Ústav fyzikální chemie J. Heyrovského

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2017-04-28
14:22
Photocatalytic active coatings-environmental way to improve quality and durability of buildings
Sázavská, T. ; Jakubičková, M. ; Jirkovský, Jaromír ; Šubrt, Jan ; Peterka, F.
Transparent coatings of TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite were developed to be applied on building facades in order to prevent growth of microorganisms and thus to improve urban building sustainability. Structure and texture characteristics of the prepared nanocomposites were determined by electron microscopy (SEM, TEM + EDS), their photocatalytic activity was quantified by testing self-cleaning ability and antimicrobial activity. The self-cleaning properties were evaluated according to the standard ISO method based on photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposite coatings were applied on various types of substrates commonly used in building industry. The antimicrobial activity was mainly investigated for algae because these microorganisms are often responsible for facades ageing. According to the laboratory tests the prepared TiO2-SiO2 nanocomposites are highly efficient. This fact was already proved by first applications in real conditions. The transparent SiO2-TiO2 nanocomposites represent an ecological and noninvasive way how to keep nice appearance of buildings for a long time. It is due to their permanent photocatalytic activity causing self-cleaning and algicidal effects. Such coatings may significantly reduce ageing processes on facades of buildings that are caused by microbiological pollution and smog exhalations.

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2017-02-15
15:49
Effect of substrate hydrophobicity on the electrocatalytic behaviour of phthalocyanine
Klusáčková, Monika ; Janda, Pavel ; Tarábková, Hana
In this work, the electrocatalytic activity of pyridinoporphyrazine mediator deposited on two substrates with different hydrophobicity has been presented. We focused on hydrophobic highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) as well as hydrophilic annealed gold electrode (Au111). The immobilization of mediator has been carried out spontaneous adsorption from aqueous solution on electrode surfaces. The different hydrophobicity surface resulted in change the electrocatalytic activities of mediator to hydrogen in aqueous solution. For this purpose, electrochemical, in situ spectroelectrochemical, and ex situ microscopically characterizations have been performed. The detailed comparison of surface morphology, surface coverage, surface roughness parameters, thickness of deposited layers of mediator, and pH solution has been studied.

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2017-02-15
15:49
Electrochemical determination of 2-nitrofluorene and investigation of its interaction with DNA
Skalová, Štěpánka ; Stávková, K. ; Barek, J. ; Vyskočil, V.
2-Nitrofluorene (2-NF) belongs to the group of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds are categorized as environmental pollutants and they can manifest mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. A differential pulse voltammetric method at a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for sensitive determination of 2-NF. Under the optimum conditions found, a linear calibration dependence was obtained in the concentration range of 2 x 10(-7) - 1 x 10(-5) mol L-1, with the limit of quantification of 2 x 10 mol L-1. The practical applicability of this method was verified on the direct determination of 2-NF in a model sample of sand. Moreover, the mutual interaction between 2-NF and DNA was investigated using an electrochemical DNA biosensor (DNA-modified GCE). Cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and square-wave voltammetry were employed in this study, confirming the formation of a 2-NF-DNA complex.\n

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2017-02-15
15:49
Voltammetric determination of homovanillic acid at boron doped diamond electrode for hollow fibre microextraction
Hrdlička, V. ; Barek, J. ; Navrátil, Tomáš
Presented work deals with hollow-fibre assisted liquid/liquid/liquid microextraction (HF-LPME) and subsequent voltammetric detection of clinical biomarker homovanillic acid (HVA). Three main areas are discussed: hollow fibre assisted extraction of HVA, voltammetric detection of HVA under basic conditions, and sensing in very small volumes. Using HF-PLME, HVA was extracted with 1-octanol as a supported liquid membrane with enrichment factor of 55 after 60 minutes of extraction. A novel method of miniaturized voltammetric determination of HVA using cathodically pretreated boron doped diamond electrode was also developed. Using differential pulse voltammetry, limit of detection, limit of quantificati was 1.9 mu mol dm(-3) on 6.6 mu mol dm(-3).

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2017-02-15
15:49
Poly(methylene blue) modified carbon based electrodes for the determination of sulfhydryl-containing compounds
Zlámalová, Magda ; Janda, Pavel ; Nesměrák, K.
This research presents the study of electrochemical polymerization of phenothiazine derivative, methylene blue (MB). Electrochemical pro perties and analytical application of resulting electrocatalytically active poly(methylene blue) (pMB) have been investigated. Three various carbon-based substrates: basal plane of highly oriented pyro lytic graphite (HOPG), pencil graphite electrode (PGE) and carbon fibre micro electrode (CFE) have been used. Aforementioned electrodes modified with the polymer (HOPG/pMB, PGE/pMB and CFE/pMB) have been prepared by potential cycling in aqueous electrolyte solution containing dissolved monomeric methylene blue. Electrocatalytic activity of three developed electrode systems towards hydrogen sulphide has been compared. Developed electrodes have been further investigated as potential sensors for sulfhydryl-containing compounds.

