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Proposal for the Reform of the Czech Electoral System in 2007-2009
Ruml, Jan ; Štefek, Martin (advisor) ; Znoj, Milan (referee)
This bachelor thesis is devoted to the topic of the attempt of reformation of the electoral system for the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic II. by the government of Mirek Topolánek in the years 2006 to 2009. The first part of this thesis mostly explains the theory of electoral systems and contains an introduction to the context of changes in the electoral system in the Czech Republic. The second part, which is in terms of content the most extensive, is the analysis of available periodical sources and professional works with the aim of mapping the motivations of political parties represented in the Chamber of Deputies to support/negate changes to the electoral system. The third part, which analyses the approach of the given actors to the Greek variant designed for changing the electoral system, is based on the second part of this bachelor's thesis. In the last part of this thesis, the Greek version is used to recalculate the results of the elections in 2010, in order to evaluate how real was the motivation for change. Throughout the work, the emphasis is primarily on the motivations, reasons and goals that the individual political parties expected from the reform or its negation.
Liberal Nationalism of Yael Tamir:Theory and Polemics
Zrůst, Zdeněk ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Barša, Pavel (referee)
This thesis deals with a theory of liberal nationalism, specifically its rendition presented by an Israeli author Yael Tamir. The set goal is to provide a detailed description of this specific interpretation using a theoretical framework provided by Michael Freeden. His definition of nationalism as a complementing rather than full-fledged ideology, as is the case with liberalism for example, provides an ideal framework for us to use when attempting to analyze the work of Tamir due to her trying to improve liberal theory by adding positive elements present in nationalism to it. After the full description of this form of liberal nationalism is made, the thesis then proceeds to introduce critics of said literary work, namely from critics such as Bernard Yack, Jamie Mayerfeld, or Liah Greenfeld, but also from the author herself, who had published a book dealing with similar topic 26 years after publishing the one this thesis focuses on. The goal is then to ascertain how the author's ideas changed during this time period. The thesis aims to give a descriptive account of a theory that seems to be an oxymoron at first glance, as liberalism and nationalism tend to be considered as opposites of a spectrum. Whether it is a theoretical approach that holds merit and could be helpful in our attempts to...
Hegel, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in the work Nationalism by D. Dontsov
Dovhoruk, Ivanna ; Barša, Pavel (advisor) ; Znoj, Milan (referee)
Title: Hegel, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche in the work Nationalism by D. Dontsov Author: Mgr. Ivanna Dovhoruk Department: The Department of Political Science Supervisor: prof. Dr. Pavel Barša, M.A., Ph.D.   Abstract This master thesis provides a political-philosophical inquiry of the treatise called ,,Nationalism" (Націоналізм; 1926) written by the ideologist of Ukrainian nationalism Dmytro Dontsov (Дмитро Донцов; 1883-1973), in which he conceptualizes his own theory of active nationalism (чинний націоналізм). Dontsov argues that the idea of a nation consists in the national will (воля нації), and introduces the concept of the will primarily with regard to the concepts of three German philosophers - G. W. F. Hegel (substantieller Wille), Arthur Schopenhauer (Wille zum Leben), and Friedrich Nietzsche (Wille zur Macht). In this inquiry we shall address the question of how Dmytro Dontsov worked philosophically with different notions of will of two different wings of German thought, and what conclusions can be drawn from the theory of nationalism, which is based on the philosophical concept. The first and second chapters are merely preparatory. The third chapter represents reading of Nationalism on the one hand, and the related works of Hegel, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche on the other. The fourth chapter shall be...
Friedrich August von Hayek on the Evolution of Liberal Rules
Doleček, Pavel ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Profant, Martin (referee) ; Hříbek, Tomáš (referee)
The present dissertation deals with the topic of the relationship between political and moral philosophy and the epistemological and methodological arguments of Friedrich August von Hayek. The aim of the dissertation is to defend in general the assertion that Hayek's philosophy is the application of epistemological and methodological positions to moral and political philosophy and that this application is implemented through the continuous process of defining the basic theoretical positions towards philosophical tradition. This general statement is elaborated on in several perspectives. The first perspective puts the concept of knowledge in the forefront, both in the sense of a certain concept of rationality, i.e. the nature of reason and human thinking, and also in the sense of defining the nature and limits of scientific inquiry. The latter follows the development of Hayek's thinking, pointing out the aspects of his philosophy, which are the elaboration of the theories of his predecessors in thought within the Austrian economic school or classical sociology. This perspective also shows that, at a certain stage of his thinking, Hayek considerably moves away from these predecessors, particularly in the context of grasping individualism. The third perspective shows the deeper roots of some of...
Rousseau and his Influence on the French Revolution
Pravda, Petr ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Šimsa, Martin (referee)
The "rigorózní" thesis focuses on the evaluation of Rousseau's legacy. It is based on the confrontation of two adverse pictures of his ideas. The first image sees Rousseau as a thinker who prepared with his original concepts fertile ground for diverse undemocratic regimes and ideologies. These always declare their allegiance to the loftiest ideals but only to perpetrate the biggest crimes and to deprive people of their liberty. The second image sees in Rousseau an uncompromising critic of social injustice who saw the only possibility for redemption in liberty and equality. In this case he was one of the most important thinkers who inspired people on the road to the victory of democracy and an author whose original ideas still keep to inspire and to fascinate. I argue in favor of the second picture. Rousseau's critique of the moral crisis is based on the disunity of modern social man. This disunity stems from the incessant conflict between our natural nature and the social state. Rousseau saw the only solution in the adaptation of the original nature to the new social state. This can be achieved only through an affective bond to a political whole. Just so can man keep his liberty which represents the basic value of his existence. In society it is no more a case of absolute freedom but of conscious obedience...
