National Repository of Grey Literature 54 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The imperativ of transcendence. On the sense of philosophy and the philosophical possibilities in the end of metaphysical epoch according to Jan Patočka. The interpretation of chosen texts (1929-1952)
Sladký, Pavel ; Karfík, Filip (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
One of the great themes of Jan Patočka's philosophy is the problem of essence and meaning of philosophy. If philosophical thinking aspires to overall understanding, the philosophical self-reflection is a natural part of the very philosophical activity. From the end of 1920's till the beginning of 1950's it is possible to find three ways of philosophical self-reflection in Patočka's texts. The first one is contained in the series of early writings in which Patočka successively, and from the different points of view, shows essential aspects of "personal philosophical life". The second one is identical with Patočka's interpretation of Socratic teaching. Finally, we can trace back the third way in programmatic text "Negative Platonism" in which Patočka in detail determines relation between metaphysics and philosophy. The purpose of our thesis consisted in successive and systematic interpretation of the forms of Patočka's metaphilosophy, mentioned above, and their relation. Of course, there is a development in Patočka's thinking and terminology; we show, however, that meaning of central metaphilosophical motives does not change in his writings - general attributes of philosophical subjectivity from the early texts are constitutive "parts" of Patočka's Socrates as a paradigm of philosophical activity in general,...
Kierkegaard's and Dostoevsky's conception of subjectivity
Vaškovic, Petr ; Ritter, Martin (advisor) ; Rosfort, René (referee) ; Pattison, George (referee)
Existential entrapment in the works of Dostoevsky and Kierkegaard (Petr Vaškovic) Abstract The overarching question that guides Dostoevsky's and Kierkegaard's extensive inquiries into the affective, rational, and spiritual dimensions of human existence is relatively straightforward, albeit not simple: they want to know what constitutes an authentic Christian life. The answer they give-as I argue in my dissertation thesis-is that one ought to rid oneself of egotistic inclinations and aim for a life of faith that revolves around the virtues of humility and non-preferential love. Dostoevsky and Kierkegaard then urge their readers to enter upon this path of individual existential self-development. However, becoming an authentic Christian is by no means an easy task. Both writers acknowledge that this climb up the existential ladder is-to cite Kierkegaard's pseudonymous author Johannes Climacus-a task 'harder than sustaining the heaven and earth.' This rather pessimistic conclusion is also the starting point of my thesis: if Dostoevsky and Kierkegaard understand human life as a developmental process in which one laboriously moves away from egotism towards ethical and religious perfection, we can then look for moments of abrupt existential growth (e.g., Kierkegaard's leap of faith or Dostoevsky's moments of...
Thistorted existence
Kovář, Vojtěch ; Kouba, Petr (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
"Thistorted existence" is devoted to ontological issue of frenzy. Based on fundamental ontology it aims to contemplate existential situation of a lunatic, who himself is understood as an existence. Nevertheless, a bit of different existence than Dasein analyzed by Martin Heidegger in the Being and Time. The text strives to gain access to such different existence by an original insight at ontology in general. That gives necessary instruments and ontological notions for understanding the frenzy in its ontological essence. Thus frenzy shows itself as recovery to being and reestablishment of thistorted existence in front of the deal to be.
On immaculate knowledge
Lomozová, Petra ; Kouba, Pavel (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
This paper interprets the basic motives from the chapter "On Immaculate Knowledge" (or "On Immaculate Perception") of the second part of Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra. This interpretation is used for the explanation of Nietzsche's account of knowledge in its relation to will and for his critical reflexion of the same question in Schopenhauer. It concerns with Schopenhauer's and Nietzsche's conception of body, will and knowledge. It focuses on the question of pure knowledge, perspectivism, active and reactive valuation, the idea of the sublime and of the strong will in Nietzsche. Finally it it offers an interpretation of Nietzsche's conception of beauty as a creative will and of the process of transformation of the will into the creative will.
Myth in Jan Patočka ́s Thinking
Veselý, Jindřich ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee) ; Novotný, Karel (referee)
The aim of this dissertation, Myth in Jan Patočka ́s thinking, is to explore the issue of the myth in Jan Patočka ́s philosophy. This thinker dealt with myth during all his life, although not systematically, and he discussed it in various contexts and perspectives. The dissertation wants to introduce development of Patočka ́s thinking from this particular point of view in its continuity and discontinuity as well, it tries to reconstruct this meditation and also inquires its function in whole Patočka ́s thinking and its coherence. We presuppose unifying centre of Patočka ́s philosophy, finite being ́s movement of transcendence, and we interpret the issue of the myth in its relation to this centre. We endeavour to depict Patočka ́s unfoldment of this issue, but we also inquire questionable aspects of his thinking. In our opinion there is certain fluctuation or ambiguity in basic foundations of Patočka ́s philosophy. His conception is weakened by questionable presuppositions. That leads to statements difficult to keep. Our conclusion outlines an alternative conception of relation between myth and finite being ́s transcendence and instead of impossible overcoming of myth we propose conscious adoption and responsible modification of indispensable narrative background of all experience. Powered by TCPDF...