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2017-01-11
17:39
Experimental and Theoretical Comparative Study of Monolayer and Bulk MoS2 under Compression
del Corro, Elena ; Morales-García, A. ; Peňa-Alvarez, M. ; Kavan, Ladislav ; Kalbáč, Martin ; Frank, Otakar
Recently, a new family of 2D materials with exceptional optoelectronic properties has stormed into the scene of nanotechnology, the transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2). In contrast with graphene, which is a zero band gap semiconductor, many of the single layered materials from this family show a direct band-gap in the visible range. This band-gap can be tuned by several factors, including the thickness of the sample; the transition from a direct to indirect semiconductor state takes place in MoS2 when increasing the number of layers from 1 towards the bulk. Applying strain/stress has been revealed as another tool for promoting changes in the electronic structure of these materials; however, only a few experimental works exist for MoS2. In this work we present a comparative study of single layered and bulk MoS2 subjected to direct out-of-plane compression, using high pressure anvil cells and monitoring with non-resonant Raman spectroscopy; accompanying the results with theoretical DFT studies. In the case of monolayer MoS2 we observe transitions from direct to indirect band-gap semiconductor and to semimetal, analogous to the transitions observed under hydrostatic pressure, but promoted at more accessible pressure ranges (similar to 25 times lower pressure). For bulk MoS2, both regimes, hydrostatic and uniaxial, lead to the semimetallization at similar pressure values, around 30 GPa. Our calculations reveal different driving forces for the metallization in bulk and monolayer samples.

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2017-01-11
17:39
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PIB-BASED CVD GRAPHENE TRANSFER EFFICIENCY
Bouša, Milan ; Kalbáč, Martin ; Jirka, Ivan ; Kavan, Ladislav ; Frank, Otakar
The transfer of graphene prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from metal catalyst to target substrate is an important step in preparing desirable nanoscale structures in various fields of science, and thus searching for fast, cheap and clean method attracts great interest. Investigation of mechanical properties of graphene, which are crucial for applications in flexible electronics, performed on bendable synthetic materials, requires a transfer technique using polymers soluble in aliphatic solvents harmless for target polymer substrates. In this study we explore a dry technique using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as stamping polymer and polyisobutylene (PIB) layer as graphene-support polymer. After the transfer PDMS is peeled off and PIB is dissolved in hexane, hence this method fulfils the above mentioned prerequisite. The effectiveness of this transfer was examined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy including micro-mapping, and finally by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With all methods carried out, it was found that this sort of stamp-technique is suitable for a high precision transfer of small grains of CVD graphene onto polymer substrates with large yields and similar purity compared to poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)based transfer methods. However, it introduces substantial quantity of surface discontinuities, and therefore this is not a proper method for large scale applications.

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2017-01-11
17:39
Electrochemical Methods for Determination of Three Tumor Biomarkers for Neuroblastoma: Homovanillic Acid, Vanillylmandelic Acid, and 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid
Makrlíková, Anna ; Kteno, E. ; Fischer, J. ; Navrátil, Tomáš ; Vyskočil, V.
Tumor biomarkers – homovanillic acid, vanillylmandelic acid, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid – have been determined at a screen-printed carbon electrode in small volume samples. For all measurements, Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 moll−1, pH 3.0) was used as an optimum medium for all three analytes. Dependences of the peak current on the concentration were linear for all compounds, with the limits of quantification 0.8 μmol∙l–1 for homovanillic acid, 0.2 μmol∙l–1 for vanillylmandelic acid, and 0.2 μmol∙l–1 for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. Depending on the results of the measurements, the future experiments should be performed in human urine.

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2017-01-11
17:39
Voltammetric determination of cancer biomarker 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid at screen-printed carbon electrodes
Makrlíková, Anna ; Navrátil, Tomáš ; Barek, J. ; Vyskočil, V.
Tumor biomarker 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) is a breakdown product of serotonin; level of this neurotransmitter can predict carcinoid tumors. 5-HIAA has been determined at screen-printed carbpon electrodes in the iptimum medium found: Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol l-1, pH=3.0). Dependence of the peak current on the concentration of 5-HIAA was linear in the concentration region from 0.1 to 100 micromol l-1, with the limit of qiantification of 0.2 micromol l-1.

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2017-01-04
16:16
STRAIN ENGINEERING OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF 2D MATERIALS
del Corro, Elena ; Peňa-Alvarez, M. ; Morales-García, A. ; Bouša, Milan ; Řáhová, Jaroslava ; Kavan, Ladislav ; Kalbáč, Martin ; Frank, Otakar
The research on graphene has attracted much attention since its first successful preparation in 2004. It possesses many unique properties, such as an extreme stiffness and strength, high electron mobility, ballistic transport even at room temperature, superior thermal conductivity and many others. The affection for graphene was followed swiftly by a keen interest in other two dimensional materials like transition metal dichalcogenides. As has been predicted and in part proven experimentally, the electronic properties of these materials can be modified by various means. The most common ones include covalent or non-covalent chemistry, electrochemical, gate or atomic doping, or quantum confinement. None of these methods has proven universal enough in terms of the devices' characteristics or scalability. However, another approach is known mechanical strain/stress, but experiments in that direction are scarce, in spite of their high promises.\nThe primary challenge consists in the understanding of the mechanical properties of 2D materials and in the ability to quantify the lattice deformation. Several techniques can be then used to apply strain to the specimens and thus to induce changes in their electronic structure. We will review their basic concepts and some of the examples so far documented experimentally and/or theoretically.

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