National Repository of Grey Literature 79 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Mustelid carnivores of Central Europe in the Quaternary fossil record
Vencová, Barbora ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Kyselý, René (referee)
The present paper reports results of detailed examination of fossil record of mustelid carnivores deposited in the collections of Faculty of Science, Charles University and National Museum Prague. In total 414 items were analyzed coming from 136 Quaternary and Pliocene community samples (6 MN51-17, 8 Q1, 10 Q2, 2 Q3, 104 Q4) of diverse sites in Czech Republic and Slovakia. Results of detailed biometrical analysis compared with corresponding data obtained in a set of extant taxa (204 ind. 8 spp.) and extensive literary resources revealed presence of 16 taxa (9 extant, 7 fossil). Larger samples enabling a more detailed analysis were available for the genus Martes, and in particular for a groups of Mustela nivalis - M.erminea which composed 77% of all fossil records. The earliest items (MN15-MN17) co-identified with M.pliocaenica conform well to expected common ancestor of both extant species. Yet, also those from the Early Pleistocene (MN17-Q2: M.praenivalis, M.plioerminea) show certain differences, which suggest that phenotype morphocline establishing extant populations established only during the Middle Pleistocene (Q3). A particularly rich sample available from the present glacial cycle (mostly continuous Vistulian - Holocene sequences) revealed unexpected predominance of the glacial records...
Nectogalini shrews in Central Europe: fossil record, taxonomy, range dynamics.
Pažitková, Barbora ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Farková, Lucie (referee)
History of shrew clades composing the tribe Nectogalini (including the European genus Neomys) is only poorly comprehended, both due to fragmentarity of their fossil record and incompatibility of the discrimination criteria applied in extant taxa with actual character availability in fossil material. Thus, the presented study started with a thorough biometric reexamination of extant taxa (144 ind. of N. fodiens and N. milleri, 45 ind. ofAsiatic forms) with aid of 217 metric variables and establishing a series of discrimination criteria applicable to fragmentary fossil record. Using it, I analyzed 112 fossil items available from MN15 to Q4 sites of Czech Republic and Slovakia. A rich sample from the present glacial cycle (MIS 5b to Recent) demonstrated that both N. fodiens and N. milleri colonized the region of Central Europe either in earlier stages of Vistulian glacial, in early post-LGM glacial and throughout whole Holocene (though their distribution patterns were perhaps mostly mosaic in both species). The items from the late Biharian (Q2) and the earliest Middle Pleistocene (Q3) were found to represent a single clade characterized by relatively broad phenotype variation. This form, belonging clearly to the genus Neomys, was coidentified with Neomys newtoni Hinton, 1911. The pattern of its...
2TDK Railway, profile P18. Datings. Final Report.
Bosák, Pavel ; Zupan Hajna, N. ; Hercman, H. ; Horáček, I. ; Kdýr, Šimon ; Kogovšek, B.
Samples for datings were taken in the railway construction (2TDK) near village of Divača, Classical Karst on October 12, 2021: (1) vertebrate bones in cave 2TDK – 002 at the profile P18, cave entrance appeared during the construction operations on cleaned karst surface in a wall of karst depression. Samples of mammal bones and gastropods were collected in situ on cave bottom, and (2) pieces of speleothems occurring in non in situ position on artificially planated surface near the cave opening were collected. U-series: no numerical date was obtained as geochemistry of sample indicate open system, probably due to recrystallization of sample in soil cover. Paleomagnetism: The transition of N- and R-polarized samples cannot be identified more precisely as U-series radiometric dating yielded no numerical results. The transition easily can represent Brunhes/Matuyama boundary (at 773 ka) as well as any of older such transitions (e. g., base of Jaramillo, base of Olduvai). In any case the speleothem grew in a closed cave space with roof, probably as flowstone (inclusion of red soils above the base) and later as baldachin on eroded allogenic fill of the paleocave. Vertebrate paleontology: bone remains of small and larger vertebrates represent subrecent to Holocene species. Sorex alpinus represents the species quite rare in fossil record, but recetly limited to variegated woodland habitats with high surface humidity. A chamois Rupicapra rupicapra represents a resident species present in Slovenia throughout all stages of a glacial cycle, recently restricted to mountain habitats.
Relationship between recent and Holocene mollusc fauna diversity of the Veľká Fatra Mts.
