National Repository of Grey Literature 63 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Analytical Rumination Hypothesis Testing: Depression as a Functional Adaptation.
Ševčíková, Marcela ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Bob, Petr (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
Next to the traditional medical concept of depression, there is an expert opinion suggesting that depression is a functional adaptation to adversity. In the theoretical part of the thesis, we present the adaptive hypothesis of depression, the Analytical-Rumination Hypothesis (ARH). According to ARH, depression has evolved as an adaptive response to the complex problems. Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, social isolation, and psychomotor retardation, may help individuals to undisturbedly analyze their personal problems in a process called analytical rumination. The limited ability to focus on an external problem, e.g. on neuropsychological tests, is a by-product of analytical rumination. The aim of the dissertation thesis is to test the ARH. In the practical part, we present five studies using both quantitative and qualitative approaches, cross-sectional and longitudinal design, and samples with different statuses (clinical and non-clinical). The results of Study 1 confirm that depression is a response to a complex problem. Using a qualitative methodology, Study 2 examined the form of rumination and detected the presence of adaptive rumination in depressed individuals (causal analysis, analysis of the aspects of the problem and problem-solving analysis). The results of cross-sectional Study 3...
An Understanding of Transgenerational Transmission in a Family from a Perspective of Middle-Aged Individuals
Tanzerová, Adéla ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Viktorová, Ida (referee)
This rigorous thesis focusses on transgenerational transmission and the repeated themes of family memory from the perspective of middle-aged individuals. It is based on the master's thesis called Posttraumatic stress and growth in holocaust survivors and their families. Firstly, the theoretical part defines the terms 'stress', 'trauma' and 'posttraumatic growth'. Afterwards, attention is brought to the historical perspective on traumatic events of the 20th century which deeply affected the lives of respondents (the Second World War, the period of communism) and the topic of transgenerational transmission in the family narrative. The empirical component of the thesis is based on quantitative and qualitative research. The first part is dedicated to the mapping of specific aspects of posttraumatic stress and growth in Holocaust survivors and their offspring (N = 150, data collected by CEITEC). In accordance with other studies, the thesis concludes that Holocaust survivors and their offspring have higher levels of posttraumatic stress and growth and that linear dependence exists between these two phenomena. By contrast, the qualitative research (N = 21) was focused on the transgenerational transmission in the family memory: namely the topics of family roles and functioning as well as subjects such as...
Integrity measure - test of answers' consistency
Salzerová, Aneta ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Lukavská, Kateřina (referee)
The thesis addresses response consistency in questionaries, the concept of integrity and use of integrity tests. Next chapter deals with consistency and describes possible sources of response variability and scales which is used for consistency measurement. The third chapter addresses response distortion and methods of its measurement. Last part describes cognitive functions which could affect answering a questionary and introduces a relation between psychopathological symptoms and questionary responses. The empirical part of the thesis studies response consistency in each category and relation between integrity test in work environment, consistency and demographic data of respondents. Difference between a number of identical answers about social desirability and about neutral information showed statistical significance. Therefore, hypotheses about the highest consistency in neutral information was supported. The thesis also revealed that a higher score in interference relates to a higher score of consistency. Finally, two correlations were found out. First was a positive correlation between integrity and number of years respondents have worked, second was a negative correlation between interference and age. Keywords: integrity, social desirability, consistency, validity, counterproductive behaviour
Expressive writing as a therapeutic method
Beránková, Justýna ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Juríčková, Veronika (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to introduce expressive writing, whose therapeutic potential was discovered in the 1980s by James W. Pennebaker, and explore the method closely in our own qualitative research. Presented thesis describes the origin, the process and the effects of expressive writing on various aspects of life, the conditions under which has the method the best therapeutic effect are discussed, and several variants of the intervention are also presented. The theoretical part is concluded with theories of functioning of expressive writing. The empirical part of the thesis is dedicated to the qualitative data analysis - nineteen university students were writing expressively into online forms in their natural environment for twenty minutes for four consecutive days according to instructions. The qualitative analysis deals with the content, thus the thematic analysis, as well as with the form of the collected writings. The students' common topics were especially relationships, university studies, and lack of free time. The participants often dealt with their own personality, somatic, mental and spiritual issues, and their solitude. The analysis distinguished five basic forms of writing and a couple of sub-tools. The main categories are finally viewed through the time perspective. In conclusion,...
Czech version of the Personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5): Theoretical background, psychometric properties and implications for clinical practice.
Riegel, Karel Dobroslav ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Vevera, Jan (referee) ; Praško Pavlov, Ján (referee)
2 ABSTRACT In the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD), the diagnosis of specific personality disorders is obtained through an evaluation of the level of impairment in personality functioning and an assessment of dimensional personality traits associated in 25 "lower order" facets and 5 "higher order" domains. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed for examination of personality traits within this system. This Ph.D. thesis covers five relevant publications regarding AMPD, particularly PID-5. First, the authors introduce the theoretical background of the PID-5. Attention is paid on its ease of use, data interpretation and use of these data for treatment planning in different clinical settings. Two empirical studies test PID-5 psychometric properties (internal consistency, validity, discrimination capacity and unidimensional structure) in the sample of community volunteers (n=351) and a clinical sample of psychiatric patients (n=143). PID-5 was administered individually and in a group setting using pen-paper method and online data collection. 33 respondents completed the inventory twice to check test-retest reliability. Authors presumed, evidence will be found to support internal consistency and convergent validity of the PID-5 personality trait domains, as well as their...