Žižek's critique of the ideology
Májíček, Jan ; Hauser, Michael (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
In our thesis we take a account of Slavoj Žižek's critique of the ideology. We start from Marx's conception of the ideology as false consciousness. We link it with Žižek's interdiction of the notion of jouissance and in the light of it Žižek's critique of Marx's conception a elaboration of original theory of ideology. Our thesis takes a look on the notion of totalitarism developed by Arendt and analysis of Nazism a Stalinism.
Walter Benjamin's philosophy of language
Ritter, Martin ; Petříček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Thein, Karel (referee) ; Stromšík, Jiří (referee)
The work analyzes Walter Benjamin's philosophy oflanguage presenting it as an ontological and cognitive basis ofhis early thought (1916-1925). The investigation starts from a detailed study of an unpublished reflection On language as Such and on the Language of Man. The analysis of the text contrasts its metaphysical interpretation with its deconstructive reading opting for a hermeneutical approach. Benjamin's philosophy of language is presented as a theory in which all being is conceived as language. Benjamin not only constructs a metaphysical conception according to which all human beings express themselves to God by naming existing things, but simultaneously defines constitutive property of (all) language, namely its "immediacy", i.e. the fact that language is primarily not a medium of communication. However, the text On language describes also a (biblical) fall which causes a loss of immediacy and a rise of the multiplicity of languages. The area of (fallen) plurality of languages is investigated in the The Tas k of the Translator, which focuses on the relation and kinship of languages. This kinship is based on the fact that alllanguages want to say the same thing, namely the "pure language". The analysis of The Task of the Translator stresses the semantic and, in this sense, conceptual aspect of...
The Vitalism of Canguilhem
Čejka, Vojtěch ; Čapek, Jakub (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
The Vitalism of Canguilhem Vojtěch Čejka Abstract: Our bachelor project entitled The vitalism of Canguilhem concerns itself with the vitalist approach to life, as it was described by Georges Canguilhem in years 1946-7. The first part of our text introduces several vitalist physicians often mentioned in Canguilhem's texts, and their reply to the mechanistic explication of life inspired by Descartes. The second part focuses on Canguilhem's opinions concerning the older vitalists. We also point out what it is that Canguilhem finds still relevant with these authors and their attitude towards life. The manifestations of Canguilhem's vitalism, which we label "critical", are illustrated by an analysis of two of his texts in the third part. His method of reversal (renversement) which is present in both of these texts and elsewhere seems crucial to us. In the closing section we apply this method to Francis Crick's Of molecules of men. Keywords: vitalism, mechanicism, life, machine, milieu, René Descartes, Paul-Joseph Barthez, Xavier Bichat.
The term "discourse" in Foucault's work
Vácha, Ondřej ; Petříček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
The Bachelor Degree Thesis "The Term 'Discourse' in Foucault's work" focuses on elaboration of basic questions connected with Foucault's theory of discourses. It questions, whether the project is self-refuting or not and what are the main goals of the project. An analysis of R.Rorty's text "Foucault and epistemology" introduces the question what is the relation between classical epistemological tradition and Foucault's archaeology. For elaboration of this question the thesis analyses Foucault's text called "The Order of Discourse" and mainly "The Archaeology of knowledge". It concludes that Foucault's theory at it's roots enables to use the term "discourse" in such a wide significance, that Foucault can use the term as the base for a narrow interconnection of epistemology and political philosophy.
Martin Heidegger: Man, World and Space
Kocman, Vojtěch ; Čapek, Jakub (advisor) ; Ritter, Martin (referee)
5 Abstract This essay presents an attempt to interpret the key moments of Heidegger's conception of spaciousness. Considering the fact, that Heidegger didn't publish his understanding of spaciousness in any systematic form, it is necessary to work with a great amount of primary texts often available only in a fragmentary shape. Another difficulty is given by the author's use of language, which requires very demanding translations; we always translate the source texts in this paper. Within his conception termed as the topology of being Heidegger attempts to think about the space not as a measurable quantity, but in correlation with the Greek concept of τόπος, i.e. the qualitatively determined place. This essay concentrates on Heidegger's early work as well as on his late period, during which the topological thinking plays a central role; it also tries to identify the connection between them. The understanding of thinking as a way is essential, as well as the connection of thinking and poetry and the relation between space and time, which are considered of equal value in Heidegger's late work. Merely outlined remain other directions, which may be taken by further research within Heidegger's concept of spaciousness: the critique of the contemporary way of the uncovering of the world, the deepened relation with...

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