National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Dextran polysaccharides and seminal plasma proteins in boar sperm cryopreservation
Šimoník, Ondřej ; Tůmová, L. ; Bubeníčková, F. ; Sur, Vishma Pratap ; Frolíková, Michaela ; Postlerová, Pavla ; Komrsková, Kateřina
The unique design of a methodical approach to testing cryoprotective components will be used in specialized research institutes or universities, including commercial development bodies in the field of animal reproductive biotechnology. The methodology includes a completely detailed and unique protocol based on many years of experience in the field of proteomics and can be used for further progress testing cryoprotectants for breeding programs of individual species or livestock breeds as regards the importance of retention of genetic resources.\n\n
Molecular genetic approaches used in preimplantation genetic analysis of human embryos in assisted reproduction
Limbergová, Jana ; Machoň, Ondřej (advisor) ; Šimoník, Ondřej (referee)
Preimplantation genetic testing is one of the main clinical procedures that take place in assisted reproduction centres around the world. It is sought after by couples for many different reasons. The causes of problems may relate to hereditary diseases that potential parents do not wish to pass on to their offspring, or may include the risk of transmission of chromosomal alterations. In addition, infertility may be caused by an increased risk of embryo aneuploidy, which correlates with mother's increased age and other factors that this bachelor thesis discusses. The bachelor thesis also focuses on up-to-date approaches to cytogenetic examinations for reproductive genetics and discusses recent clinical molecular methods that are used to improve the diagnosis and therapy of infertile couples. These are, for example, microarray methods, quantitative real-time PCR or next-generation sequencing and methods of whole-genome amplification. This work also summarizes methods that are gradually being abandoned, e.g. fluorescent in situ hybridization, and compares their advantages and disadvantages. Key words: preimplantation genetic testing, aneuploidy, structural rearrangements, monogenic diseases, biopsy, fluorescent in situ hybridization, microarray methods, comparative genomic hybridization, quantitative...
Development of new molecular genetic aproaches in assisted reproductive technology
Limbergová, Jana ; Machoň, Ondřej (advisor) ; Šimoník, Ondřej (referee)
Preimplantation genetic testing is one of the major clinical procedures that takes place in centres of assisted reproduction all around the world. It is sought out by couples for many reasons discussed in this paper. The causes of couples' arrival to the centres might vary from inherited diseases that future parents do not wish to transfer to their offspring to the risk of transfer of chromosomal structural rearrangements. What's more, infertility might be caused by the greater risk of aneuploidy in embryos which correlates with higher maternal age and other factors. This paper also focuses on new approaches in cytogenetic examinations for reproductive medicine. Furthermore, it discusses clinical methods used to improve diagnosis and treatment of infertile couples and experimental methods that could become the base of new diagnostic tools. These are for example single nucleotide polymorphism methods, array-based methods, new generation sequencing and whole genome amplifications. It also looks back at methods that became old-fashioned, just like for example fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and states its pros and cons. Key words: preimplantation genetic testing, aneuploidy, structural rearrangements, monogenic diseases, biopsy
Nutrient deficiency in vegetarianism in children
The bachelor thesis deals with nutrient deficiencies in vegetarianism in children. This topic is becoming more and more important, because at present an ever increasing proportion eats in this manner. However, it is important to realize that this diet brings various risks in addition to all the effects that have a positive influence on organism. Especially during growth and evolution of young organism and groups of infants, young children and adolescents are threatened most. The objective of this bachelor thesis was to find out which nutrients are in deficiency in vegetarianism in children. There were two research questions formulated: "What nutrients are in deficiency in children, who eat a vegetarian diet?" and "What leads childern to eating a vegetarian diet?" The thesis is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The theoretical part focuses on the definition of basic concepts such as vegetarianism and its distribution. It also deals with the risks and preferences of this manner of eating and the problem of the lack of macro and micro nutrients. The practical part was processed using qualitative reseach. The focus group was consisted of 4 children. It was necessary to obtain for the reseach fourteen-day diet records from the children and provide blood sample. Nutrients were found in the blood samples, i. e. the nutrients that are in deficiency, and the diet records were further calculated in the Nutriservis program. The results of the survey are presented in charts and in textual evalution. The reseach shows that in vegetarianism we can find some nutrients in deficiency in all of my respondents and there is a need to increase awareness of that issue.