Hegel's Critique of Ideology
Korda, Tomáš ; Karásek, Jindřich (advisor) ; Znoj, Milan (referee)
This work explores the possibilities of Hegel's critique of liberalisms and Marxism. Firstly, I define the "Return to Hegel", or more precisely, the way how we should conceive of this return to Hegel in order to really return to him. In second part, this formal definition of return is given its content, i.e. Hegel's concept of state. This concept had been denied by the doctrine of liberalism as well as of Marxism and this denial, as I try to demonstrate, can be considered a theoretical cause of totalitarianism. Or, in other words, totalitarianism can be speculatively comprehended as the manifestation of this denial. Thus as long as we live in a post-totalitarian era, Hegel is our contemporary. The last part consists of an explication of Hegel's critique of understanding (Verstand). The main reason for this explication is that liberalism and Marxism are 'understanding'- theories of state, and because of that, they were not able to conceive of the state as an object of Reason (Vernunft) and therefore, they failed to recognize the state as rational in itself. The theoretical result of this analysis is that Hegel's critique of understanding can be grasped, so to speak, as a 'critique of ideology avant la lettre', if the concept of ideology is adequately redefined.
Memory as a political phenomenon. Reflections on the public debate about The Act on the Lawlessness of the Communist Regime
Rybář, Pavel ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Slačálek, Ondřej (referee)
This thesis aims to set a basic framework for "memories of communism" which come along with attempts on political construction of the past during post-1989 regime. Based on the example of public debate about "The Act on the Lawlessness of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It", we will attempt to reveal main resources of anti-communist rhetoric and symbols, and to clarify the role they played in forging political identities in the first half of the 1990s. While the introductory chapter explores concepts which allow us to conceptualize memory in the analysis of the political, other chapters are devoted to various interpretations of the past in the context of discussions of de- communization measures that belong to the category of "coming to terms with the past" (Lustration Act, The Act on the Lawlessness of the Communist Regime). Does Czech anti-communism result from those measures adopted between 1991 and 1993, or does their adoption seek to reduce the plurality of politics of memory? Are attempts to label the previous regime as criminal the exclusive form of anti-communism, or does anti-communism amount to a combination of moral, legal and political arguments that seek to criminalize the previous social and legal order? By analysing different types of utterances we will attempt to...
The Civic forum in the process of creation of Czech party system
Bureš, Jan ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Dvořáková, Vladimíra (referee) ; Vaněk, Miroslav (referee)
The Abstract This thesis deals with the process of creation, development and the downfall of the Civic Forum. This process is herewith included to the wider frame of the process of formation of the Czech party system. The Civic Forum represented not only one of the main actor of political development in the first year of transformation, but also the base of creation of some important political parties and movements in the 1990. This thesis is time allowanced by the November 17th, 1989 on one side, and by the end of February, 1991, when the Civic Forum is divided, on the other side. In the first chapter the author deals with the development of Czechoslovak communist regime and the opposition in the years 1987-1989. He follows the change of international political situation of Czechoslovak regime in context of changes in the soviet bloc in the consequence of political and economical reforms in the USSR. The second and most large chapter of this thesis deals with the foundation of Civic Forum and the process of negotiations between representatives of Civic Forum and communist government in November and December of 1989. The author analyse the functional mechanisms of Civic Forum in first two months, its main strategies and the changes of these strategies, the modes of the communication of Civic Forum with the...
The presumption of guilt regarding top politicians as a political phenomenon
Frankeová, Anna ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Hesová, Zora (referee)
This thesis is divided into two parts. The first part is the theoretical one. In this theoretical part I am describing the theory of speech acts by the authors J. L. Austin and J. R. Searle. These theories are key elements for the understanding of the main methodology written by the author Q. Skinner, that is used in this thesis later on. In the theoretical part I also define the presumption of innocence which is a commonly used term in law. The reason for this is that the presumption of guilt is based on the presumption of innocence. The other half is the practical part of my thesis. I am analyzing three real cases out of our recent political history. The first one is the evolution of the concept of presumption of guilt in the political career of Miloš Zeman, who introduced us to this term. I will also be looking at two very well know political cases of Stanislav Gross and Andrej Babiš. In the end I will either confirm or refute the hypothesis. Key words: Presumption of innocence, presumption of guilt, theory of speech acts, the performative role of language, legal state, democratic values
Normative implications of legitimizing lobbying: cases of the Czech Republic and France
Vargovčíková, Jana ; Znoj, Milan (advisor) ; Slačálek, Ondřej (referee)
How is the political practice of lobbying being legitimized and what can these ways of legitimization tell us about how the conception of democratic legitimacy is changing? In particular, this work tries to demonstrate and analyse the double nature of the ways in which lobbying is being legitimized on the example of public debates on lobbying regulation in the Czech Republic and France: on the one hand, the use of discourses of participation of civil society, proximity, and stakeholder involvement shows that discourses of democratization of policy processes and decision-making processes have strong relevance in contemporary public debate in both countries studied. On the other hand, connecting these discourses to the practice of lobbying in turn reshapes the meaning of participation, stakeholder involvement and proximity in a way that puts limits to the understanding of these discourses of democratization

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