Kubíková, Kateřina ; Juřičková, Lucie (advisor) ; Horáček, Ivan (referee)
Quaternary molluscs assemblages are one of the most important sources of information used for palaeoecology and biogeography reconstructions, yet little attention has been paid to the informative value of quaternary profiles on a landscape spatial scale. In the area of Velka Fatra Mts., a large number of existing records concerning both recent and quaternary land snails enable us to compare Holocene and recent species diversity to estimate how many profiles are needed to evaluate species richness of such geomorphologically diverse area. In this study, available data are supplemented with samples from additional recent sites and quantitative analysis of material from quaternary profiles Stankovany and Skamenelá skala. In recent sites, 129 species of terrestrial molluscs were recorded (more than 72 % of land snail species occurring in Slovakia). Samples from all seven Holocene profiles yielded 93 species, covering more than 85 % of recent land snails diversity. On the other hand, only about 50 % of recent land snail species were recorded in a single profile, thus highlighting the importance of multiple profiles evaluation in palaeoecological studies.
Bats of the genus Plecotus in the fossil record of central and SE Europe.
Balážová, Alena ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Hanák, Vladimír (referee)
In this thesis a review and detailed morphometric analysis of fossil material of genus Plecotus Geoffroy, 1818 (Microchiroptera) from central Europe from miocene till recent was done. Both metric and phenetic features of skull ant teeth were compared with recent european species of this genus. The most detailed attention was focused on fossil species Plecotus abeli Wettstein-Westersheim 1923, which is most likely only an extreme phenotypic variety of Plecotus auritus group. Fossil record from Karlukovo (Bulgaria) was studied too. The first record of Plecotus macrobullaris Kuzjakin, 1965 was found there.
Lachrymal secretion in tenrecs: physiological, behavioral and phylogenetic contexts (Tenrecinae, Afrosoricida)
Bálek, Jiří ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Sedláček, František (referee)
The secretion of white liquid around the eyes and nose with a spiny tenrecs Echinops telfairi and Setifer setosus mentions for the first time Poduschka in 1974, but until now this phenomenon in these species no one paid any detail. Similar secretion was described in Mountain beaver or by shrews. The impetus for shedding the excitement caused by the presence of an individual female or another male or its odor. Males secretions also used for marking territory. A total of 70 samples of eye secretions from ten male Echinops telfairi during the entire active season (from March to October) have been collected within this study. For protein detection method was used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) and subsequent identification by mass spectrometry. An autopsy of the eye area was performed for representatives of all four genera of the subfamily Tenrecinae (Tenrec, Setifer, Echinops, Hemicentetes), died in Pilsen Zoo. It was found that a) species of pinholes that produce ocular secretions are significantly higher tear and Harder's gland, b) secretions contain lipocalins - proteins with the ability to transmit pheromones and other hydrophobic molecules, c) secretions of the orbital region having a different composition than the secretions from the nasal area (significantly lower protein...
Enamel cover of the mammalian teeth: structural, functional, developmental and phylogenetic aspects.
Hanousková, Pavla ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Němec, Pavel (referee)
Specificities of the mammalian teeth and their enamel coat with particular re- spect to the autapomorphies establishing the mammalian organization. Basic structural and organizational levels of the enamel histology (nanocrystals, elementary crystallites, prismatic enamel, IPM, schmelzmuster, ultimate characteristics of particular dentitions). Basic survey of comparative data: characterization of enamel of mammals in particular clades and a brief summary of their specificities. Concluding remarks on current state of knowledge and per- spectives of further study. 1
Stable isotopes in study of diet in Ursidae, including fossil taxa.
Marková, Aneta ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Čermák, Stanislav (referee)
Composition of food of members of the family Ursidae is often discussed topic. Up to now, however, there is some uncertainty about the trophic level of some fossil groups. Very useful method which helps us to determine the trophic level of the fossil species and determine the relative proportion of plant and animal components in the recent ones is the analysis of the stable isotopes. This study summarizes present state of methodological approaches and possibilities of use of the stable isotopes 13 C and 15 N in the study of foraging ecology of bears. The results of the analysis of stable isotopes are presented together with results obtained by other methods. Attention is paid to groups for which the relevant isotopic data are available, with special emphasis on the cave bear, which trophic level is evaluated on the basis of stable isotopes analysis as well as in the evolutionary and nutrition context.

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