National Repository of Grey Literature 18 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Language and Memory in Hegel's Conception of History
Formanová, Josefina ; Karásek, Jindřich (advisor) ; Matějčková, Tereza (referee)
This work aims, in a rather contemplative manner phased into three related parts, to discuss two concepts indispensable for Hegel's entire philosophy of life and history: language and memory. In Part I, I examine the triple relation between language and thinking, thinking and reality, and reality and language. I argue that language shares a logical structure with thinking and reality, and is itself the performative principle (or acteur) of creating reality, being itself the externalizing tool of the movement of thinking without which any development of the Spirit would not be possible. Part II targets the concept of memory and its function within thinking and action of self-consciousness. It is argued that Hegel's language functions as the modern concept of discourse in terms of its agency in reality. Memory is understood as fundamentally entangled with matter, or the material objectivity that calls in memory to be named, i.e. posited in language. Memory is an interiorizing principle, language is the exteriorizing principle, both deeply rooted in the so-called night of the self of each spirit. I also discuss the subject-objective relation against the background of memory, before moving onto Part III which generally tackles the process of the self-expression of the Spirit in history, the distinction...
Language and Memory in Hegel's Conception of History
Formanová, Josefina ; Karásek, Jindřich (advisor) ; Matějčková, Tereza (referee)
This work aims, in a rather contemplative manner phased into three related parts, to discuss two concepts indispensable for Hegel's entire philosophy of life and history: language and memory. In Part I, I examine the triple relation between language and thinking, thinking and reality, and reality and language. I argue that language shares a logical structure with thinking and reality, and is itself the performative principle (or acteur) of creating reality, being itself the externalizing tool of the movement of thinking without which any development of the Spirit would not be possible. Part II targets the concept of memory and its function within thinking and action of self-consciousness. It is argued that Hegel's language functions as the modern concept of discourse in terms of its agency in reality. Memory is understood as fundamentally entangled with matter, or the material objectivity that calls in memory to be named, i.e. posited in language. Memory is an interiorizing principle, language is the exteriorizing principle, both deeply rooted in the so-called night of the self of each spirit. I also discuss the subject-objective relation against the background of memory, before moving onto Part III which generally tackles the process of the self-expression of the Spirit in history, the distinction...
Berdyaev's Philosophy of Hope
Múčka, Jakub ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Noble, Ivana (referee)
The Christian concept of hope is often criticised for the asceticism, renouncement, and passiveness in expecting the arrival of God's kingdom in "future time". On the contrary, the eschatology of Nikolai Berdyaev in Christian philosophy speaks about the necessary transformation of the world by the human itself, determining the arrival of God's kingdom. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the concept of hope related to the world, which is currently estranged and objectified. This approach is further looked upon in the context of similarly eschatologically-orientated Ernst Bloch's Philosophy of hope, Jürgen Moltmann's Theology of hope, and Johann Baptist Metz's Political theology. The thesis aims to evaluate the extent of the transferability of Berdyaev's thinking into current debates about the Christian philosophy of hope. Keywords: Christian philosophy, Personalism, Philosophy of hope, Philosophy of history, Christian eschatology, Political theology
The Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams
Haikl Koukal, Šimon ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to explore Bernard Williams' moral philosophy in its entirety. This objective is motivated by the critique which is sometimes being forced against Williams. This criticism is based on the objection that his thinking is thoroughly destructive in relation to philosophical ethics. The purpose to explore Williams' thinking in its entirety implicitly questions such an objection for it basically consists in the identification of the constructive moments of Williams' thinking and linking them with his skeptical attitudes. Accordingly, the project of this thesis is to show how Williams' attack on morality and moral system is being completed in notions of shame, truthfulness, and authenticity, which he develops in his late work and which delineate the alternative conception of ethics and ethical life to prevailing legalistic model.
