-making in hard cases. The main concept the thesis thus being the judicial philosophy. The dissertation thesis firstly analyses the concept theoretically and subsequently tests the theory on real judicial practice. The hypothesis is that judges of apex courts have different judicial philosophies and that their opposing views on grounds of law and their judicial function exhibits itself in their decision-making in hard cases. The disagreement between judges may be characterised as reasonable disagreement. In situations of reasonable disagreement, the opposing parties are incapable of reaching a compromise despite perfectly sound and grounded positions and mutual effort...
Position of the Senate in the Constitutional System of the Czech Republic
Fuksová, Veronika ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Koubek, Jiří (referee)
The bachelor thesis deals with the issue of the Senate's position as one of the chambers of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The basic question pervading the whole thesis is whether the Senate in the Czech Republic has legitimate position. This question is considered in several connotations, both in comparison with second chambers of other countries and their functions, and in terms of the position of the Czech Senate in its partial powers. The thesis is presented with a brief overview of the evolution of legislative bodies in the period from the First Republic to the early nineties when the formation of the current form of bicameral parliament took place. Other chapters focus on its subsequent development which is marked by the period when the Senate was not established and its functions ensured the Chamber of Deputies. Furthermore, the thesis is focused on issues related to constitutional and legal embodiment of the Senate, the question of the extent and effectiveness of the use of its powers and the thesis deals with critical views too. The conclusion summarizes the results that came from the analysis, answers the research question and determines the possible subsequent development. Key words: the Senate, the Parliament of the Czech republic, constitutional system, tradition, bicameralism, powers
The prohibition of the parties-theory and discourse
Chytil, Matěj ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Pithart, Petr (referee)
Banning Political Parties - Theory and Discourse The political regime change of the Velvet revolution in 1989 brought to light many questions, that the Czech politics and law had not to answer until then. Arguments about the legitimacy of the post-revoutionary Czech communist party marked the early years of the free competition of political parties. There being no precedent in the decision-making of Czech courts, the Supreme Administrative Court had to decide many substantial questions when dealing with the case of Dělnická strana (The Workers' Party) in 2010. Some of those were elaborated by the European Court of Human Rights, other were more of a political and philosophical nature. The history and experience of pre-war Czechoslovakia and dissolution of German national-socialist parties in 1933 also influenced the debate. The Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic changed in the decison of Dělnická strana the nature of Czech political discourse and brought it out of the post-communist context to the contemporary European level. Using the concept of self-defending or military democracy, that is also used by the ECHR, it created a shared framework of both Czech and European debate on the limits of political rights and freedoms of association. The concept will be contested in the future, but its...
Contemporary Social Contract Theories
Froněk, Martin ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Kysela, Jan (referee)
Contemporary Social Contract Theories The thesis is intended to be an introduction into contemporary social contract theories. John Rawls' book A Theory of Justice is a seminal work in this field. The thesis, however, does focus not only on the approach adopted by Rawls, but on the theories of other authors as well - that of J. Buchanan, D. Gauthier, T. Scanlon and R. Nozick. These remain quite unknown in the Czech context. The structure of the thesis should allow for a comparison between the respective theories as the author starts with the object of the social contract, proceeds to the parties of the contract and, finally, to its content. Special attention is devoted to the game theory which models some of the typical interpersonal interactions and, using its theoretical apparatus, can illustrate problems of social cooperation - the key theme of virtually all social contract theories. Eventually, the author tries to outline the way analytic philosophy views the social contract. In its eyes, the social contract is a necessary implication of the existence of language.
Moral arguments in consideration of courts when applying law
Šimek, Jiří ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
This thesis deals with relationship of law and morals from the perspective of a judge applying the law. It starts by defining morals as a normative system which determines what is good and what is bad. Bad morals are punished by social sanction. The relationship of content of morals and law can be described as an intersection. There are three possible relationships of the area of law and morals regarding their respective application: (i) area which should be regulated only by moral rules; (ii) area which should be regulated only by law; and (iii) common area for both normative systems. Morals can penetrate reasoning of a judge applying the law at least in three ways: Firstly, Legislator can order the judge to drag a moral norm into his consideration. Such an order is called boni mores (dobré mravy) in Czech legal system (used in Section 3 or Section 39 of Czech Civil Code). Secondly, the school of phenomenology hermeneutics claims that any interpretation, thus interpretation of law as well, is conditioned by existence of so called pre-structures. We cannot get rid of these structures, they create necessary interpretative frame of interpreting individual. Moral feelings or moral attitudes are parts of these pre-structures. Morals can project to the decision-making of judge knowingly or unknowingly through...
