National Repository of Grey Literature 62 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Potenciální vliv tkáňově specifických transkripčních faktorů na expresi metalothioneinů
Michálková, Nikola
Metallothioneins represent a group of intracellular proteins capable of binding metal ions, and their function includes the regulation of cellular levels of these metal ions. Transcription factors are central regulators of gene expression and play an important role in regulating the expression of metallothionein genes, which represents the basic mechanism for the cellular response to changes in metal ion levels. Although transcription factors that bind to the promoter regions of metallothioneins are known, their role in inducing the expression of metallothionein genes is far from clear. The subject of this thesis was the induction of gene expression of metallothioneins by zinc ions in HUH7 (hepatocellular carcinoma) and T47D (breast cancer) cell lines, and the subsequent analysis of gene expression of selected transcription factors. The selection of transcription factors was based on TF ChIP-seq analysis of ENCODE database. For the experimental part, the transcription factors FOXA1, FOXA2, HNF4A, and HNF4G were chosen, whose high levels are typical for liver tissue. Furthermore, gene expression of the ubiquitinated transcription factors JUND, NR3C1, RXRA, STAT3, SP1, and MTF1 was monitored. Statistically significant changes in gene expression (RT-qPCR) after short-term exposure (4-6 h) to 100 μM ZnSO4 were observed for FOXA1, JUND, and MTF1. In the case of FOXA1, a decrease in gene expression was observed in both tumor lines compared to the control, whereas an increase in expression was observed in JUND and MTF1 after ZnSO4 treatment. In the case of MTF1, a significant increase was observed only in the HUH7 tumor line. The results show that, in addition to the validated zinc-sensitive transcription factor MTF1, the transcription factors FOXA1 and JUND could also be involved in the regulation of metallothionein gene expression. FOXA1 could represent a potential repressor and inducer of JUND metallothionein expression in response to increased exposure to zinc ions.
Characterization of Cbf11 and Mga2 interactions in the fission yeast
Grulyová, Michaela ; Převorovský, Martin (advisor) ; Čáp, Michal (referee)
Transcription factor Cbf11 belongs to the CSL protein family. The CSL protein family is well known for its function in Notch signalling pathway, however representatives in Notch- less fission yeast were discovered. Mga2 protein is a transcription regulator of triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipid metabolism. A crosstalk between Cbf11 and Mga2 was found. Cbf11 and Mga2 share target genes, and both are required for mitotic fidelity. This thesis aims to validate and characterize relationship between these transcription regulators. We show here that protein levels of Cbf11 and Mga2 change in response to presence of the other protein, as well as in response of nitrogen source. We also determine phylogenetic distribution of Cbf11 and Mga2 among Fungi, pointing to its connection. Using proteomic analysis of mga2 and cbf11 deletion strains we found that there is an overlap between proteins up/downregulated in these strains. Together, these results acknowledge crosstalk between Cbf11 and Mga2 proteins, bringing a novel connection between CSL protein family member and a functional analogue of mammalian SREBP-1 protein Mga2.
The role of transcription factors in mouse eye development
Sunny, Sweetu Susan ; Kozmik, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Pavlínková, Gabriela (referee) ; Fafílek, Bohumil (referee)
Vision is a complex process that begins with the transmission and refraction of light through a highly specialised transparent tissue called the cornea. The cornea acts as a protective barrier and contributes to the focusing power of the eye. The development of mammalian cornea is a multiphase process involving the formation of the corneal epithelium (CE), stroma and endothelium (CEn) during embryogenesis, followed by the postnatal stratification of epithelium and constant renewal of desquamated outermost cells. Paired box protein (Pax) 6 is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor important for the proper development of the eye. To provide further insights into the role of Pax6 in corneal development, we took the advantage of Cre-loxP system for selectively inactivating Pax6 in two ocular domains, specifically, the postnatal CE and the ocular surface epithelium (OSE) (cornea, limbus, and conjunctiva). We generated a novel postnatal CE-specific Cre-expressing transgenic mouse line, Aldh3-Cre. Inactivation of Pax6 in the postnatal CE using Aldh3-Cre resulted in the abnormal thin cornea with defective cell-cell adhesion, thus providing direct evidence for the function of Pax6 in postnatal corneal development. Subsequently, the OSE-specific depletion of Pax6 using K14-Cre, resulted in the...