Evil and its Remedy in the Thought of Rousseau
Stejskalová, Simona ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Jirsa, Jakub (referee)
This paper is focused on the problem of evil in the thought of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau deviates from traditional approach to evil by an assumption that human nature is good. In his conception, moral evil is neither the consequence of turning away from God, nor a deliberate action of a man. As Rousseau belongs to the authors who assume that understading of evil enables us to overcome it, in my paper I inquire into two aspects of the problem - the origin of evil and its remedy. Firstly, the origin of evil is examined by Rousseau's investigation into alienated human nature in the society as the result of historical process. In this process a significant role is played by new passion born in society, self-love. Secondly, my goal is to explain his solution to the problem of evil as we can find it in his political and educational works. Rousseau neither condemn humanity, nor he seeks the redemption in grace. He allocates resposibility for evil's remedy to humans. I am therefore interested in the conditions which can faciliate this remedy. The development of Rousseau's responses to the problem of evil finally serves to show his solution to the problem of teodicy. Keywords Jean-Jacques Rousseau Evil Self-love General Will Theodicy
Johannes Climacus: Truth between lunacy and sanity
Melzmuf, Jiří ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Němec, Václav (referee)
The main aim of this thesis is an analysis of the concept of subjective and objective truth in the works of Søren Kierkegaard published under the pseudonym Johannes Climacus. In the course of the analysis, the author shows that an appropriate understanding of the concept of truth is conditioned on the explanation of the structure of existence as a contrasting synthesis. Further, the authors focuses in his analysis on the manner in which this concept of existence eliminates the possibility of the system of being. As to this, Kierkegaard finds an objective inquiry incapable of providing resolutions of essential human problems; thus he turns his focus toward a subjective approach. Subjectivity pertains to human existence and in the form of belief is capable of overcoming doubt rooted in infinite objective reflection. In conclusion, the author investigates Kierkegaardʼs emphasis on the importance of subjective truth which he contrasts with the absence of subjectivity, relating this absence to inhumanity and lunacy.
Scientific Categories and Classification of People: Historical analysis as a methodological tool for the philosophy of human sciences?
Smiešková, Kornélia ; Maršálek, Jan (advisor) ; Matějčková, Tereza (referee)
(in English): The aim of the work is to reconstruct and interpret the method of historicized analysis and its employment to examine the phenomenon of "making up people". The concept is Hacking's description for the impact scientific classifications can have on classified people. The point of departure for the examination in the work is the thesis that historicized analysis employs the elements of philosophical conceptual analysis together with historical tools philosophy of science corroborates and whose strategies are often in opposition to the analytical tradition. As a follow-up of the main thesis the work also examines whether the historicized analysis can be understood as a history of the present. Moreover, it asks questions that come up in connection with the project of "making up people" such as: "What are the conditions for a scientific category to emerge? When categories emerge do new kinds of people emerge as well? What is the specific structure that enables the mutual interaction and effect scientific categories and classified people make? One of the aims will therefore be to elucidate to what extend the historicized analysis is able to answer those questions. Last but not least the work looks into the critical implications and usefulness of the method of historicized analysis.
Radical Paganism: Contemporary Heathens in Search of Political Identity
Miechová, Martina ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Kozák, Jan (referee)
This paper aims to examine the development of political thinking of Heathenry and the factors that determine the political identity of particular heathen groups, namely their tendency to right-wing radicalism. The first chapter (after introduction) consists of four case studies; each one represents a different type of group in regard to where and under which circumstances they emerged, to the context that has been shaping their religious and political beliefs, and to the way they legitimize their possible political activism. The following two chapters analyze the historical influences that marked the difference in the ideological development of the two main types of Heathenry, Ásatrú and Odinism, in two distinct cultural milieus - Europe and the US. The final chapter is a synthesis of the case studies in relation to their historical background. The outcome of this synthesis offers a possible interpretation of the process of radicalization of the heathen groups. KEY WORDS: New religious movements, Germanic neopaganism, religious racism, political religion, nationalism, extremism, Asatru, Odinism
Rainer Forst's Theory of Tolerance
Sklenář, Václav ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Karásek, Jindřich (referee)
The goal of the presented thesis is to expound and evaluate Rainer Forst's theory of toleration, counting among the most discussed themes in contemporary political theory and practice. A critical reception of the manner in which a leading contemporary political thinker systematically treats this theme will provide us with historical, systematic, and normative orientation in the structure of this complex problematic. The exposition follows Forst's historical analyses explaining the development of the concept and different conceptions of toleration and at the same time supply normative evaluations of individual developmental tendencies. The thesis subsequently focuses on the purely systematic part of Forst's work, i.e. on his own theory of toleration, and situates Forst's contribution in the wider frame of his constructivist theory of justice. The thesis closes with a critical evaluation of Forst's theory. Here, systematic deficiencies of his conception will be uncovered, deficiencies that point towards deeper problems of liberalism and constructivism.
The Concept of Freedom in Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism
Gaidarus, Tomáš ; Matějčková, Tereza (advisor) ; Karásek, Jindřich (referee)
Freedom is often associated with F. W. J. Schelling's mature philosophy, especially with his Philosophical Inquiries into the Essence of Human Freedom. The focus of this thesis is, on the contrary, to locate the concept of freedom in his juvenile work, The System of Transcendetnal Idealism. First, we shall present the position of transcendental idealism in the question of the possibility of knowledge. Then we will show, how it comes about, that the absolute I becomes individual conscioussness, and we will finish by presenting the concept of freedom in the context of Schelling's practical philosophy.

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