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St. Augustine on Pride: Ilusion of Pride and Breaking Trough
Bezoušková, Alena ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Němec, Václav (referee)
(in English) According to Augustine, to be proud means to aspire to a position which belongs to God. That is, to not admit one's dependence on God and to misunderstand one's relationships towards others. In my thesis I analyse the experience of one who becomes proud and stays in a sin of pride as well as someone who overcomes pride. Pride appears when a man starts to see himself as a source of his goodness. A sin of pride is accompanied by a false image of oneself and of the world and also by an inability to reflect on one's poverty. Only when pride manifests itself in an act is it possible for a sinner to admit and overcome it. This is because the acts of the proud have different results than he expects. They lead to his humiliation. I devote the most space in my thesis to the manifestation of pride in actions and their consequences. To better understand this process, I present an analysis of Augustine's interpretation of three biblical stories, in which, according to Augustine, pride manifests. This analysis also shows that the manifestation of pride in an action doesn't necessarily have to lead to overcoming pride in the proud.
Interpretation of the Life of Moses according to Gregory of Nyssa and Its Inspiration by the Thought of Philo of Alexandria.
Dudziková, Markéta ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Dus, Jan (referee) ; Panczová, Helena (referee)
Interpretation of the Life of Moses according to Gregory of Nyssa and Its Inspiration by the Thought of Philo of Alexandria Philo of Alexandria (c. 20 BC - c. 40 CE) and his allegorical interpretation of the Bible (especially the Pentateuch) had a strong influence on early Christian writers including Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335 - c. 395 CE). It is obvious that Gregory was inspired by Philo judging from the fact that Gregory's treatise The Life of Moses (De vita Moysis) has the same name and a partly similar topic as one of Philo's writings. For Gregory, Moses is an ideal example of perfect virtue which consists in a continual progression toward the Good. The main topic of the thesis is Philo's influence on Gregory's interpretation of Moses. The work discusses the following issues in the thought of both authors: the treatise De vita Moysis, the person of Moses, exegetical principles, perfection that could be demonstrated on the life of a good person, the question of knowledge and unknowability of God and the mediation between God and men. Since Gregory's reception of Philo was influenced by Origen of Alexandria, Origen's biblical exegesis and exegetical theory are also briefly presented. In the centre of the thesis, there are those questions: In what way was Gregory's concept of perfect virtue inspired by the...
Anthropology of Synesius' On Dreams
Horáček, Filip ; Benyovszky, Ladislav (advisor) ; Karfíková, Lenka (referee) ; Nejeschleba, Tomáš (referee)
(F. Horáček: Antropologie Synesiova spisu O snech) 30. 8. 2017 Synesiusʼ treatise On Dreams (early 5th cent. AD) contains a Neoplatonic conception of the so-called pneuma (called also ʻvehicleʼ, ʻluminous bodyʼ etc.) that, among its other functions, ʻrepresentsʼ the immaterial Neoplatonic soul in the material universe. As against the other Neoplatonic texts from Late Antiquity, the authorʼs book is relatively concetrated and detailed so that it offers a comparatively full picture of the pneuma even though the text is no clear cut self-explanatory piece of writing due to its intended esoteric Neoplatonic readership. In my work I try to discover possible implications for the pneuma against the background of other Neoplatonic conceptions of the earlier and also of slightly later time. Synesiusʼ views of the pneuma are not always identical with those of the earlier thinkers. As he switches backgrounds it is often hard to tell whether what he has in mind is identical, like or different from them. I address predominantly - beside contextualization of On Dreams and efforts to solve individual small-scale problems in the text - questions of physical existence of the pneuma before, during, and after reincarnation chain of individual souls, further I discuss the interface between materiality and...
