National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Living without a Ground: Praxis of Being-in-the-World
Koloskov, Daniil ; Švec, Ondřej (advisor) ; Leclercq, Bruno (referee) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee)
1 Abstract. The basic goal of the dissertation is to formulate a pragmatic phenomenology, which would rely on the notion of praxis while dealing with the traditional for existential phenomenology goal of arriving at "an understanding of man and the world from any starting point other than that of their 'facticity.' (Merleau-Ponty 2002). The dissertation interprets disclosure of the world as a form of praxis based on Heideggerian vocabulary; gaining access to the world is an act that reveals what possibilities of being can the world offer to Dasein, which is understood as nothing but an ecstatic attempt to anchor in the world. The praxis of disclosure is guided by the need to maximize Dasein's ability-to-be and a constant attempt to increase the 'disclosing potential' of particular practices. This starting point ascribes a crucial methodological role to the mutuality between Dasein and the world: Dasein does not explain what possibilities of being the world can offer to it and the world cannot explain what possibilities of being Dasein would be able to reveal. We will demonstrate how a systematic emphasis on mutuality leads us towards dispensing with 'grounds' of traditional philosophy, i.e., fundamental explainers that are not explained by anything further; we will also show how this emphasis makes it...
An attempt at an ontological critique of Wilhelm Dilthey's conception of resistance
Sajvera, David ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee)
An attempt at an ontological critique of Wilhelm Dilthey's conception of resistance The starting point of the paper is Wilhelm Dilthey's conception of resistance as a pre-reflective experience of separation of the Self and the outer world. This emerges in the very early (prenatal) stages of ontogenesis and forms the basis of our belief in the reality of outer world. We try to explicate Dilthey's insights more precisely by pursuing the interpretation of his conception by other authors, confronting it with a phenomenological approach and reflecting on the possibilities of ontological grounding of the term. Dilthey's analysis of resistance met with explicit responses from Martin Heidegger and Max Scheler, and became one of the main topics of a debate between them, triggered by Scheler's response to Being and Time. Heidegger rejects Dilthey's concept of resistance, claiming that resistance is characteristic of an ontic entity, but it never characterizes the world in the ontological sense. Resistance always presupposes the disclosure of the world, and also disclosed is that which our will or instinct aim for. A key role here is played by the existential structure of Sorge. Scheler revises Dilthey's original concept and purifies it from some untenable ontic characteristics (e.g. resistance as a content...
Body, Cranality and its Aspects in Nietzsche's Thinking
Baldé, Omar ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee)
Tato práce pojednává pojetí těla, tělesnosti a jejích aspektů v rámci myšlení Friedricha Nietzscheho. Mým cílem je ukázat, že tělo a tělesnost mají v Nietzscheho myšlení zcela zásadní význam, že tělo je pro Nietzscheho tím, co člověka určuje nejpůvodněji a rozhoduje o našem přístupu ke světu a skutečnosti. Aby něco takového bylo možné, bude třeba věnovat detailnější pozornost dvěma nejzásadnějším myšlenkám Nietzscheho filozofie - "vůli k moci" a "věčnému návratu téhož" - a postavě boha Dionýsa, který v Nietzscheho myšlení hraje zásadní roli. "Odrazovým můstkem" pro můj výklad pak bude vymezení vůči pojetí těla a duše v Platónově filozofii, neboť to byl právě Platón, který předznamenal další vývoj západního filozofického myšlení, které chce Nietzsche radikálně změnit. Srovnání těchto diametrálně odlišných přístupů k tělu a duši by mělo dát vyniknout originalitě Nietzscheho myšlení. Klíčová slova: Nietzsche, tělo, tělesnost, duše, "vůle k moci", "vůle k nicotě", "věčný návrat téhož", zdraví, nemoc, Dionýsos.
