National Repository of Grey Literature 271 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The relationship between body dimensions and locomotion in human and other hominins
Fedrová, Johana ; Struška, Michal (advisor) ; Vážná, Anna (referee)
We work with estimates of body weights and dimensions of hominins derived from fossil finds. The reliability of the estimate is important for calculations related to thermoregulation and energetics of the individual. The termoregulation of individual is influenced by number of factors including breathing type, sweating ability, body hair, type of locomotion, size of limbs to size of body ratio. Hair loss allows for greater heat loss. The ability to sweat and thermoregulate in hominins is more important for running than for walking. Heat loss is influenced by the trunk breath and the distal limb element lenght. Body shape in the current human population conforms to Allen's rule. Populations living closer to the equator show smaller bi-iliac width and longer limbs relative to body size. This trend can be observed in hominins. The cost of locomotion, the cost needed to travel a given distance in a given time, is affected by the lower limb lenght. Longer lower limbs reduce this cost, they allow to cover the distance using fewer steps. Each step is more costly because more muscle power is needed to move the longer limb. The step lenght and the optimal movement speed of the individual is proportional to the individual's stature. Man excels in the ability of bipedal locomotion, which Australopithecus...
Man is Adam, man is Christ: according to st. Augustine
Šavel, Tibor ; Vopřada, David (advisor) ; Salvet, Ondřej (referee)
Annotation: This thesis will address the view of the state of man in paradise and the state of man at the moment of disobedience that occurred through an act of man's will contrary to the manifested will of the Creator communicated to the creature through reason and will. It will describe the condition of man who, through his incarnation, was accepted by the Son of God, namely Jesus Christ. This incarnation is a historical event and encourages man to follow the one who incarnated him. In doing so, man can participate in building the kingdom of God here on Earth. All this will be written according to the anthropology of St. Augustine, as described in his writing. Key words: man, disobedience, sin, will, freedom, healing, celebration
Preferences for markers of health status in humans
Jíchová, Františka ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Fiala, Vojtěch (referee)
Several evolutionary hypotheses suggest that different organisms have evolved systematic preferences for markers of mate health. These markers may provide clues to an individual's immunocompetence, current health status, and health history. Correct recognition of good health helps to select a quality partner who can offer advantages such as good genetic qualities that can be passed on to offspring, can participate more effectively in the care of offspring, and thus does not put the individual at risk of infection. Awareness of these markers may be important not only in mate choice but also in other social interactions in which it is important mainly to correctly estimate current health and possibly avoid interaction with an infectious individual. Preference for markers of health in humans may be based, for example, on visual cues in the face, such as color, sexual dimorphism, skin texture, or an assessment of overall stature. Markers may also be olfactory, where an unattractive odor may indicate the presence of a potential disease. Last but not least, there are acoustic markers. However, the interaction of the manifestations of each modality may also be important. The aim of my bachelor thesis is to provide a theoretical overview of the association of current health, immunocompetence and health...
Evolution of hair in great apes and humans
Vejmělková, Anna ; Hora, Martin (advisor) ; Jarešová, Pavla Alexia (referee)
Humans are distinguished from other primates by their functionally naked body surface, caused by reduced body hair density and the type of hair called vellus, with which humans are predominantly covered. This type of hair represents fine and poorly pigmented hair, which, unlike terminal hair, is hardly visible. However, a reduced hair density can also be observed in other hominids, including the genus Homo and the genera Pan, Gorilla, and Pongo. In this work, we first compare the hair density of selected body parts for different species of primates. Next, we describe the structure and functions of hair and discuss hypotheses that explain the possible circumstances leading to a gradual decrease in hair density. We mainly focus on crucial hypotheses related to bipedal locomotion, inhabiting tropical savanna areas, parasites, or the influence of sexual selection. However, we also present some other hypotheses related to the wearing of clothes or the inhabiting of the aquatic environment by our ancestors. This work aims to compare these hypotheses, present arguments for and against them, and summarize their possible effects on the current state. Keywords: human, great apes, evolution, hair
Technical human and human technique - about a relation between human and technique
Geisler, Felix ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (referee)
This thesis studies the topic of the relationship between man and technique through the lens of reflection on this relationship by selected thinkers of the last century who discussed this topic in some of their works (O. Spengler, J. Ortega y Gasset, A. Gehlen). One line of enquiry will trace the nuances of whether and how man constitutes technique, or whether and how technique shapes man. This work will not resolve this interdependence of man and technique once and for all, but it will outline perspectives from which this almost self-evident relationship can be problematized and brought into the questioning even for today. Technique has in fact been considered one of man's essential definitions since modern times. Man is conceived as a practical, acting and, above all, creative being - he transforms nature, that is, he creates a new, humanized second-order nature, which is technique. The second line of inquiry will highlight how technique appears as something that not only makes man human to some extent, but as that which threatens man's being as such. The two lines converge in the question of how much we are threatened by that what shapes us, or how much we are shaped by that what threatens us.