Memory and Time in Augustine's Confessiones and in Proust's A la Recherche du Temps Perdu
Roreitnerová, Alena ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Petříček, Miroslav (referee) ; Pokorný, Martin (referee)
This presented paper is a parallel reading of two works which both connect a philosophical perception of time and memory with an actual narration. The first is one of the earliest spiritual autobiographies of late antiquity - Confessions - and the second is a modern novel - In Search of Lost Time. A distinctive (originally Neoplatonic) understanding of eternity as simultaneity opens a line of questioning which both Confessions and In Search of Lost Time have in common: What is the relation between time and eternity (extra-temporality in Proust's case) and is it possible at all for a time being to have a relation to something what is eternal? In both works, the mediating role between time succession and timeless simultaneity is played by narration and memory. Part I of the paper (Chapter 1) deals with Augustine's understanding of time which can be found not only in Book XI of Confessions but also throughout the whole work including its narrative passages; it also partly takes into consideration Book VI of De musica. It tries to answer a more general question, i.e. whether Augustine in his autobiography concentrates only on subjective time or whether he is interested in time as such (in contrast to eternity). The answer is intended to be found through the analysis of questions the author of...
Evolution as a Way to God in the Work of Teilhard de Chardin
Jirousová, Františka ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Sokol, Jan (referee) ; Macek, Petr (referee)
This dissertation deals with the notion of centration in the work of Teilhard de Chardin, the notion being examined with regard to two related aims: 1) to illustrate the logical structure of Teilhard's Christian theory of evolution, and 2) to explain the relation between centration carried out by created beings and centration assigned to God as the focal point of evolution. In other words: to explore the connection between fundamental freedom attributed by Teilhard to created beings and culminating in human beings according to him, and God's freedom demonstrating itself in controlling the universe and directing it to a goal being the fullness of being (pleroma). The first part presents Teilhard's life and the contexts of his work. The second part explains the main notions of Teilhard's theory and metaphysics, such as "consciousness", "spirit", "energy", "centro-complexity", and "matter", and relates them to the notion of centration. Centration is presented here as an activity of the consciousness consisting in the unifying formation of multitude by its interconnection with different types of relations around one centre. In such unification, the main law of evolution manifests itself - the Law of Differentiating Unity. This means that parts unified in such way start differentiating again. What is...
Socratic Question as a Basis of the Care for One's Soul According to Jan Patocka
Matuška, Štěpán ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Veselý, Jindřich (referee)
This thesis deals with the topic of the Socratic question as a basis of the care for one's soul in Patocka's texts within the period from 30th to 50th years of the 20th century. This topic is here divided into three larger coherent units. The first part deals with the Patocka's understanding of Socratic care for one's soul as a historical moral self-creation of man having a character of negatively oriented transcension, which is not determined by ideas, but associated in its way of distance from objectivity with motive of knowing unknowing about the last good. The second part of this thesis deals with Patocka's comprehending of Plato as a creator of metaphysical thinking, in which core stands this negatively oriented experience of Socratic moral reversal. Plato, however, this experience of originally unobjectivated horizon according to Patocka's interpretation objectivates as the world of eternal ideas. Patocka as a central interpretative motive of this experience inserts in his own interpretation of Plato the term of Being inspired by Heidegger, which is very close to Plato's Idea of Good laying beyond all divides of essence (ἐπέκεινα τῆς οὐσίας). The last part of this thesis concerns with Patocka's own attempt to understand Plato's Idea by unobjective means. Although thus interpreted Idea is relieved of...
An Enquiry Concerning the Phenomenon of Maidan Through the Application of the Hegelian Lordship and Bondage Theory
Dovhoruk, Ivanna ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Matějčková, Tereza (referee)
This thesis is concerned with the question how can be the phenomenon of Maidan (Майдан) understood. Maidan here is primarly seen as an event in which people risked their lives. The first chapter deals with eyewitness testimonies of demonstrators in the Ukrainian Revolution of Dignity (Революція Гідності), who were present in the directly life-threatening places (Hrushevsky-st, Institutska-st). In the second chapter Hegel's concept of the certification by death (die Bewährung durch den Tod) is inquired, as present in a lordship and bondage theory (Herrschaft und Knechtschaft) in the Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes). In the third chapter, through the presentation of the author's own speculative theory of the Gates, we will try to prove that life can be deployed in two ways, from a position of humility and a position of pride. Within proving this statement we differentiate Hegelian concept of certification by death using Augustine's notion of pride (superbia). At the end of the inquiry we will try to answer the initial quastion, what Maidan is in light of the act of deployment of life.