Hif1a role in cardiovascular function and heart disease
Matějková, Kateřina ; Pavlínková, Gabriela (advisor) ; Holzerová, Kristýna (referee)
Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A) is a transcriptional factor, which plays a central role in the maintenance of homeostasis under hypoxic conditions. It regulates a wide variety of genes encoding proteins that influence metabolism, extracellular matrix composition, oxidoreductase activity or angiogenesis in response to reduced oxygen levels. When HIF1A protein function is impaired, the organism is unable respond appropriately to hypoxia. Altered HIF1A regulation can result in severe tissue damage and eventually lead to death. The heart, as an organ with a huge oxygen consumption, is susceptible to various pathologies caused by hypoxic stress. The role of HIF1A in the heart is rather ambiguous and remains to be elucidated. It plays a role in cardioprotective mechanisms but also promotes the development of inflammation and apoptosis. This thesis aims to clarify the role of HIF1A in maintaining physiological functions of the heart during adaptation to hypoxic conditions using a mouse model with heterozygous Hif1a+/- deletion. Experiments involving molecular and cell biology methods performed on left ventricular tissue were preceded by bioinformatic analysis of data obtained by RNA sequencing of isolated cardiomyocytes. RNA sequencing data were analyzed using the R scripting language (packages...
Specific heme interaction modulates the conformational dynamics and function of p53
Sergunin, Artur ; Martínková, Markéta (advisor) ; Dračínská, Helena (referee)
Tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most studied proteins in terms of cancer and the mechanism of its formation. The general function of p53 is based on the transcriptional regulation of various genes, which can differently influence numerous cellular processes. Recent studies revealed a relationship between p53 and iron homeostasis within the cell. In particular, p53 was shown to interact with a molecule of heme, and this interaction ultimately disrupts the DNA-binding ability of p53 and promotes its proteasomal degra- dation. This work focuses on a detailed description of heme binding to the p53. For this purpose, we isolated two forms of p53, heme-free and heme-bound. We discovered that conformational dynamics of heme-free and heme-bound p53 differ, with the latter exhibi- ting a higher degree of flexibility. We also confirmed previous reports that heme indeed interacts with a cysteine residue in a specific manner. However, heme binding does not disrupt the oligomeric state of p53 or its native zinc binding ability. Finally, we showed that heme-bound p53 exhibits severely impaired DNA-binding ability as opposed to the heme-free form. Keywords: heme, sensor proteins, p53 protein, transcription factor, intrinsically disor- dered proteins
Modulation of DNA Binding Affinity of Transcription Factors FOXO and p53 Through Protein-protein Interactions
Hofmanová, Adéla ; Obšil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Pavlíček, Jiří (referee)
5 Abstract The forkhead box "O" (FOXO) proteins are a subclass of the Forkhead family of transcription factors that play a critical role in a variety of cellular processes such as response to cellular stress, gluconeogenesis, cell cycle control, apoptosis, senescence, and repair of DNA damage. They are generally considered to be tumor suppressors. However, it has been shown that they can promote tumorigenesis and induce resistance to the chemotherapeutic agents. Despite many years of research into the biological role of FOXO proteins, a number of questions remain to be answered. For example, whether the slight structural differences observed in the otherwise highly homologous DNA-binding domains of individual FOXO transcription factors affect their DNA binding affinity. Furthermore, it is unclear how protein-protein interactions affect DNA binding affinity of FOXO proteins. Recent study has described the interaction of FOXO transcription factors with the p53 protein. Protein p53 is called the guardian of the genome due to its ability to mediate the response to acute DNA damage. The interaction of FOXO and p53 proteins appears to have a major effect on the DNA binding affinity of both these proteins. Based on this, DNA-binding domains of the human transcription factors FOXO1, FOXO3 and FOXO4 (FOXO1(144-270),...
