National Repository of Grey Literature 21 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.02 seconds. 
The study of mitochondrial energy-metabolism maturation
Křížová, Jana ; Hansíková, Hana (advisor) ; Pecina, Petr (referee) ; Rauchová, Hana (referee)
During intrauterine development in mammals, the fetus is exposed to a hypoxic environment. To allow proper postnatal adaptation to external conditions, a rapid transition from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism by mitochondria is required in fetal tissues after birth. Mitochondrial maturation is a complex process that is not only transcriptionally regulated. Using techniques such as microarray analysis, quantitative PCR, measurement of enzyme activities or coenzyme Q (CoQ) levels, we have described the acceleration of mitochondrial metabolism in rat liver tissue and skeletal muscle during the perinatal period and correlated the results with those in humans. Of the 1546 rat mitochondrial genes tested, we found statistically significant differences in the expression of 1119 in liver and 827 in muscle. The most significant shift in expression occurred in the rat liver between 20th and 22nd day of gestation, suggesting that the rat fetus is ready for the transition to external conditions at least 2 days before birth. Changes in CoQ levels in both rats and humans show that the amount of CoQ is low inthe prenatal period and increases after birth in both tissues. We have described the atypical kinase Coq8ap as an enzyme whose expression increases significantly after birth. It was previously predicted to...
The role of cumulus cells during the maturation of mammalian oocytes
Meniuková, Kateřina ; Krylov, Vladimír (advisor) ; Drutovič, David (referee)
Cumulus cells in the ovarian follicles emerge by differentiation from somatic granulosa cells. They are located around the oocytes in stratified clusters and their innermost layer is called the corona radiata. Cytoplasmic microvilli of cumulus cells pass through zona pellucida to the proximity of the oolema, where formation of gap junctions enables signalling and metabolic codependency. Oocytes produce factors affecting processes in cumulus cells, including their metabolism and viability. By modulating the abundance of cyclic nucleotides in oocytes, cumulus cells allow the maintenance of meiotic arrest, providing time for oocytes to finish their growth and gain competence for maturation. Because oocytes have a very limited ability to process glucose, metabolic cooperation with cumulus cells enables them to gain the energy needed for processes associated with growth and maturation. Several metabolic pathways of glucose processing create energy substrates for the formation of ATP, which they then transport to the oocytes. They also regulate the amount of lipid droplets in oocytes and protect them from cellular toxicity. An increase in the concentration of luteinizing hormone in the follicle just before ovulation induces the transmission of the signal for cumulus expansion. Interruption of the...
Technologie výroby a kvalitativní parametry sýrů parmezánového typu
Karpsteinová, Sára
This bachelor thesis is dedicated to the topic: Production technology and quality parameters of parmesan type cheeses. The first part of the literature search deals with the general characteristics of Parmesan type cheeses. The second part describes the input raw materials, namely milk, rennet, milk cultures and salt. The next part of the thesis focuses on the technology of Parmesan cheese production. The individual steps of production include: preparation of the raw material, production of the curd, pressing and moulding, salting and maturation. This is followed by a section on European Union trademarks, which include: Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG). The next section describes the specific cheese-producing countries and the individual representatives of Parmesan type cheese. The cheese types are Grana Padano, Parmigiano Reggiano and Pecorino from Italy, Sbrinz from Switzerland, Džiugas from Lithuania and Gran Moravia from the Czech Republic. The last section deals with the sensory parameters of Gran Moravia Vecchio and Parmigiano Reggiano.
Changes of selected indicators during the aging of beer
The diploma thesis deals with the monitoring of selected quality parameters of chemical analysis during the beer maturation. The course of the change in alcohol content, the actual and apparent extract in the beer, the extract of the original wort and the degree of fermentation of the beer were monitored. Results of the analysis of beers from the Mini-Brewery of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice and the brewery Litovel, a.s. are compared in a uniform technological time of production at the end of maturation just before bottling with samples of beers purchased in the market network in the Czech Republic.
The biology of aging in Nothobranchius fishes
Žák, Jakub
The aging human population and consequent unprecedented demographic changes in society have inevitably led to more scientists focusing their research on aging. Senescence, in the narrowest biological sense, is age related decline in an organism's function and survival. The majority of senescence research is performed in the laboratory environment. The basic biology of wild counterparts of model organisms is therefore relatively unstudied, despite its importance for proper interpretation of laboratory outcomes. This dissertation, via a series of 6 first-authored and 5 second-authored papers, combines field and laboratory research on senescence and senescence-related life history traits using a short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri. An age at the maturity of 14 days post hatching in wild N. furzeri is presented in this thesis as well as extremely fast growth of wild fish. Both life history traits have important consequences for senescence. The following section is focused on how the environment modulates senescence. In the first step, preferred body temperatures of Mozambican Nothobranchius fish were measured and descriptions of environmental and behavioural fluctuations within a 24 hours periodicity were completed. Based on this knowledge, ecologically relevant thermal fluctuations were simulated...
