National Repository of Grey Literature 109 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Influence of commercial probiotic preparations on human intestinal microbiome composition
Balatka, Štěpán ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Osičková, Adriana (referee)
The intestinal microflora is an extensive ecosystem of microorganisms that consists of symbiotic and pathogenic species. The microflora is responsible for many important functions in the human body. An unquestionable function is that it affects the health state of the host. The higher the biodiversity, the greater the benefit for the host. However, it is necessary to point out that this should not include a high diversity of pathogenic bacterial species. There are many "beneficial" species, especially from the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus families. In recent decades, the popularity of supplementing these "beneficial" species with various supplementary diets (e.g. probiotics) has been growing a lot. The presented diploma thesis deals with pilot studies of liquid commercial probiotic preparations from American companies Ascended Health (not available on the Czech market) and their effects on the human microbiome. The study involved 9 volunteers who provided 70 fecal samples before, during, and after use of the studied products. Two methods were used to determine the biodiversity of intestinal bacterial species. Both are based on the identification by bacterial DNA that encodes gene 16S rRNA. The first method uses PCR-DGGE technique and then identification by Sanger sequencing. The second method...
Flow cytometry in the diagnostics and characterization of congenital disorders of glycosylation
Veselá, Šárka ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Hodek, Petr (referee)
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare multisystem metabolic diseases and their number has rapidly grown in recent years. The clinical manifestation includes very broad spectrum of symptoms. In most of all cases CDG are caused by mutations in genes encoding the enzymes of glycosylation pathway. Based on the type of defect, CDG are divided into the following groups: disorders of N-glycosylation or O-glycosylation of proteins, defects in modification of proteins by GPI anchor, disorders of lipid glycosylation and defects that impact multiple glycosylation pathways. The aim of the thesis was to find new biochemical analyses suitable for diagnostics and characterization of CDG patients. The experimental conditions were optimized for selected markers (Sambucus Nigra (SNA) lectin, proaerolysin (FLAER), antibodies to proteins CD55 and CD59) and the staining was applied to cultivated skin fibroblasts from controls and patients diagnosed with CDG by whole-exome sequencing (ATP6AP1-CDG, PIGN-CDG, SLC10A7-CDG, PISD deficiency). The experiments were performed using flow cytometry (FACS) and fluorescent microscopy (FM). The detection of sialylation by SNA lectin and analysis of the mitochondrial membrane potential changes by a fluorescent labelled probe JC-1 with FCCP simulation of mitochondrial...
Study of interaction of dihydromyricetin and alcohol in vivo
Vargová, Silvia ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Kubíčková, Božena (referee)
- Abstrakt Dihydromyricetin (DHM), also known as ampelopsin, is a natural antioxidant found in the plant Ampelopsis grossedentata, traditionally used in Chinese medicine. Dihydromyricetin exhibits health-benefiting activities. Besides its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial effects, it is said to suppress intoxication by alcohol and mitigate the symptoms of hangover and abstention. The mechanism of the activity of DHM on the metabolism of ethanol has not been fully explored. Thus, the focal point of the presented thesis was to explore the effect of DHM on the expression of CYP2E1, one of the major enzymes participating in the metabolism of ethanol in organisms. Male rats were administered with ethanol (EtOH) or ethanol in combination with DHM, and the EtOH concentration of the blood was determined. The amount of EtOH and acetaldehyde in the blood of individuals indicates that DHM does not affect the rate of EtOH metabolism. Subsequently, the effect of DHM on repeated premedication of EtOH was monitored. The group of rats treated with DHM showed a slower metabolism of EtOH than the group solely premedicated with EtOH. Ultimately, the effect of DHM on CYP2E1 expression was studied. Microsomal fractions were prepared from the rat livers. By use of Western blotting with a...
Effect of dihydromyricetin on hepatic ethanol metabolism
Boubínová, Gabriela ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Bebová, Michaela (referee)
Dihydromyricetin (DMH) is a natural flavonoid compound with positive effects on the human organism. In traditional Chinese medicine, plants containing DMH were used to treat liver diseases and to reduce alcohol intoxication. The effects of DHM on ethanol metabolism are not yet completely understood. Effects of DHM during alcohol intoxication were studied on primary hepatocytes of rats. DCFDA and DHR probes were used to prove that DHM (depending on concentration) reduces the number of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in primary hepatocytes. However, the hepatoprotective effects of DHM were not achieved when presence of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to measure the damage of cells exposed to alcohol. Further, the effects of DHM on alcohol metabolism were studied in vivo. Rats were administered with single dose of ethanol or ethanol combined with DHM. Measured blood levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde show that DHM has no effects on the rate or levels of alcohol metabolism. The effects of DHM were also studied with repeated alcohol administration. In the group that was administered also DHM, increased blood levels of ethanol were measured. This points that DHM slow down the metabolic rate of ethanol. Obtained results did not prove any positive effects of DHM on alcohol metabolism....