Stability study of the transcription factor and dsDNA complex in the gas and the liquid phases
Kadavá, Tereza ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Rozbeský, Daniel (referee)
Integrative structural biology employs not only high-resolution techniques for the determination of the structure of biomolecules. Information about dynamical and heterogeneous assemblies is hardly achievable with conventional approaches. Therefore, low-resolution techniques are being utilized. As mass spectrometry (MS) is sensitive, specific, and versatile, there are a lot of structural techniques based on MS established. Native mass spectrometry is an approach that uses non-denaturing solvents for nanoelectrospray ionization, thus preserving tertiary and quaternary structures in the gas phase. Therefore, information on the composition of native biomolecules is obtained. Moreover, employing ion mobility (IM-MS) also provides structural insight. Using MS, we can directly analyze biomolecules perturbation, such as by variable-temperature nanoelectrospray ionization (vT-nESI). The aim of this master's thesis was to characterize the thermal stability of the protein-DNA complexes of TEAD1 and FOXO4 transcription factors DNA-binding domains. Complexes were studied using native MS and IM-MS employing an in-house developed vT-nESI source. First, vT-nESI was used to determine the melting temperatures of double-stranded DNA, which were in correspondence with those theoretically calculated and experimentally...
Characterization of closed mitosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe with perturbed lipid metabolism
Hohoš, Patrik ; Převorovský, Martin (advisor) ; Cebecauer, Marek (referee)
[EN] The division of an eukaryotic cell is mediated by the process of mitosis. It is a complex cellular process which needs to be highly regulated. In contrast to the mammalian open type of mitosis when nuclear envelope is disassembled, fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes closed mitosis inside the intact nuclear compartment. Cell nucleus undergoes morphological changes as a common sphere-shaped nucleus stretches upon mitotic spindle activity forming typical dumbbell structure. Further tension results in the separation of two daughter nuclei. Such extensive changes in the nuclear envelope surface demand a sufficient supply of membrane phospholipids. Cells with perturbed lipid metabolism are unable to meet such a demand and the mitotic division in these cells usually results as a catastrophic mitotic event or CUT (Cell Untimely Torn) phenotype. Moreover, recent studies show genetic interactions between the deletions of the lipid gene regulator cbf11 and factors maintaining the centromere chromatin structure. Surprisingly, rescue of CUT phenotype has been recently reported after the deletion of several factors contributing to the centromeric H3K9 epigenetic modifications in the cells lacking the transcription factor Cbf11. Here we show no rescue of CUT phenotype after the deletion of...
Molecular mechanism of animal cells adaptation on hyperosmotic induced stress
Novotná, Jana ; Vávra, Jiří (advisor) ; Převorovský, Martin (referee)
Various types of cells animal tissues consist of need to adapt to intracellular as well as extracellular osmotic changes in order to maintain homeostasis. Hypertonicity (increased osmolarity) is one of the factors activating complex cellular reactions. In order to manage such stress, a cell needs to incorporate regulation pathways that can either regulate ion transporters through WNK kinases or activate gene expression of transporters of compatible osmolytes through the transcription factor TonEBP/NFAT5. Physiologically exposed to hypertonic conditions are cells in renal medulla, cartilage, inner ear tissues, in specialised neurons or buccal epithelium. This work includes basic and current knowledge about the adaption of cells to increased osmolarity of outer environment. Key words: Hyperosmolarity, osmotic stress, TonEBP/NFAT5, WNK kinases, NF-κB, HSP70
Recombinant preparation of DNA binding domain of transcription factor TEAD1
Kúdelová, Veronika ; Novák, Petr (advisor) ; Dračínská, Helena (referee)
TEAD proteins belong to a significant family of transcription factors that contribute to the regulation of organism growth and cell differentiation during its development by activating the expression of a wide variety of genes. This family shares two highly conserved sites, the TEA DNA binding domain, after which the proteins have been named, and the domain by which transcription factors bind other coactivators. Because TEAD proteins are not able to activate transcription themselves, they interact with a number of coactivators. These coactivators allow the transcription of the gene of interest to be regulated. Failure of TEAD protein activity regulation can lead to cancer. Therefore, TEAD family proteins nowadays play an important role in the development of new anticancer drugs. One way of inhibiting these proteins is to block the active site in their DNA binding domain, thus, to block their binding to DNA. This bachelor thesis deals with recombinant expression of said DNA binding domain of transcription factor TEAD1, which is extended by amino acids in unstructured regions. After finding suitable conditions of protein production, we proceeded to large volume production which was followed by purification and protein identity verification. Finally, the ability of the produced protein to interact...

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