National Repository of Grey Literature 53 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Anthropology of Synesius' On Dreams
Horáček, Filip ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Karfíková, Lenka (referee) ; Nejeschleba, Tomáš (referee)
(F. Horáček: Antropologie Synesiova spisu O snech) 30. 8. 2017 Synesiusʼ treatise On Dreams (early 5th cent. AD) contains a Neoplatonic conception of the so-called pneuma (called also ʻvehicleʼ, ʻluminous bodyʼ etc.) that, among its other functions, ʻrepresentsʼ the immaterial Neoplatonic soul in the material universe. As against the other Neoplatonic texts from Late Antiquity, the authorʼs book is relatively concetrated and detailed so that it offers a comparatively full picture of the pneuma even though the text is no clear cut self-explanatory piece of writing due to its intended esoteric Neoplatonic readership. In my work I try to discover possible implications for the pneuma against the background of other Neoplatonic conceptions of the earlier and also of slightly later time. Synesiusʼ views of the pneuma are not always identical with those of the earlier thinkers. As he switches backgrounds it is often hard to tell whether what he has in mind is identical, like or different from them. I address predominantly - beside contextualization of On Dreams and efforts to solve individual small-scale problems in the text - questions of physical existence of the pneuma before, during, and after reincarnation chain of individual souls, further I discuss the interface between materiality and...
The Humanist Virtuoso : Beginnings, Idea and Illustration of Hume's experimental philosophical anthropology in Treatise of Human Nature
Kunca, Tomáš ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Pinc, Zdeněk (referee) ; Zika, Richard (referee)
PhDr. Tomáš Kunca The Humanist Virtuoso: Beginnings, Idea and Illustration of Hume's experimental philosophical anthropology in Treatise of Human Nature UK FHS, Praha 2013 Thesis introduces a concept of "The Humanist Virtuoso" as distinctive feature reflecting Hume's effort to introduce an idea of experimental philosophical anthropology based on study of human nature and manifested in his A Treatise of Human Nature. Concept is justified by three steps, through analysis of the beginnings of Hume's philosophy, explication of his "science of man" idea in Treatise and illustration of this idea in action, as appears in analysis of passions (Book 2). The beginnings of Hume's way to experimental philosophical anthropology are explained thorough interpretation of historical facts connected with his early study at College of Edinburgh. First meetings with culture of science ( both British Christian tradition of experimental philosophy and Newtonian mathematical philosophy) are considered as particularly important. Detailed analysis of pre-Treatise letters (the Letter to Physician and to Michael Ramsey) is provided to make explicit the beginnings of his "science of man" idea, turn to study of human nature. Castration of Treatise is observed and discussed via analysis of his letter to Home (1737). The second...
Authorship between ethics, law and technology
Kratochvílová, Marie ; Pinc, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Sokol, Jan (referee) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee)
AUTHORSHIP BETWEEN ETHICS, LAW AND TECHNOLOGY In the present thesis, I focus on the relation between the concept of authorship and the development of new technologies, linked to the transformation of the ethical paradigm. I focus on the author as a person, on the ethical aspect of authorship and its protection within society, on traditional rules of polite and honest behaviour which are intertwined with the codification of legal protection of the rights of the author. The discussion takes place on two levels which have co-existed since authorship came into existence: one of them is the protection of the rights of authors, including the introduction of copyright, the other is the attempt to infringe on these rights in order to allow for the free sharing of cultural property as well as of the results of scientific work. In the Introduction, I provide an overview of the transformation of the relation between the author and society, between authorship and its legal basis. I focus mainly on its philosophical aspects, reflecting the state of technological development and the situation in society. I follow the differentiation between divine inspiration (claim for the truth) and the concept of authorship (claim for a salary), which first came into prominence toward the end of the archaic period. I...
Goethe's Phenomenology
Bojda, Martin ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee) ; Sobotka, Milan (referee)
Goethe' s Phenomenology - Abstract The aim of this thesis was to explain the philosophical foundations and horizons of the work of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, with an emphasis on his concept of phenomenon and appearing, in which he is presented as a significant contributor to the reflection of the category of mediation in German late Enlightenment and idealistic discourse. The work showed how Goethe's (including poetic) works show some theoretically based or systematizable aspects which genealogy, reception and applicability in general the author attempts to interpret. He also interprets the philosophemes connected with Goethe's work: he puts Goethe in the contexts of the German and European thinking of the age of the Enlightenment, of its rationalist bases and of its rethinking of the nineteenth- century concepts of thought. The work shows the breadth and complexity of Goethe's spiritual resources and their creative appropriation by him, as well as the far-reaching influence of Goethe on the German philosophy already in his time (Hegel, Schelling, Schopenhauer, etc.). He tries to overcome the stereotypes or shortcomings he finds in several previous interpretations, discussing first the philosophical literature about Goethe. In systematic and historical contexts, he represents Goethe confrontations with the...
Language, speech and understanding
Zajíc, Václav ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee) ; Zika, Richard (referee)
This thesis studies different conceptions of knowledge as they were conceived by George Berkeley and Immanuel Kant. In the first chapter we concentrate on Berkeley's pragmatic interpretation of knowledge which is based on the localization of the non-predicative judgements into the inner structure of perception. As the result there is such knowledge which is by human being used to identification of conditions for the formation of particular combinations of ideas and also to their more or less exact prognosis. We concentrate also on Berkeley's attempt to avoid "ontological" or "absolute" interpretations of "traditional concepts of metaphysics" as ,substance', an absolute existence of non-egoistic matterial being etc. In the second chapter of this thesis we are trying to study in which way is the idea of knowledge being transformed, in case that the starting point for interpretation of knowledge is, according to Kant, descriptive analysis of synthetic judgements a priori, whose proposition is the synthesis of subject and predicate. We will show that Kant contributed to the new understanding of metaphysics as transcendental research possibility of knowledge, and how were thanks to that meanings and status of subject and object transformed. We will make in the third and closing chapter complete...
