National Repository of Grey Literature 44 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Eating Disorders: Epidemiology and Risk Factors
Pavlová, Barbara ; Papežová, Hana (advisor) ; Kocourková, Jana (referee) ; Šípek, Jiří (referee)
This thesis explores the epidemiology and risk factors of eating disorders. It focuses on the impact of the political and cultural changes that occured in the Czech Republic in the early 1990s. The term eating disorders includes mental illnesses characterized by disturbances in eating behaviour: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and various eating disorders not otherwise specifieed. It appears that the incidence of anorexia nervosa was increasing until 1970s and remains stable since. The incidence of bulimia nervosa was rising until the end of 1990s. However, the data come from the western countries only. The epiemiological data from the Central and Eastern Europe region remain sparse. Eating disorders have multifactorial aetiology; which includes the recently emerging factors related to migration and acculatuation. Therefore, we hypothesised that the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders in the Czech Repulic rose in the 1990s and that factors associated with migration experiences may play a role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. This thesis contains three different papers exploring different aspects of this hypothesis. The first paper shows that the number of hospital admissions for eating disorders in females aged 10-39 quadrupled between 1981 and 2001, and remained high till...
Anorexia nervosa - selected genetic determinants and endophenotypes
Kaminská, Deborah ; Papežová, Hana (advisor) ; Baxová, Alice (referee) ; Pacák, Karel (referee)
Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are diseases with considerable individual variation. Genetic background plays an important role in disease susceptibility and severity. To evaluate the relationship between certain genetic loci and diseases subtypes we genotyped and analysed evolution of selected clinical parameters. We investigated a group of 75 pacients with AN (1. study), 127 DSM-4 and ICD-10 diagnosed patients with AN and BN (2. study), and contributed to sample of 2907 AN patients in large GWAS study. Results from the 1st study support association of polymorphism -1438G/A in serotonine receptor 5-HT2A with AN and compare the results from other studies with metaanalyses. In next, polymorphism responsible for the serotonine neurotransmission (serotonine transporter 5-HTT, polymorphisms LPR and VNTR) the study shows different association trend of LPR with AN in Czech population compared to other studies. 5-HTT VNTR polymorphism had no observed association. The second study investigated the role of hemeoxygenase 1 (plays a pivotal role in metabolic stress protecting cells) in eating disorders, in interaction with enviromental stress. We investigated the usefulness of an aggregate measure of the risks of AN and BN that is based on genetic susceptibility loci and the added effect of...
Treatment of eating disorders through neurostimulation methods
Baumann, Silvie ; Papežová, Hana (advisor) ; Ustohal, Libor (referee) ; Stárková, Libuše (referee)
Background: Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses whose treatment is difficult and usually the classic procedures fail. Recently, the number of researches in neuromodulatory methods has increased. I present an overview of basic stimulation methods, their use in the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa and binge-eating and the results of our study focused on the treatment of AN by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Methods: It was a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial. Forty-three inpatients with AN were divided to receive either active (n=22) or sham (n=21) tDCS over the left DLPFC (anode F3/cathode Fp2, 2mA for 30 minutes). All patients filled the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Zung depression scale (ZUNG), we measured them the thermal pain threshold, the objective dissatisfaction with their own body by Anamorfic program and evaluated BMI before the first and after the last tDCS. Follow-up was after 2 and 4 weeks. It was evaluated using ANOVA and OPLS model. Results: Compared to sham tDCS, active tDCS improved self-evaluation based on one's body shape (p < 0,05) and significantly decreased the need of excessive control over calorie intake (p < 0,05) in 4-week follow-up (questions 4 and 23 in EDE-Q). Question 21 in EDE-Q was more...
Execise Therapy in Female Adolescents Hospitalised with Anorexia Nervosa
Ulrichová, Michaela ; Radvanský, Jiří (advisor) ; Krch, František (referee) ; Papežová, Hana (referee)
Objective: Body image disturbance is one of the main characteristics of anorexia nervosa (AN). It is present in different stages of the disease, often persisting even after the end of the treatment, and is one of the predictors of a relaps. Body image is composed of two main components - the perceptual component, and the attitudinal component. Anorexia nervosa patients show a disturbed attitudinal component of the body image. The perceptual component disruption hasn't been completely proven yet. Many authors do, however, warn about the overestimation of bodily proportions of patients with AN and it's possible relation with characteristics such as BMI. Goals: The main goal of the dissertation thesis was the objectivization of the body image disturbance of the patients hospitalized with anorexia nervosa, the comparison of their results with a group of healthy girls of the same age, and the search for factors connected to the defect of the body image. A side goal of the dissertation thesis was the measurement of the effect of kinesiotherapy on the anxiety level of AN patients. Methods: As a part of the practical section, the measurements of 27 hospitalized patients and 20 healthy girls were completed. Probands underwent body size estimation of 4 bodily segments. They estimated the length of their arm,...
Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus
Růžičková, Martina ; Höschl, Cyril (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Papežová, Hana (referee)
Despite lots of research, the genetic and pathophysiological basis of bipolar disorder (BD) remains unclear. One of the possible reasons is that BD spectrum comprises a heterogeneous group of different subtypes of the illness sharing certain pathophysiological or genetic mechanisms. Patients with co-morbid diabetes mellitus (DM) may represent such a subgroup of BD with a distinct pathophysiology and possibly different clinical characteristics of BD. This thesis is aimed at investigating the possible link between BD and DM. Bipolar patients have about 3 times higher risk of DM (type 2 in particular). The first part of my thesis outlines the possible links between DM and BD, including medication, alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and signal transduction, and genetics. In the second part, I examined the possible differences in clinical characteristics between patients with (N=26) and without (N=196) co-morbid DM. Next, I examined the variables showing differences between groups, using logistic regression. Patients were recruited via The Maritime Bipolar Registry. The prevalence of DM was 11.7%. Diabetic patients were significantly older than non-diabetic patients (P < 0.001), had higher rates of rapid cycling (P = 0.02), more chronic course of BD (P = 0.006), more disability (P < 0.001), lower...