Strategies used to solve working memory tasks
Afanasyeva, Krystsina ; Páchová, Anna (advisor) ; Preiss, Marek (referee)
Working memory training is a very popular subject in nowadays literature, but processes that underlie the process of task solving have not been researched much. The aim of this work is to find strategies that are used when solving n-back tasks, and to find out the influence of modality and level of abstraction on the performance and choice of strategies. For these purposes the training program NBack Campaign was chosen. In this study participated 23 children from 12 to 14 years old, because children of this age have not been researched much. The participants were presented with visual and auditory tasks with different levels of abstraction. With some of the participants were conducted semistructured interviews. Statistical analysis showed the modality effect on performance. The effect of the level of abstraction on performance was shown only in visual tasks. Furthermore, the strategies that corresponded with modality and level of abstraction were identified. KEYWORDS N-back, strategies, modality, abstraction, working memory training
Personality psychopathology measured by alternative model of DSM-V
Barcaj, Martina ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Juríčková, Veronika (referee)
The DSM-5 Alternative Personality Disorder Model includes Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) that assess 25 specific personality traits in 5 domains. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the method and its clinical benefits, especially by comparing it with the IPDE structured interview method on a sample of N = 29 psychiatric patients. Quantitative analysis of the results of both methods revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the IPDE dimensional scores and the individual PID-5 traits of corresponding disorders. For disorders equally defined by both approach, the IPDE dimensional scores and PID-5 individual traits correlated by majority. Due to the overall low prevalence of undisputed personality disorder diagnosis in the sample, a qualitative analysis of 11 selected cases was performed. This analysis revealed the overlapping of the personality traits derived from both methods in 10 of these 11 cases. The methods differ in the assignment of a specific personality disorder as a diagnosis, but this is due in particular to a different theoretical definition of the methods. Overall, the PID-5 method has been evaluated as clinically beneficial, with a promising future and wide use in clinical practice. KEYWORDS Personality disorders, diagnostics, PID-5, IPDE
Posttraumatic stress and growth in holocaust survivors and their families
Tanzerová, Adéla ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Juríčková, Veronika (referee)
This master's thesis focusses on long-term effects of the Holocaust on the generation of survivors as well as on their offspring. Firstly, the theoretical part defines the terms 'stress' and 'trauma'. This is followed by an outline of possible reactions to severely stressful situations as well as questionnaires that can be used to measure the levels of traumatization. Afterwards, attention is focused on the phenomenon of posttraumatic growth, mainly based on the perspectives of L. G. Calhoun and R. G. Tedeschi who identify five domains of growth. The possibility of facilitating posttraumatic growth is briefly mentioned alongside with one inventory that can be used to measure the extent of positive change following traumatic experiences. Furthermore, the complexity of the Holocaust is discussed and generations of the Holocaust survivors and their offspring are characterised. In conclusion, attention is drawn to the studies that are concerned with the transgenerational transmission of trauma. The empirical component of the thesis is dedicated to the mapping of specific aspects of posttraumatic stress and growth in Holocaust survivors and their offspring. This data was collected by using a PTSD CheckList (PCL-C) and a Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), and afterwards was processed by quantitative...
Integrity and social desirability in psychiatric in-patients
Minarčíková, Nikola ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Juríčková, Veronika (referee)
This thesis deals with two constructs - social desirability and integrity. The main aim of this thesis is to create an interview which will allow to distinguish people by their level of integrity and their tendency to respond in a socially desirable manner. The interview can serve as a face-to-face variant of questionnaire methods. Theoretical foundations of both social desirability as well as integrity are presented in the theoretical part of the thesis. Complexity of both constructs is considered. Therefore, approaches of various authors are presented. Methods for assessing socially desirable responding in self- reports as well as integrity are also presented as part of the theoretical section of this thesis. The effects of social desirability on integrity assessment is discussed, as well. In the empirical part of the thesis the development of the semi-structured interview is described. The interview was developed based on original Czech test battery focusing on personal integrity at the workplace. Specifically, questionnaire Integrita v pracovním a běžném životě alongside with questionnaire assessing social desirability was used. The semi-structured interview contains a total of eight questions. Each question includes short story, and the respondent is asked to judge his / her behavior in this...
Influence of social desirability on integrity meausre
Křížová, Lucie ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Juríčková, Veronika (referee)
In this theses I am concerned with social desirability and its influence on integrity measure. The theoretical part defines key terms such as social desirability and socially desirable responding. It deals with methods that can be used for social desirability measuring. The end of this part goes through faking behaviour associated with responding to psychology questionnaires. The aim of my effort is to find out to what extent social desirability affects responding to the 'Integrity questionnaire in the work environment' which was developed by National Institute of Mental Health (NÚDZ). For this purpose, an experiment was performed in which the questionnaires were presented to the respondents (N = 100) in three different scenarios that varied in the simulation rate. Groups and subsequent assignment of a specific scenario were created randomly. Results of groups with different scenarios were compared. Based on this, it was verified that social desirability had an impact on integrity measurement if used 'Integrity questionnaire in the work environment'. KEYWORDS social desirability, response distortion, faking, testing, integrity

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