Incorporation and Morality. The Conception of a Body in Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophy
Chavalka, Jakub ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Novák, Aleš (referee) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee)
My dissertation firstly attempts to define the methodological principles of Nietzsche's analysis of a body and corporeality by means of the concept of physiopsychology (Physio- Psychologie). Nietzsche tries for an explanation of moral judgements as symptoms of bodily conditions and in physiopsychology he detects what is withheld behind moral judgments and shows that their source is always some drive or instinct. This conclusion leads to the core metaphors he uses in thinking about a body: the body as a teacher (Der Leib als Lehrmeister) or the body as a guiding thread (Der Leib als Leitfaden). The first section discusses the process of incorporation (Einverleibung), which, according to Nietzsche, is the foundation of an anthropogenesis. A human must incorporate some schemes (firstly the belief in the sameness of the thing), that form the specific conditions, in order to cultivate himself as a species, which is capable of surviving. The incorporated schemes must be inherently erroneous, but Nietzsche emphasizes that the truth isn't a point in an anthropogenesis, but a firm anchor for a human in the world. The physiopsychologist describes incorporated errors and finds their un/presence in particular value judgments. The second section approaches a body and corporeality relationship from a different point of...
"Hegelian movement" in Czechoslovakian philosophy in the nineteen-sixties. Probe into the Czechoslovakian marxist philosophy on the motif of work.
Hanovská, Lenka ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Chavalka, Jakub (referee) ; Marek, Jakub (referee)
The thesis deals with the Czechoslovakian philosophy in the nineteen-sixties. It focuses not only to its historical description but intends to enter its philosophical thinking from inside and analyse its principal categories. Especially it focuses on the category of work and examines its various formulations, developed in different theoretical perspectives of Czechoslovakian philosophers. This allows distinguish these perspectives in their similarities on one hand and differences on the other. The thesis notably focuses on so called "Hegelian movement" and its evaluation of category of work. This movement, which is in fact the Czechoslovakian variation to the philosophy of praxis, formulates the category of work in its philosophical meaning, i. e. as an ontological category decisive for an origin of the reality and human being. It was originally Hegel, who developed this meaning of category, and Czechoslovakian Hegelian movement continued in developing his ontology adopted through Marx. The Czech philosophers enriched it with aspects of socialistic humanism. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part explains historical conditions of philosophical scientific performance in Czechoslovakia. The second interprets the texts of Czechoslovakian Hegelian philosophers and their expositions of category...
Slavoj Žižek and the critique of ideology
Takač, Peter ; Hauser, Michael (advisor) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee) ; Pelcová, Naděžda (referee)
The goal of the thesis is to analyze the contemporary form of ideology through the work of Slavoj Žižek. It aims to answer the question - resulting from the widespread notion of the end of ideology - what do people believe in nowadays. In other words, what do we follow or what do we respect if it is said that we do not believe in anything? The collapse of the communist project in the Eastern bloc brought a period of distrust towards grand narratives and utopian projects. In addition, the widespread form of ideology, which currently has been liberal democracy, allows each individual to choose their own way of life and among a wide range of parties with different political orientations. The answers to the critical analysis of this assumption and the current form of ideology are found in the work of Slavoj Žižek, who has been dealing with these questions since the end of the Cold War. The first part of the thesis presents the Marxist tradition of critique of ideology - its forms and observations it brought into this area. The second part deals with Žižek's contribution to the topics while clarifying the concepts of the Symbolic and the Big Other, representing the current forms of the unconscious and practiced collective activity. The influence of the dominant form of ideology on the population and...
Human as a being of the centre and a modest commentary of Herder's philosophy
Vostárek, Adam ; Chavalka, Jakub (advisor) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee)
Main goal of this work is to mediate an approach for czech reader to almost forgotten philosophy of Johann Gottfried von Herder, who published his books in the 18. century. This student of I. Kant is absolutely someone, who should not be eliminated from a group of authors who determined enlightement thinking. It is not just coincidence that Goethe himself called Herder as Brother Humanus. The exact term of humanity is rightful goal of my interpretation. Why? Because humanity is a fundamental basic term of whole Herder's philosophy. This work claims to analyze two main works of this philosopher, Essay on the origin of language and The Evolution of Humanity, which is the czech translate of his Ideas for the philosophy of humanity. And we will analyze this two texts in a way, which shall show us the interconnections between them. The we will move into synthetic chapter called Herder's concept of humanity. There I will put the previous interpretation into confrontation with more of Herder's books and I will show what humanity means to Herder and why is it so central term for his whole philosophy. Key words: Herder, humanity, language
Man and nature in the age of technics
Hubík, Jan ; Nitsche, Martin (advisor) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee)
In our thesis we focus on a relationship between man and nature from a view oh thinking of Martin Heidegger. In the field of his fundamental ontology we try to grasp a difference between being of man a being of nature. This difference is based on the apparentness of beings as beings in the whole. In his work Being and Time Heidegger thinks the world within the structure being-in-world. The being of nature is in this work think in connection with basic ontological character of beings, that we encouter in our world. The nature is uncovered on the basis of the ready-to-hand. This conception leads to the problém of antropocentrism, that follows from the structure of Being and Time and fundamental ontology. Therefore we then focus on the turn in Heideggers thinking, that is articulated in the later maxim "to think being directly out of being itslef". In later works from 50's Heidegger thinks human being as dwelling on the earth in connection with a theme of devastation of the earth. These later works also deals with the technics. Its essence Heidegger names as Ge-stell. It is technology that determine our relationship to nature.

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