Fyzikální ústav

Nejnovější přírůstky:
2021-03-28
00:01
Role of Urbach Energy in Photovoltaics
Vlk, Aleš ; Abelová, Lucie ; Hájková, Zdeňka ; Remeš, Zdeněk ; Holovský, Jakub ; Ledinský, Martin
Organic-inorganic halide perovskites provide new opportunities for improvement of optoelectronic device performance, especially the efficiency of solar cells. To evaluate the quality of a new material many parameters has to be taken into account. Here, we discuss one of the often overlooked semiconductor’s parameters, Urbach energy, which is an easily accessible measure of material disorder. Moreover, we present its importance on the example of organic-inorganic halide perovskites.

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2021-03-07
00:01
Mathematical method for submolecular resolution of helicene-based macrocycles by atomic force microscopy in air
Ukraintsev, Egor ; Houska, Václav ; Vacek, Jaroslav ; Starý, Ivo ; Stará, Irena G. ; Rezek, B.
We introduce a straightforward mathematical method for improving the AFM image resolution, applied to image analysis of helicene-based macrocycles adsorbed on HOPG. The method reveals structural details from insufficiently resolved AFM images and attributes them to internal structure and ordering of the macrocycles. Our findings are also corroborated by molecular mechanics simulations, validating that the structure provided by the method has lower potential energy compared to other tested macrocycle arrangements.

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2021-02-24
00:44
Inactivation of aspergillus niger on paints containing ZnO
Rácová, Z. ; Baudys, M. ; Krýsa, J. ; Tichá, P. ; Demo, Pavel
Antifungal capability of ZnO against bacteriae A. niger (including its photocatalytic activity) was analyzed. The optimal conditions for mould mycelium growth was estimated from evolution growth models. It was shown that prepared protective coating exhibits antifugal effect.

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:44
Adhesion improvement between bitumen and mineral aggregate:theoretical principles and their impact on pavement structure lifetime
Trejbal, J. ; Demo, Pavel ; Nežerka, V. ; Sveshnikov, Alexey ; Valentová, T. ; Valentin, J.
Influence of nanomaterial-based adhesion promoters on maximizing of intermolecular interactions between bitumen and aggregate surfaces was studied. Topological and physico-chemical properties were described and it is shown that presence of promoters increases adhesion about 18%.

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2021-02-24
00:44
CrystalCMP: examples of use
Rohlíček, Jan
The program CrystalCMP can be used for comparison of crystal structures containing separated molecular objects as it is, for instance, in molecular crystals or some metal-organic compounds. The program can be useful in many different situations. This article shows the use of the program CrystalCMP on three basic exam ples for which the program was primarily intended.

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2021-02-24
00:44
Nanopowders of R.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.14./sub.B-type compounds in high magnetic fields: The effects of substitutional and interstitial atoms on inter-sublattice exchange interaction
Paukov, M. ; Ivanov, L. ; Tereshina, I. ; Tereshina-Chitrova, Evgenia ; Gorbunov, D. ; Andreev, A. V. ; Pyatakov, A.P. ; Granovsky, S.A. ; Doerr, M. ; Drulis, H.
The fundamental magnetic characteristics of R2Fe14B intermetallics are highly sensitive to atomic substitutions and interstitial absorption of light elements. In this work, both were combined, and the influence of the substitutions in the R-sublattice and hydrogen absorption on the magnetization of (RR’) 2Fe14BHx (R is Tm or Er, and R’ is Nd) in magnetic fields up to 58 T was studied. By using direct hydrogen absorption, (R0.5Nd0.5)2Fe14BHx compounds were obtained with hydrogen content 0≤x≤5.5. Magnetic measurements were carried out on nanopowders. The strength of the inter-sublattice coupling in (R0.5Nd0.5)2Fe14B and their hydrides is estimated by analysing high-field magnetization data. It is shown that hydrogenation weakens the inter-sublattice exchange interaction up to 45 %.

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:44
Compression of ecaped titanium micro-pillars for two principal orientations
Vokoun, David ; Maňák, Jan ; Tesař, Karel ; Habr, Stanislav
The thermomechanical processing by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) is used for certain metals and alloys in order to make their structure fine and to increase material strength. In the previous study done at our institute, grade 2 titanium was successfully processed using four consecutive route A passes via a 90° ECAP die with high backpressure at room temperature. Orientation dependence of compressive and tensile loading of ECAPed titanium samples was demonstrated at macro-scale. However, scarce attention has been paid so far to the mechanical behavior of ECAPed titanium samples at micro-scale. In the present study, compression experiments on titanium micro-pillars, fabricated using focused ion beam, are carried out for two main directions in respect to preceding ECAP pressing (insert and extrusion directions). The purpose of this study is to discuss the orientation dependence of mechanical response during compression of the as-ECAPed titanium micro-pillars.

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2021-02-24
00:44
ZnMg0.8Ca/Sr0.2 ternary alloys - the influence of the third element on material properties
Čapek, Jaroslav ; Pinc, Jan ; Kubásek, J. ; Molnárová, Orsolya ; Maňák, Jan ; Drahokoupil, Jan
Zinc-based materials alloyed with the elements of the 2nd group of the periodic table have been studied as potential materials for the fabrication of various biodegradable implants. In this study, we prepared two ternary alloys: ZnMg0.8Ca0.2 (wt.%) and ZnMg0.8Sr0.2. The microstructure of both ternary alloys was similar, the main difference was in the size and morphology of the Ca/SrZn13 phase. The SrZn13 phase formed fine particles with a submicron size and had more significant hardening effect in the as-cast state compared to the CaZn13 phase. The annealing led to a transformation of the eutectic structure into the “massive” Mg2Zn11 phase which caused a significant increase of both hardness and compressive yield stress. In the annealed states, comparable hardness was observed for both alloys and higher compressive yield strength for the Ca-containing alloy.

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:44
Studium tepelných vlastností deagregovaných detonačních nanodiamantů metodami DSC-TG-MS
Zemenová, Petra ; Král, Robert ; Henych, Jiří ; Stehlík, Štěpán
Příspěvek se zabýval studiem tepelných procesů u různě zpracovaných a frakcionovaných vzorků deagregovaných detonačních nanodiamantů metodami termických analýz (DSC-diferenční skenovací kalorimetrie a TG-termogravimetrie) a analýzy plynných produktů (MS-hmotová spektrometrie).

Úplný záznam
2021-02-24
00:43
Studium vlivu složení ve směsi CsCl-HfCl.sub.4./sub. na její tepelné vlastnosti v uzavřeném systému pomocí DSC analýzy
Král, Robert ; Zemenová, Petra ; Vaněček, Vojtěch ; Bystřický, Aleš
Příspěvek se zabývá studiem tepelného chování směsi CsCl-HfCl4 o různém složení (nadbytek Cs- nebo Hf-složky) v uzavřeném systému (křemenné ampuli) pomocí neizotermní DSC analýzy. Ze získaných výsledků a jejich porovnáním s fázovým diagramem CsCl-HfCl4 bylo možné získat důležité informace potřebné k optimalizaci růstu krystalů Cs2HfCl6 vertikální Bridgmanovou metodou.

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