Olfaction-mediated behavioural defence mechanisms in humans
Schwambergová, Dagmar ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Croy, Ilona (referee) ; Polák, Jakub (referee)
This thesis consists of two parts. The first part introduces the importance of behavioural defence mechanisms, specifically the behavioural immune system and mainly in humans. I review current knowledge regarding behavioural defence mediated by odour cues. Although behavioural defence mechanisms are important for all individuals who live in social groups, I focus on mate choice, because that is the context in which olfaction-mediated behavioural defence is studied the most. Subsequently, the importance of olfaction is demonstrated using the example of self-inspection and I discuss how the behavioural immune system may be intertwined with this relatively understudied behaviour. Finally, last chapter deals with associations between olfaction and other modalities that play a role in the detection of cues which help select a healthy and immunocompetent partner. In the second part of the thesis, I present nine papers: three reviews and six empirical studies. The review papers summarise the functioning of the behavioural immune system, olfaction- mediated pathogen avoidance in mammals, and the merely weak association between attractiveness ratings based on different modalities. The first empirical paper investigates whether the threat caused by the Covid-19 pandemic led to increased perceived disgust,...
Thematization of human in the work of Rudolf Ina Malý
Skládalová, Eliška ; Chavalka, Jakub (advisor) ; Šenovský, Jakub (referee)
The thesis deals with the work of the Czech writer, philosopher and diplomat Rudolf Ina Malý. The aim of the study is to analyze how a man is conceived in the author's work, how Malý understands the spiritual crisis of man and how he copes with it, and what alternative solutions he proposes. In doing so, the work presents and reflects on the development of Rudolf Ina Malý's thoughts. A chapter is also devoted to a confrontation with the philosophers Emanuel Rádl and Emil Svoboda. Keywords: Rudolf Ina Malý, fascism, democracy, Jesus, man, Emil Svoboda.
Mud
Součková, Anežka ; Stanová,, Magda (referee) ; Mikyta, Svätopluk (advisor)
The practical part of this bachelor’s thesis is a book called Bahno. It contains drawings and texts which are metaphorically and factually connected to mud: as a matter in which dead organisms and plants decompose and which at the same time feeds the soil for new life to spring, as an endless search for answers on an endless amount of questions on the purpose and contents of existence. The period in which the texts and drawings were being created was a period of concentrated attention on the forms of mud, pop-cultural references and its other occurrences. A part of the intuitive mapping of mud was, among other things, a visit of a village called Bahno ("Mud"), taking samples of the local mud, viewing it under the microscope (taken photographs are contained in the book).
Test dummy validation - differences in human mechanical response
Literová, Lucie ; Jelen, Karel (advisor) ; Šorfová, Monika (referee)
Title: Validation of the test dummy - differences in human mechanical response Objectives: The main goal of this thesis was to verify the usability of the Dummy Hybrid III for crash tests in the transport industry (the front and side directions). Methods: In the presented thesis, experimental methods were used to achieve the goal. The measurement of small impacts in laboratory conditions was carried out using the pendulum of the Department of Anatomy and Biomechanics of the UK FTVS. The measurement was performed on humans as well as on the Dummy Hybrid III. We monitored the reactions in the thoracic spine (thoracic vertebra Th5) and on the top of the head after impacts by a pendulum on certain areas on the human body/dummy. Impacts were delivered in four different intensities to the forehead, temporal bone, chest, shoulder and thigh. The measured impact quantity was the impact velocity. The observed magnitude of the response on the human body and dummy was the magnitude of the resulting acceleration in the area of the Th5 thoracic vertebra and the top of the head. Results: The results of this work have expanded the knowledge in the field of crash tests in the transport industry. Thanks to the obtained results, there was verified the suitability of the laboratory model of the pendulum for further...

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