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2023-01-29
22:31
Laserové svařování s oscilací svazku
Šebestová, Hana ; Horník, Petr ; Novotný, Jan ; Mrňa, Libor
Svařování s oscilací laserového svazku je obvykle doprovázeno poklesem hloubky průvaru díky přechodu z keyhole do kondukčního režimu. Na základě rozložení hustoty výkonu v příčném směru (v oscilačním průměru) je možné přibližně predikovat tvar svaru bez nutnosti výpočtu vedení tepla v materiálu. Při vhodně zvoleném oscilačním módu a jeho parametrech je možné rovněž dosáhnout i hlubokého průvaru.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Technologie laserového svařování s dynamickým vychylováním svazku - principy a využití
Mrňa, Libor ; Horník, Petr ; Novotný, Jan ; Šebestová, Hana
Technologie laserového svařování s dynamickým vychylováním svazku - tzv. wobbling, rozšiřuje možnosti vlastního laserového svařování. Wobbling v principu znamená, že pomocí rozmítací jednotky obsažené v laserové svařovací hlavě se k základní svařovací trajektorii přičítá rozmítací křivka (kružnice, úsečka a další). Změnou rozmítacích parametrů lze měnit nejenom šířku svarové housenky, ale i distribuci dopadajícího laserového záření, potažmo tepla, v rámci příčného rozměru svarové housenky. Článek pojednává o simulaci vlivu rozmítacích parametrů (pro různé tvary rozmítacích křivek) na rozdělení intenzity laserového záření a porovnání výstupů těchto simulací s geometrií reálně vytvořených svarů. Na závěr jsou uvedeny dva praktické příklady využití této svařovací technologie v průmyslové praxi.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Preparation of W-Cu composites by infiltration of w skeletons review
Matějíček, Jiří
Tungsten-copper composites feature high corrosion and erosion resistance, very good thermal and electrical conductivity, low thermal expansion and good mechanical properties. They are used in a variety of demanding applications, such as arc-resistant electrodes, high voltage electrical contacts, heat sinks for integrated circuits, etc. They are also foreseen for use in plasma-facing components of fusion reactors, e.g. as a transition layer between the (refractory) plasma-facing tungsten and the (highly conductive) copper-based cooling structure. In general, high density and good bonding of the tungsten and copper phases is desired. Molten copper infiltration into tungsten preforms is among the prospective fabrication technologies - the structure and properties of the resultant composites are dependent on the specific technological parameters. In this paper, the preparation of W-Cu composites by infiltration of W skeletons is reviewed and attention is paid to the influence of these particular parameters: infiltration temperature, time and atmosphere, tungsten preform porosity, orientation and chemistry (presence or absence of other elements). Optimum parameter combinations for achieving high density and proper bonding of copper and tungsten are identified.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Surface functionalization of the biological gold nanoparticles for micro-rna targeting
Pourali, Parastoo ; Benada, Oldřich ; Benson, Veronika
Among non-viral gene carriers with low toxicity and high transfection efficiency, the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is of particular interest due to their biocompatibility and special properties. This is the first time we attempted to functionalize the surface of the biological AuNPs in order to conjugate them with antimiR-135b through electrostatic interactions and knockdown the microRNA-135b gene expression inside the cells. A fungal strain, Fusarium oxysporum, was cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB), centrifuged, and the mycelium-free supernatant was challenged with 1 mmol final concentration of HAuCl4.3H2O and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a shake flask. AuNPs were characterized by visible spectrophotometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a zetasizer. The washed and sterilized AuNPs were used for cytotoxicity and conjugation assays. First transferrin (Tf) and then polyethylenimine (PEI) were used to functionalize and change the surface charge of the AuNPs and then antimiR-135b was conjugated to the AuNPs trough electrostatic interactions. Their association was confirmed by visible spectrophotometry and electrophoresis. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the internalization of the AuNPs-antimiR-135b complex. The results proved the formation of AuNPs with a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm, round and oval shapes (15-20 nm), and average zeta potential of -21.02 mV. The AuNPs-antimiR-135b showed delayed electrophoresis unlike antimiR-135b or AuNPs alone. Functionalized AuNPs did not cause any toxicity in cell culture and confocal microscopy showed successful transfection of AuNPs-antimiR-135b into the vast majority of 4T1 cells. We concluded that the biological AuNPs were non-toxic and they could carry antimiR-135b to enable gene silencing