Computational models of dendritic cell development
Štráchalová, Sára ; Bílý, Tomáš (advisor) ; Hartman, David (referee)
Computational modelling is gradually establishing its place in biology and medicine as a tool for research of systems and prediction of their behaviour. In this thesis we propose and analyze a simple compartmental model of the immune system and its responses, focusing on dendritic cells. These cells are an important component of the immune system that is crucial for initiation of the specific part of immune response. The analysis focuses on the types of behaviour and stability of the model. We compare our results with already existing basic model of the immune system. 1
Nutrition for elite female athletes
Salivarová, Sabina ; Thorovská, Alena (advisor) ; Kočí, Jana (referee)
This thesis explores the problematics of nutrition of elite female athletes from aerobic club BM Fitness Havlíčkův Brod. The thesis is aimed on the girls between ages 8 to 16 years old, which corresponds to three age categories. Based on the information gained the thesis is trying to learn the indivdual eating habbits of the the sports girls and compares the differences and similarities in nutrition between the different age groups. In the same time the thesis is trying to learn if the sports girls are eating in accordance with recomendations of the nutritionist and trainer. The thesis is divided into two parts; theoretical and practical. The theoretical part explores the history of sport nutrition, the basic parts of human nutrition, fluid intake, energy metabolism, and timing of meals according to the sport done. Part of the thesis is aimed at younger school age, then middle school age, then at teenagers. The last chapter closely descibres aerobic and fitness. The second half of the thesis consists of a practical part which was based on data gained by half structured interviews. This part is aimed on describing the individual eating habits of sports girls. From the information gained there is a significant difference between the two older catergories and the youngest category. Only the two older...
Pes planus in children: its implications and the influencing factors on its development
Droubi, Farah ; Nováková, Tereza (advisor) ; Satrapová, Lenka (referee)
Background Pes planus is one of the most common diagnoses in the pediatric field; flexible flat foot being the most prevalent. This developmental type of flatfoot is a normal finding in young children, seen to resolve spontaneously with growth and development and also remain asymptomatic. Despite this, there is still a large incidence of flat feet in adolescence and many cases of adult flatfeet are frequently presented as residual pediatric flatfeet. The factors that influence the prevalence of flatfeet during a child's development have also the capacity to altering its course and gaining insight on what they are and their influence aids in diagnosing, treating and preventing flat feet. Purpose The aim of this literature review was to enhance knowledge on the persistence of the flat feet condition in the pediatric population by determining the development of flat feet in children with an outline of its affect on posture and gait and identifying contributing factors that affect the incidence and progression of the deformity. Methodology An electronic database search was conducted to obtain articles from relevant journals (from early 2012 to mid 2013). Only full text English articles were obtained, with a few exceptions. Further information was collected from online textbooks and the reference lists of the...
Transcriptional activity of the genes characterizing developmentally competent cytoplasm in bovine oocytes.
Pešanová, Denisa ; Němcová, Lucie (advisor) ; Kalous, Jaroslav (referee)
4 Abstract The antral follicle provides a specialized microenvironment or niche, which is necessary for production of high quality oocyte. The developmental competence of bovine oocyte is influenced by the follicle size. Oocytes originated from medium or larger follicles (≥6 mm) have greater developmental competence (ability to develop to the blastocyst stage). The changes in cytoplasmic factors, for example mRNAs, could explain differences in oocyte developmental potential. Using Bovine Oligonucleotide microarrays the differences in gene expression profiles of oocytes at germinal vesicle and MII stages from medium (MF, 6-10 mm) or small (SF, 2-5 mm) follicles were characterized. The aim was to find differencies between oocytes diverse developmental competence. The expression fold change between the two experimental groups was in 61 genes. Subsets of 15 differentially expressed genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Before maturation, significant differences were confirmed at the level of ATP5C1, MAP3K13, MTRF1L, TAF1A and UBL5. Subpopulations of oocytes were classified according to atresia of cumulus cells and follicle size. We determined the level of 12 individual transcripts after maturation. ATP5F1 remained stable in all experimental groups of oocytes. The level of BRD7 transcript remained stable...

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