Neuronavigation of RMTS based on brain functional imaging in clinical aplication in auditory hallucinations
Klírová, Monika ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Rektorová, Irena (referee)
NEURONAVIGATION OF rTMS BASED ON BRAIN FUNCTIONAL IMAGING IN CLINICAL APPLICATION IN AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS Monika Klírová Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a noninvasive method used in diagnostics of neurological disorders and physiological research of sensoric, motor and cognitive function and intracortical relations. This method has found its leading position also in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. TMS is based on the administration of short pulses of a strong magnetic field, which induces secondary electric currents in a limited volume of cerebral cortex. Therapeutic modification utilizes a repetitive TMS (rTMS) in which the magnetic coil generate a series of pulses of different frequencies. Low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) of the left temporo-parietal cortex (LTPC) has been proposed as a useful therapeutic method for auditory hallucinations (AHs). Majority of rTMS studies use "standard" coil positioning, which is often not fully corresponding to cortical area(s) of maximal functional changes. Stereotactic neuronavigation enables the magnetic coil to be targeted according to the individual parameters obtained from neuroimaging. Individualized rTMS neuronavigated according to positron emission tomography (18 FDG PET) allows us to focus the coil explicitly on a given...
Dissociation: Phenomenology, Pathophysiology and Relation to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Raszka, Michal ; Praško Pavlov, Ján (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Libiger, Jan (referee)
The aim of this study was to investigate dissociative symptoms in OCD from many angles. This is the context in terms of psychopathology, prediction of therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), neuropsychology (with emphasis on inhibitory processes), the structure of personality, and neurobiology. The work offers a model of neurobiological correlates of blending dissociation and OCD, which has been experimentally validated parts.
Functional-imaging and electrophysiological correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their potential use in neurofeedback intervention
Kopřivová, Jana ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee)
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder that may seriously affect quality of life and even the ability to work. Despite advanced medical care there are still patients who do not respond or do not respond sufficiently to treatment. Recently proposed treatment strategies such as deep brain stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have targeted several levels of fronto-striatal circuits which dysfunction underlies OCD pathophysiology. Likewise, neurofeedback (NFB) could target dysfunctional fronto-striatal networks by providing almost real- time feedback about their activity. As the success of these methods critically depends on good knowledge of dysfunctional loops in OCD, a more detailed investigation of neurobiological basis of this disorder is highly needed. Aims: The aim of the first part of this dissertation was to provide an overview of the current literature related to OCD and NFB. The second section of the thesis is based on five original studies of the author that were conceived to 1) explore anatomical correlate of OCD in our patients, 2) to verify its functional relevance and specificity in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies, and 3) to test the utility of the findings in NFB treatment of OCD. Methods: In our studies we included...
Cerebellar functions in Attention DeficitHyperactivityDisorder
Goetz, Michal ; Hort, Vladimír (advisor) ; Příhodová, Iva (referee) ; Papežová, Hana (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze 1. lékařská fakulta Studijní obor: Lékařská psychologie a psychopatologie MUDr. Michal Goetz Cerebelární funkce u poruchy pozornosti s hyperaktivitou Cerebellar functions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Abstract Školitel: Doc. MUDr. Vladimír Hort, CSc. Praha 2014 1 Prohlášení Prohlašuji, že jsem závěrečnou práci zpracoval samostatně a že jsem řádně uvedl a citoval všechny použité prameny a literaturu. Současně prohlašuji, že práce nebyla využita k získání jiného nebo stejného titulu. Souhlasím s trvalým uložením elektronické verze mé práce v databázi systému meziuniverzitního projektu Theses.cz za účelem soustavné kontroly podobnosti kvalifikačních prací. V Praze 14. 2. 2014 MUDr. Michal Goetz 2 Identifikační záznam GOETZ, Michal. Cerebelární funkce u poruchy pozornosti s hyperaktivitou [Cerebellar functions in Atention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder]. Praha, 2014. 190 stran, Disertační práce (Ph.D.). Univerzita Karlova v Praze, 1. lékařská fakulta Práce byla ...
Multifamily Therapy in the Treatment of Eating Disorders
Tomanová, Jana ; Papežová, Hana (advisor) ; Miovský, Michal (referee) ; Eisler, Ivan (referee)
This paper gives the summary of the six-year operations of multi-family therapy programme in eating disorders at The Eating Disorders Centre at The Psychiatric Clinic, Prague. The research done has been the first experience with multi-family treatment of psychiatric patients in the Czech Republic. This therapy concept is often used abroad as a form of work with patients suffering from the diagnosis of eating disorders. It is a "first choice" method due to NICE Guideline(2004). The inspiration for the Prague team was the London Maudsley model. The main aims of the research were: 1/ to introduce this therapeutic approach into a complex treatment of patients suffering from eating disorders, optimize the functioning structure and programme and stabilize the therapeutic team and 2/ to evaluate the effectiveness of multi-family treatment and suggest the suitable metodology. Since 2004 twenty families which form the observed group have been involved in the project. The combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology was chosen during the primary stage of the research. The methods used were: questionnaires of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),Schwartz scale of therapy assessment (SOS-10), the life quality questionnaire (SQUALA) and Rosenberg self-concept questionnaire (RSE). We evaluated ten...

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