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Theory and research of disinformation in contemporary media studies
Steinwald, Robert ; Podzimek, Jan (advisor) ; Miessler, Jan (referee)
Disinformation is an important topic, which is currently receiving considerable attention not only in academic circles, but also in the public sphere. The reason is their potentially strong and unpredictable influence. Despite the importance of this topic, we find that the very concept of "disinformation" is not entirely stable and its meaning may vary according to individual authors or approaches. However, it is not only the meaning in terms of definition, but also the properties and internal structure and the relationship to related concepts such as fake news, hoaxes, misinformation, etc. And it is the mapping of various concepts of disinformation that will be the research goal of this bachelor thesis. The material will be theoretically focused professional publications on the topic from various authors. However, the concept of misinformation will not only be examined on a semantic level, but also in relation to the social environment and events, including the relationship to media legislation, regulation and literacy, as well as to certain topics in connection with which a number of misinformations are spreading (eg covid- 19). This will be taken into account in several studies and reports focused on misinformation in today's society.
Disinformation in France: A Strategy of Information Warfare in the Digital Age
Bourdas, Annabelle Marie Amelie ; Střítecký, Vít (advisor) ; Scotto, Thomas (referee)
Political elections are a fertile ground for disinformation campaigns to prosper as have shown studies on Brexit and the 2016 US elections. The 2022 presidential French elections took place in a particular setting due to the social and political context marked by the rise of far-right parties and movements as well as the succession of crises such as the 2015 terrorist attacks, 2018 yellow vests movement, the Covid-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. This context and the health crisis in particular have given a new lease of life to far-right movements. Indeed, they spread disinformation, mainly on social media, on the pandemic and fuelled anti-system feelings to advance their agenda. In this context, the far-right political candidate to the 2022 elections, Éric Zemmour, a famous polemicist, thrived and managed to impose himself in the national political landscape. He did so notably by using discursive practices and his media presence. As a result, there has been a banalisation of far-right rhetoric and conspiracy theories in society. This has two major consequences: first, the undermining of democratic and electoral processes and second, the risk of a resurgence of domestic terrorism. Therefore, disinformation is a threat for democracies as they exacerbate social tensions and divisions which can...
Archetypal narrativisation and it's use in disinformations
Lebduška, Daniel ; Nečas, Vlastimil (advisor) ; Soukup, Martin (referee)
The aim of the diploma thesis Archetypal narrativisation and it's use in disinformations is to verify the connection between archetypal narrativization and misinformation, to describe which archetypal narratives are most often used by misinformation, to systematize them and then to describe which emotions are targeted by archetypal narrativization in misinformation. This study therefore explores the use of archetypal narrativization as a persuasion technique in disinformation campaigns. Drawing on the concept of archetypes from Jungian psychology and narrativization theory, this research examines how archetypal elements are strategically used to shape and disseminate misinformation. Through a comprehensive literature review and analysis of specific misinformation messages, the study examines the underlying motivations and effects of the use of archetypes in misinformation narratives. By exploiting deeply embedded psychological patterns and collective cultural symbolism, these campaigns seek to manipulate emotions, promote cognitive biases, and exploit social contradictions. The use of archetypes such as hero, villain, and victim allows purveyors of disinformation messages to create compelling narratives that resonate with target audiences and elicit specific responses. The thesis proposing further...
Echoing political ideologies? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the 'Os Pingos nos Is' Coverage during the 2022 Brazilian Elections
Campolina Rebello Guerrero, Daniela ; Shavit, Anna (advisor) ; Němcová Tejkalová, Alice (referee)
The importance of ideology and political discourse in driving voting behavior in democratic societies has become a central concern in research. In this context, journalism plays a critical role in how electoral information and ideological positions are disseminated and shape public opinion. Given polarization tendencies in countries like Brazil which undermine the legitimacy of the electoral process, the role of journalism in democratic societies has been increasingly put into question. Especially during political elections, where people rely on information to make informed decisions, the discursive power of journalistic content holds the potential to affect people's voting choices. This thesis, therefore, aims to investigate the ideological positions conveyed in Jovem Pan's show 'Os Pingos nos Is' during Brazil's 2022 presidential runoff campaign. The research adopts a qualitative approach and uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to analyze five selected videos from the show on YouTube, focusing on the dominant discourses and themes. The study reveals that the show took a pro- Bolsonaro stance, displaying strong ideological polarization. The discourse featured beliefs in electoral fraud and attempted to undermine the legitimacy of the electoral process by verbally attacking Brazilian...
Teaching about Disinformation. On Media Education in the Czech Republic, Finland, and the UK
Bílková, Petra ; Lánský, Ondřej (advisor) ; Dvořáková, Michaela (referee)
This bachelor's thesis deals with misinformation and demonstrates how schools in selected countries approach the issue of misinformation in media education and subsequently compares these approaches. The thesis focuses on the concept of misinformation and distinguishes other related terms (fake news, hoaxes, conspiracy theories, etc.). Furthermore, the thesis analyzes the fundamental aspects of media education, specifically in the Czech Republic, Finland, and the United Kingdom. This section provides the reader with a clearer picture of how individual countries approach media education. The comparison is specifically emphasized on the topic of misinformation. Thus, the thesis aims to answer whether Czech students are sufficiently educated in dealing with misinformation and media in general.