The extent of legal liability of the State for misconduct in the exercise of state powers
Patočka, Vojtěch ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
In the presented work I study the concept of liability of the State for misconduct in the exercise of state powers. The main aim is to show why this concept needs to be different from the one we know from civil law. The legal relationship between the State and an individual is a relationship that differs from the one we know from civil law, given that it is related to the exercise of power. Therefore we have to construct specific legal conditions in order to find the State liable for damages that an individual may suffer in such a relationship. In the first part I question the main function of the State's liability for damages. I show that it has good influence on the administrative bodies in the way that it forces them to follow the law. On the other hand this influence must not be overestimated. In the next part I study the basic elements and conditions of liability. I work with the domestic law as well as with the liability principles formed by the judicial decisions of the EU Court of Justice. I compare both these systems of liability for damages with regard to how they respond to the specific features of the relationship between a State and an individual. Final part of this work tries to explain why different branches of state power should be treated differently. I show on examples what kind...
Discrimination on grounds of sex and legal limits
Pukovcová, Kateřina ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Wintr, Jan (referee)
SEX DISCRIMINATION AND THE LIMITS OF LAW The thesis deals with sex discrimination from a theoretical point of view, it does not offer simple answers, but tries to bring proposals to improve current inconvenient estate of treatment of men and women, which can't be considered to be equal. Generally equality is one of the basic values in society, but it is difficult and is failed to fulfill this principle. The main reason is that people follow prejudices and can't get over them. Formal equality of men and women before the law was reached, but factual inequalities persist. That is why a special effort is justifiable and essential to enforce equal treatment. Level of achieved equality indicates progressivism of a country and standard of living generally. If, in case of women, more than half of a population is out of impact, sources and human dignity, democracy is not perfect and faultless. Therefore it is necessary to find and eradicate the latent barriers, change people's attitude and get the prejudices out of their minds. The thesis consists of four main chapters. First chapter concerns terms equality and discrimination and shows their uncertainty, describes various conceptions of equality and direct and indirect discrimination. Second chapter explains necessity of enforcement of equal treatment with men and...
Linguistic interpretation of a legal text in philosophical contexts
Švára, Ondřej ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
SUMMARY: Linguistic interpretation of a legal text in philosophical contexts Keywords: philosophy of law, interpretation of law, language interpretation The thesis deals in a broader sense of the word with interpretation of legal texts and in the strict sense of the word with language interpretation itself. At the beginning of my thesis I explain why this is so particularly topical and problematic issue in the contemporary law. The reason is mainly the fact that because of many changes and events the modern law is more complex and extensive than in the past. This naturally leads to the question how to interpret such law. The aim of the thesis was to compare the relationship of law and language in the context of analytical philosophy, which was one of the most influential intellectual movements of the 20th century. The language is a paradigm of many scientific theories nowadays and as such deserves more intention of lawyers. I focused mainly on the role of meaning of words used for interpretation. In particular, I discussed the issue whether a legal term can name a thing. The most important finding of my thesis is the following one: No, things can not be named by meaning of the individual expressions. To prove the theory the thesis also deals with some other philosophical issues. Chapter VIII, for...
The principle of social state in political theory and the case-law of the Constitutional Court
Kaloč, Otakar ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
1 Abstract The principle of the social state in political theory and the case-law of the Constitutional Court The topic of this work is the phenomenon of the welfare state, social rights and their judicial review performed by the Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic. The aim of this paper is to introduce the welfare state in terms of the theoretical, historical and practical implementation of its goals, whether it is a political reality or the decision making practice of the Constitutional Court, which in turn influences political environment. This work is based on theoretical works of political philosophy, findings of constitutional law and the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court. The thesis points out the different understanding of the social question in basic political theories such as liberalism, socialism or feminism. The historical part of this work comprises of the description of the development of social issues in countries such as the United Kingdom and the USA. It is evident that this was a long-term process beginning in the early seventeenth century and continuing to the period of its greatest expansion after World War II. This work also mentions some aspects of poverty. Another important part is the introduction to the theory of typologies of different "regimes" and types of welfare...
Values, legal consciousness and law
Moravec, Lukáš ; Wintr, Jan (advisor) ; Maršálek, Pavel (referee)
Values, legal consciousness and law This thesis deals with legal values and their importance for the decision making of legal subjects. First it introduces a general model of a world, which can be used for any world with consistent effects. From that it deduces what can be considered an individual person and how such individuals behave. Who we consider an individual is dependent on our subjective choice. While choosing a particular individual we can express their relationship to their environment with a certain attitude of thought. If mutually corresponding thought attitudes can be shared by different individuals in such a way that the conveyance of them would correspond to a certain thought of a different individual, we use the term institution. Institutions are not considered to be existing objectively, however they help us interpret objective facts. Institutions include natural and artificial persons, the state and the law. The state emerges in a power struggle, although under the influence of morality. Morality is a type of institution, which is created by an interaction among individuals and through a compromise between their aspirations. This thesis decides for a consequentialist approach to morality, while objections against consequentialism are either refuted or shown to be able to be...

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