Nicholas of Cusa on Human, Intellect and Number
Šenovský, Jakub ; Novák, Aleš (advisor) ; Nejeschleba, Tomáš (referee) ; Karfíková, Lenka (referee)
This thesis deals with the anthropological thinking of Nicholas of Cusa. The first part presents the fundamental metaphysical motifs that are the basis for this anthropology - above all, it concerns the conception of human as a mind (intellect). This conception is linked with the thinking of the first Principle (God) as the unity that is identical with itself. This unity/oneness of the One descends into the world through number that is one and multiple at the same time (all higher numbers consist of ones). The emphasis on unity of the One and on number as a mean of the creation is the reason, why Cusa's main concern, regarding the understanding of the world, aren't individual substances, but the relations between these substances. And for this kind of metaphysical thinking it is really important to develop also a strong notion of human intellect (mind), but the first philosophical texts to some extent fail to do so. The second part of this thesis deals with the proper anthropology that is developed in the dialogues with the idiota. It is shown what is the role of human mind in the dynamics of descent and ascent of unity of the One - it is the human mind and its intellectual return to its Beginning through which is all creation being made one and being brought to its true nature that is the One. The last...
Pastoral Care by Jan Patočka
Tesař, Tomáš ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Kranát, Jan (referee)
This thesis focuses on the key question of Patocka"s thinking - care of the soul. In Patocka"s texts it represents the difference between life based on opinions accepted without critical thinking or practical decisions, called naive life, and life based on critical examining. In my opinion, this dichotomy between the two "ways of life" makes some kind of backbone of Patocka"s Plato and Socrates interpretations in his postwar lectures. The philosopher in Patocka"s texts is Socrates. He first reveals the soul as "the most inherent nature of man", that needs to be taken care of. Aware of this Patocka approaches two other great Greek philosophers - Plato and Aristotle as well as the periods of Christianity, Renaissance and Enlightenment. This on the one hand means certain degree of adoption of Socrates" "care of the soul" but on the other hand falling away from it. In the time of Renaissance and especially during Enlightenment a new spiritual style "care of the world" is being born. This leads, according to Patocka, to such kind of understanding the being, that definite abandonment of Socrates" "care of the soul" follows, and the fixed essence of man is in jeopardy. The final part of our thesis introduces Patocka"s noteworthy idea of a victim. Only being a victim brings the genuine freedom of man, who is then...
The Theology of Creation according to Julian of Aeclanum and its Sources
Outrata, Filip ; Karfíková, Lenka (advisor) ; Hušek, Vít (referee) ; Ventura, Václav (referee)
The thesis focuses on the theology of Julian of Aeclanum, the most persistent adversary of Augustine of Hippo in the so-called Pelagian controversy. The aim is to present Julian's theology as a whole and trace its sources, especially in the anti-manichaean works of a group of authors of the Christian East (Titus of Bostra, Serapion of Thmuis, Basil of Kaisareia, Eusebios of Emesa) as well as authors of baptismal catecheses of Antiochian tradition, notably John Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia. In the first chapter, the personality and oeuvre of Julian of Aeclanum, characteristic traces of his polemic, connections with his important predecessors and his philosophical and exegetical profile are sketched. The core of the work, overview of Julian's theology, concentrates successively on sin and free will, polemic against the notion of inherited (natural) sin and the positive concept of baptismal grace, justice and law in its twofold form, natural as well as written Mosaic law, natural character of physical mortality, christology and soteriology stressing the human nature of Christ and his role of example, and finally, ascensive concept of grace beginning on the level of creation and rising to the redemptive work of Christ. The comparison of Julian's theological concepts with its eastern sources and...

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