Effect of selected cosmetic products on estrogen formation
Drejslarová, Iva ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Smrček, Stanislav (referee)
Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. These enzymes are involved both in biotransformation and steroid hormone biosynthesis. An important member of this family is cytochrome P450 19, aromatase, which catalyzes the final step of estrogen hormone biosynthesis, conversion of androgens into estrogens. The physiologic functions of estrogens include development of secondary sexual characteristicts, maintenance of bone mass or regulation of gonadotropin secretion. However, hormonal imbalance due to endocrine disruptors can result in development of certain cancers or impaired reproduction. Compounds with these effects include, in addition to environmetal pollutants, some drugs and cosmetic additives which people are exposed to on a daily basis. In the present study, the effect of selected perfumes and antiperspirants on the metabolic conversion of testosterone into estradiol, catalyzed by aromatase, was examined. The activity of this enzyme was detected using TLC chromatography. The experiments showed that selected antiperspirants do not affect aromatase activity. For most of the perfumes tested, only a very low aromatase inhibition was observed. Only one sample showed this effect to a higher extent. Based on the comparision of perfume...
Interaction of myricetin with human gut microflora
Hucková, Pavlína ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Killer, Jiří (referee)
The intestinal microbiome contributes in immune system function. It contains a large number of microorganisms that interact with each other and thus affect the host. Currently, attention is being directed towards investigating the influence of the intestinal microbiome on hosts, but also on foreign substances. Foreign substances may influence its composition and subsequent microbial metabolism. Crohn's disease patients have been found to have lower bacterial representation of beneficial bacteria. Therefore it is appropriate to examine the intestinal microbiome of these patients and so understand in greater detail the influence of bacteria on the course of the disease progression and on the medication used. The RP-HPLC method were analysed the faecal samples collected (B, C, D), which were incubated at 0, 3 and 6 hours. The incubation took place the addition of myricetin in the McDougall buffer and BHI medium. The analysis was found that myricetin degradation takes place in faecal samples during incubation, regardless of the medium used. In the faecal sample B, degradation of myricetin occurs faster in the BHI medium than in the McDougall's buffer. In faecal samples C and D, degradation is similar in both media. From these results, it is impossible to judge which medium is more suitable for...
Effect of natural substances on transcriptional activity of nuclear and steroid receptors and expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A)
Bednaříková, Barbora ; Hodek, Petr (referee)
This work is based on two attached first authors' publications dealing with the effect of natural substances of plant origin on transcriptional activity of nuclear and steroid receptors and their action on cytochrome P450 expression, CYP1A subfamily. The studied substances are anthocyanidins and stilbenes, belonging to a broad group of phenolic compounds. The aim of the first study was to evaluate the effect of the most common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, and peonidin) on the transcriptional activity of nuclear and steroid receptors. The activities of nuclear receptors: vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), thyroid receptor (TR), and steroid receptors: progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) were assessed using either stable or transiently transfected luciferase gene reporter cell lines. The cytotoxicity assays and gene reporter assay were performed after the 24h treatment of cells with increasing range of concentrations (10 nM to 50 µM) of selected anthocyanidins. The results of experiments indicate that none of the studied anthocyanidins in all tested concentrations caused remarkable changes of transcriptional activity of...
Interaction of gut microbiota with selected flavonoids
Balatka, Štěpán ; Hodek, Petr (advisor) ; Koblihová, Jitka (referee)
The microflora located on the surface of and inside the human body is a very large system. The intestinal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract is a very important and still not fully explored area. The intestinal microflora consists of many types of bacteria, viruses, fungi or some single-cell eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms. The intestinal microflora is involved, for example, in the synthesis of vitamins, digestion of polysacharides or in the storing of fats. It is significantly involved in the metabolism of foreign substances and digestion of food. The activity of foreign substances can influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. It must not be forgotten that the composition of the intestinal microflora differs in separate individuals and is changeable during life. The metabolism of foreign substances in relation to the human organism is a subject of global studies. This work is devoted to the metabolism of myricetin and its influence on the digestive tract of a healthy individual and a person with celiac disease. It is also studied whether myricetin affects the biodiversity of intestinal bacteria. The collected stool samples from donor A (a person with celiac disease) and B (a healthy control) were incubated at 0, 3 and 6 hours in McDougall buffer with myricetin. They were...

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