Chain emails during the 2023 presidential election
Novotná, Barbora ; Wolák, Radim (advisor) ; Klimeš, David (referee)
This thesis examines chain emails during the 2023 Czech presidential election. The practical part outlines the most important concepts related to disinformation. However, it also presents the impact of chain emails and their most common spread among the senior generation. It additionally looks at presidential election issues and disinformation shared directly by candidates. The second part of the thesis analyzes the chain emails shared two months before the election until the second round of the election and their impact on voters. Thus, the practical part deals not only with the content and language but also with the candidates' portrayal. It focuses on the main favorites of the election, Petr Pavel, Andrej Babiš and Danuša Nerudová. Nevertheless, at the same time it furthermore spotlights on candidate Jaroslav Bašta, who is directly linked to the disinformation scene. The practical part does not leave out the disinformation contained in the chain emails. During the research, the thesis uses both quantitative content analysis and qualitative semiotic analysis. By combining these two methods, it is able to provide a comprehensive picture of the influence of chain emails. Finally, the findings of both analyses are linked to a common conclusion that will present the influence of emails on voters.
Deepfakes and current events in digital media
Vocásek, Šimon ; Wolák, Radim (advisor) ; Končelík, Jakub (referee)
Diploma thesis deals with the emergence of deepfakes and their influence on contemporary developments within digital media. The theoretical part of the thesis focuses on the technologies behind the emergence of deepfakes, but also on their pitfalls and impacts on current events in the media space. For these purposes, the work describes various areas from the applications and current use of artificial intelligence, through the influence on the credibility of the media to the regulation of the issue and the moral dilemmas associated with the creation of deepfakes. In the practical part, a qualitative experiment was first conducted, focusing on human abilities to recognize deepfake content compared to its real-life counterpart. The experiment was followed by a qualitative part of the research using a semi- structured interview method focusing on the public's perceptions of deepfakes
EU response to hybrid threats: the national position of the Slovak Republic
Ilkova, Alexandra ; Bahenský, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Rosendorf, Ondřej (referee)
The main purpose of this master's thesis is to illuminate the national position of the Slovak Republic on the EU response to countering hybrid threats. The national position is illustrated through 9 semi-structured interviews conducted with the Slovak national officials and experts working for the national authorities and alternatively for the non-governmental organisations within the field of hybrid threats. The national officials represent the various state departments, such as the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, Ministry of Defense or the Office of the Government. The respondents' professional background heterogeneity leads to a more complex national position, incorporating as many national authorities' structures as possible. At the same time, the work also provides a comprehensive overview of the EU and Slovak approach to countering hybrid threats. While the EU response is mapped out through the adaptation of political and legal frameworks, the emergence of new institutional bodies and inter-institutional cooperation, the Slovak response is demonstrated through the development of national security and defense strategies and the emergence of the departmental units focusing on hybrid threats. Clarifying the approaches to countering hybrid threats from the...
Disinformation in our lives and at school
Kučáková, Aneta ; Samek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Lánský, Ondřej (referee)
This diploma thesis explores in what way disinformation affect thinking and acting of people from psychological and sociological point of view. It defines fundamental concepts often used in relation to modern media world, such as fake new, propaganda, trolling, etcetera. Moreover, it covers how disinformation are accepted by various social groups and why the groups succumb to them. In the subsequent part, it explains, based on expert opinions, the role of media in today's society, how media contribute to the cohesion of the society, but also to its division. An important point is the attitude of the state to disinformation and to overall concept of free speech on social media, where it is often used to spread lies. The main part of the thesis concerns with education, particularly with the relationship between teachers and schools and media education. The practical part of the thesis is based on conversations with teachers from various schools which answer questions related to the teaching of media education. The point of the interviews is to connect them to the theoretical part as well as gain further insight into the topic. Furthermore, the work describes chosen teaching activities that demonstrate ways how media education could be integrated into the tuition of history and civics. The goal of the...
Media Education and Misinformation at the First Stage of Primary School
Burešová, Kamila ; Holanová, Radka (advisor) ; Vlčková, Jana (referee)
This master's thesis deals with the connection between reading and media literacy and the potential use of this connection in primary schools during of not only the Czech language lessons, to develop these literacies within the cross-curricular topic of media education. The first part of this thesis explains important concepts related to reading and media literacy and everything related to this topic. In the practical second part, the knowledge gained from the theoretical part is utilized to create a methodology and working sheets. The methodology serves as a guide for teachers on how to work with the worksheets with students in the second educational period of the first grade of primary school. The created worksheets should contribute to the development of media and reading literacy for students attending the 4th or 5th grade of primary school. KEYWORDS Media literacy; media education; reading literacy; obtaining and verifying information (fact- checking); disinformation; critical thinking.

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