Philosophical reflections of creative experience
Fridmanová, Milena ; Koubová, Alice (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee) ; Pokorný, Vít (referee)
Fridmanová, M.: Philosophical reflections of creative experience This dissertation is dedicated to the topic of the creative experience. The creative experience is not something "made" by us, but at the same time it does not occur without our activity and readiness. The basic question addressed by this dissertation is, how can we contribute to the process of being met by creative impulses and to the ability of grasping them and finally transforming them into a piece of art. The dissertation sets off from a premise that current notions of creativity are referring to a romantic conception, stating that the work of art is made by a genius creating through supernatural powers, which are beyond his personal grasp. In the 20th century, the creative experience has undergone a vast scientific examination, especially in the field of psychology; which confirmed that creativity is possessed by everyone and can be developed. This result raises the question, which aspects of the creative process can be affected and which cannot? The first chapters of the dissertation elaborate on the philosophical interpretation of three expositions of the creative experience - by Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Gadamer. The intention of this interpretation is to point to contradictory motives of individual conceptions....
What is Phenomenology? The Inevitability of the Clash between Husserl and Heidegger
Kvapil, Ondřej ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee)
Based on the explicit Husserl-Heidegger polemic, which concerned the ''Phenomenology'' entry for Encyclopaedia Britannica, my thesis captures conflict between the two protagonists precisely when it becomes direct. Tracing the main issues of their dispute, I will firstly demonstrate that the conflict is not a consequence of mutual misunderstanding, but rather a disagreement coming from the core itself of their respective theories. It could therefore not have been avoided. Secondly, I will show that the leading intentions of both traditional versions of phenomenology are not only irreconcilable, but essentially contradictory.
The Notion of an Object in Husserl's Phenomenology and it's Preview in Aristotle's Metaphysics
Zavřel, Viktor ; Novotný, Karel (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee) ; Karfík, Filip (referee)
The presented dissertation aims to present the concept of an object, which we can observe in Husserl's phenomenological philosophy. It highlights the four basic meanings of an object and tries to connect them. This work also presents a comprehensive history of key metaphysical concepts, mainly through analyzes of Aristotle's Metaphysics and interpretations of his philosophical theories over the ages. Emphasis is placed especially on the concept of οὐσία and on the changes in the understanding of this term in Medieval and Early Modern philosophy.
Goethe's Phenomenology
Bojda, Martin ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee) ; Sobotka, Milan (referee)
Goethe' s Phenomenology - Abstract The aim of this thesis was to explain the philosophical foundations and horizons of the work of Johann Wolfgang Goethe, with an emphasis on his concept of phenomenon and appearing, in which he is presented as a significant contributor to the reflection of the category of mediation in German late Enlightenment and idealistic discourse. The work showed how Goethe's (including poetic) works show some theoretically based or systematizable aspects which genealogy, reception and applicability in general the author attempts to interpret. He also interprets the philosophemes connected with Goethe's work: he puts Goethe in the contexts of the German and European thinking of the age of the Enlightenment, of its rationalist bases and of its rethinking of the nineteenth- century concepts of thought. The work shows the breadth and complexity of Goethe's spiritual resources and their creative appropriation by him, as well as the far-reaching influence of Goethe on the German philosophy already in his time (Hegel, Schelling, Schopenhauer, etc.). He tries to overcome the stereotypes or shortcomings he finds in several previous interpretations, discussing first the philosophical literature about Goethe. In systematic and historical contexts, he represents Goethe confrontations with the...
Incorporation and Morality. The Conception of a Body in Friedrich Nietzsche's Philosophy
Chavalka, Jakub ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Novák, Aleš (referee) ; Nitsche, Martin (referee)
My dissertation firstly attempts to define the methodological principles of Nietzsche's analysis of a body and corporeality by means of the concept of physiopsychology (Physio- Psychologie). Nietzsche tries for an explanation of moral judgements as symptoms of bodily conditions and in physiopsychology he detects what is withheld behind moral judgments and shows that their source is always some drive or instinct. This conclusion leads to the core metaphors he uses in thinking about a body: the body as a teacher (Der Leib als Lehrmeister) or the body as a guiding thread (Der Leib als Leitfaden). The first section discusses the process of incorporation (Einverleibung), which, according to Nietzsche, is the foundation of an anthropogenesis. A human must incorporate some schemes (firstly the belief in the sameness of the thing), that form the specific conditions, in order to cultivate himself as a species, which is capable of surviving. The incorporated schemes must be inherently erroneous, but Nietzsche emphasizes that the truth isn't a point in an anthropogenesis, but a firm anchor for a human in the world. The physiopsychologist describes incorporated errors and finds their un/presence in particular value judgments. The second section approaches a body and corporeality relationship from a different point of...

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