Assisted reproduction in dogs
Kopecká, Iveta ; Tůmová, Lenka (advisor) ; Šimoník, Ondřej (referee)
The dog is among the largest and longest man domesticated beast and holds in his life indispensable place. To preserve the species is a precondition for its ability to reproduce. To increase the success rate of reproduction contribute in recent decades and methods of assisted reproduction. Among the most common methods of assisted reproduction in dogs include artificial insemination. This can be done in several ways depending on the site deposit seed in genital tract of female (intravaginal, transcervical intrauterine, intratubular insemination). It can be carried out using native, chilled or frozen semen. Insemination process itself affects the success of pregnancy rates. Generally, that is the most successful design insemination with fresh semen intratubular. Another method is assisted reproduction in vitro oocyte fertilization and subsequent embryo transfer. The success of this method is dependent on many factors, among which include the sampling of gametes method of storage, the composition of culture media, mechanisms regulating nuclear oocyte maturation and others. It is evident that the need of further research, leading to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control oocyte maturation and embryonic development in dogs. A relatively new method of reproductive biotechnology is somatic cell nuclear transfer into an oocyte depleted own genetic information called cloning. This technology does not achieve major success so far. Methods of assisted reproduction in dogs hinders overall physiology of the reproductive system, but also more difficult method of obtaining oocytes and embryos, and then find the appropriate recipient. The key seems to be to find a more suitable solution for long term storage of gametes. Achieving successful freezing of sperm and oocyte cryopreservation would lead to greater use of reproductive technologies. Studies on assisted reproduction in dogs are among other things contributing to overall understand of reproductive mechanisms. Acquired knowledge may enable the conservation of valuable dog genotypes in vitro.
In vitro embryo production in horses
Babická, Dominika ; Šichtař, Jiří (advisor) ; Šimoník, Ondřej (referee)
The aim of this work is to write a literature review covering the latest findings in the field of in vitro embryo production in horses. In order to perform in vitro embryo production, you first need to know the anatomy of a mare and management of sexual activity. Reproductive systém of mares consists of two ovaries, two oviducts, uterus, vagina and vulva. Unlike other livestock, the development of oocytes is in the cortex of the ovary. Sexual activity is driven neurohumoral and production of hormone is ensured by the central nervous system and endocrine glands. For in vitro embryo production must be obtained first oocytes. These are collected from either the living or the dead mares. For live mares are used ovum pick up (OPU, transvaginal ultrasound guided aspiration), standing flank laparotomy or transcutaneous flank puncture. OPU is a noninvasive method, where each follicle is flushed several times, and in the obtained solution is looked for oocytes. Invasive, but a very successful method for obtaining oocytes is transcutaneous flank puncture. There are three ways for collecting oocytes from abbatoir ovaries - either by slicing ovaries or curettage or aspiration. Very good results in amounts of obtained oocytes was proved by slicing ovaries. First, after collecting oocytes must be sorted according to cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) on compact, expanded or degenerating oocytes. Compact and expanded oocytes are distinguished under a microscope based on the morphology of the edges of this COC. Compact oocytes have a clear line margins, while margins of expanded oocytes are deformed and have heterogeneous cytoplasm. Best results for the production of embryos exhibit expanded oocytes. First, it has to be matured in the medium to the stage of MII. The culture system for oocyte maturation consists of the M199 with Earl's salts, 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 mU - ml of bovine follicle stimulating hormone in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air at 38.2 ° C. It was found out that regardless of the duration of cultivation, results of development of blastocysts after 24 or 48 hours were the same. Standard IVF in horses can not be performed due to the zona pellucida and sperm capacitation. Therefore it is used intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), when one immobilized sperm is injected directly into the oocyte. Before ICSI sperm capacitation must be done by using the calcium ionophore. Oocytes were further cultured in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Another possibility is to transfer the fertilized oocyte directly to the uterine horn of the mare, or it is used cryopreservation for future.

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3 ŠIMONÍK, Ondřej
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