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Mineralised polylactide and polycaprolactone soft foams with hierarchical micro-macro porous structure for tissue engineering
Beran, M. ; Berková, E. ; Musílková, Jana ; Sedlář, Antonín ; Slepička, P. ; Fajstavr, D.
The purpose of the study was development of soft foams from resorbable polymers with unique micro-macro porous interconnected hierarchical structure specially designed as scaffold for engineering of soft tissues. The foams have been prepared by freeze-drying of solutions of polylactide (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) in 1,4-dioxane. The foams prepared by freeze-drying had interconnected porous aerogel characteristics. The hierarchical structure with bimodal micro-macro pore size distribution were obtained after addition of sucrose or NaCl porogens with defined crystal size distributions to the solutions before freeze-drying and leaching the porogen crystals from the freeze-dried foams with demineralised water. Polyethyleneimine was chemically conjugated to the alkali-treated foams followed by conjugation of citric acid using carbodiimide chemistry. Finally, they were mineralised by immersing and incubating in a simulated body fluid with ionic concentration similar to that of human blood plasma, to obtain tissue engineering scaffolds. To verify their biocompatibility, the scaffolds were seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and sarcoma osteogenic-2 (SaOs-2) human osteoblast-like cells. Morphology of the cells attached to the scaffolds was evaluated and their viability was verified by a metabolic test. Biocompatibility and usability of the scaffolds was successfully verified by incubation with adipose-derived stem cells and SaOs-2 human osteosarcoma cell line. Mineralised scaffolds are more suitable growth supports for both the cell types than unmineralized collagen scaffolds. The scaffolds have been specially designed for engineering of soft tissues, but they can be used in other categories of tissue engineering, too.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Atmospheric CO2 concentration, light intensity and nitrogen nutrition affect spring barley response to drought and heat stress
Findurová, Hana ; Veselá, Barbora ; Opoku, Emmanuel ; Klem, Karel
The aim of this study was to compare physiological responses of two spring barley varieties,\ndiffering in their oxidative stress tolerance, to drought and heat stress after pre-treatment under different\nirradiation regimes, CO2 concentrations, and nitrogen fertilisation levels. High light intensity, elevated\nCO2, and additional UV radiation increased flavonoid accumulation. Moreover, more flavonoids were\ninduced in oxidative stress-sensitive variety Barke. Combined drought and heat stress caused a large\ndecline in CO2 assimilation, whereas heat stress alone caused only minor changes. Under combined\nstress, plants grown under low light intensity and no UV irradiation performed the best despite their\nhigher initial water use efficiency and lower flavonoids content.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
The co-culture of keratinocytes and fibroblasts on a multi-layered polyester nanofibrous membrane enriched with platelet lysate
Blanquer, Andreu ; Filová, Elena ; Jenčová, V. ; Brož, Antonín ; Kuželová Košťáková, E. ; Lisnenko, M. ; Procházková, R. ; Bačáková, Lucie
The prevalence of chronic wounds is increasing due to the population ageing and specific illnesses like diabetes mellitus and vascular diseases. Nanofibrous membranes fabricated using synthetic polymers are promising materials to enhance skin wound healing. PCL and PVA membranes are being studied to be used as scaffolds for skin tissue engineering and hydrogels for controlled drug delivery, respectively. The present study considers the development of a multi-layered membrane made of PCL and PVA loaded with platelet lysate (PL). PCL nanofibers allowed cell adhesion and growth, whereas PVA acted as a hydrogel that releases the bioactive compounds of platelet lysate. The cytocompatibility of the membranes containing PL and without it was demonstrated on two cell types involved in wound healing, i.e. keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Both cell types were able to adhere and proliferate on the membranes. In addition, the membrane containing PL enhanced the proliferation of fibroblasts. A co-culture study was also performed by seeding each cell type on one side of the membrane. The cells were co-cultured for 7 days and the results showed that PL increased the proliferation of cells achieving a monolayer of keratinocytes or fibroblasts on each side of the membrane. Thus, the beneficial effect of PCL-PVA+PL membranes on monocultures and co-cultures of skin cells was demonstrated, and these membranes can be considered potential scaffolds for treatment of chronic wounds.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin assemblies supported by immobilized growth factors FGF2 and VEGF
Musílková, Jana ; Filová, Elena ; Kaplan, Ondřej ; Bačáková, Lucie
Bioartificial heart valves and vascular grafts prepared from decellularized tissues could be recellularized with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are able to differentiate into both smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. MSCs differentiation is facilitated by sustained release of growth factors. In our study assemblies based on fibrin, fibrin with heparin, fibrin with adsorbed or covalently-immobilized vascular endothelial growth factor A165 (VEGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) via binding to heparin attached to fibrin have been prepared and were evaluated for their stimulation of MSCs differentiation. We estimated the mRNA expression of endothelial marker CD31 (PECAM1), smooth muscle marker α-actin (ACTA2), osteoblast markers osteocalcin (BGLAP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The gene expression was estimated using RT-PCR on days 1, 7 and 21 after seeding. The cell morphology and viability was evaluated by LIVE/DEAD staining. VEGF, both adsorbed and covalently bound, increased significantly the expression of smooth muscle marker α-actin. The mRNA expression of ACTA2 on day 7 and 21 raised more than 200 times in comparison to control samples (undifferentiated cells before seeding). The ACTA2 gene expression significantly exceeded the expression of all other evaluated genes at all time intervals. Moreover, on day 21, the late smooth muscle marker desmin (DES) was steeply rising in cells cultivated on assemblies containing heparin and covalently bound VEGF. The expression of osteocalcin was minimal. We conclude that fibrin assembly containing covalently bound VEGF is the most convenient for MSCs differentiation towards smooth muscle cells.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Identifying the materials in archaeological textiles
Březinová, Helena ; Pechočiaková, M. ; Grabmüllerová, J.
Given their organic origin, textiles rank among the rarest archaeological finds. While the vast majority of these artefacts are preserved as small fragments or mineralised remnants, their detailed textile technology study provides interesting and important information about the use of textile techniques and the quality of processing. The most important information concerns the utilised textile materials, but for degraded textiles, these materials are among the most difficult information to obtain. Image analysis using electron microscopy (SEM) is a significant aide in this pursuit.

Úplný záznam
2023-01-29
22:31
Tenké vrstvy pro fotovoltaiku nanášené plasmochemickými metodami
Fejfar, Antonín
Tenké vrstvy jsou klíčovou komponentou prakticky všech moderních fotovoltaických článků pro využití sluneční energie. Články využívají tenké vrstvy pro dosažení optimálního záchytu světla, pro rozdělení a sběr fotogenerovaných nábojů i pro pasivaci rozhraní či přímo jako vrstvy absorbující fotony slunečního svitu. Každoročně jsou tak nanášeny vrstvy o celkové ploše řádu mnoha stovek kilometrů čtverečních, a to především s využitím plazmochemických technologií.

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