National Repository of Grey Literature 96 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The therapeutic benefit of the repetetive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the specific symptoms of schizophrenia
Novák, Tomáš ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Vymazal, Josef (referee) ; Rektorová, Irena (referee)
The therapeutic benefit of the repetetive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the specific symptoms of schizophrenia Tomas NOVAK Prague Psychiatric Center Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation is the modern non-invasive method based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. The TMS is widely used in research, diagnostics and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous studies imply that repetetive TMS (rTMS) might be useful also in the treatment of some specific symptoms of schizophrenia. The thesis consists of three studies focused on the evaluation of the therapeutic effect of rTMS on specific symptoms of schizophrenia, particularly on negative symptoms and auditory hallucinations. Study 1. The double-blind sham-controlled study of high-frequency rTMS (20Hz) for negative symptoms in schizophrenia The high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex is a promising method for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Using double-blind, sham- controlled, parallel design, we evaluated the effect of HF-rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Sixteen schizophrenia patients with predominantly negative symptoms on stable antipsychotic medication were treated with 20Hz...
The therapeutical effect of rTMS on symptomatology in schizophrenia
Baláková, Lucie ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee) ; Anders, Martin (referee)
The RTMS is a new noninvasive method has the potential to both therapeutic and experimental level. The research presented in this work was dedicated to the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in psychiatry. We focused also on a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action using methods of functional imaging methods and sensing electrical activity of the brain. The experimental part of the research include the testing of cognitive function and their potential effects by stimulating the cerebral cortex district, which is regarded as the seat of that particular modality. We discuss neurobiological factors that may explain the ineffectiveness of therapy and other options are designed to test the use of rTMS in this indication. This is the Reversible stimulation (right) or bilateral stimulation, rTMS targeting the coil at the bottom of the parietal cortex, extending the total period of stimulation and the use of individual navigation based on EEG or functional imaging.
Neuronavigation of RMTS based on brain functional imaging in clinical aplication in auditory hallucinations
Klírová, Monika ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Rektorová, Irena (referee)
NEURONAVIGATION OF rTMS BASED ON BRAIN FUNCTIONAL IMAGING IN CLINICAL APPLICATION IN AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS Monika Klírová Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a noninvasive method used in diagnostics of neurological disorders and physiological research of sensoric, motor and cognitive function and intracortical relations. This method has found its leading position also in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. TMS is based on the administration of short pulses of a strong magnetic field, which induces secondary electric currents in a limited volume of cerebral cortex. Therapeutic modification utilizes a repetitive TMS (rTMS) in which the magnetic coil generate a series of pulses of different frequencies. Low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) of the left temporo-parietal cortex (LTPC) has been proposed as a useful therapeutic method for auditory hallucinations (AHs). Majority of rTMS studies use "standard" coil positioning, which is often not fully corresponding to cortical area(s) of maximal functional changes. Stereotactic neuronavigation enables the magnetic coil to be targeted according to the individual parameters obtained from neuroimaging. Individualized rTMS neuronavigated according to positron emission tomography (18 FDG PET) allows us to focus the coil explicitly on a given...
Semiotics of Schizophrenia
Pudlák, Štěpán ; Hvorecký, Juraj (advisor) ; Višňovský, Emil (referee) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee)
Dissertation thesis Semiotics of schizophrenia aims to analyse manifestations of the symptoms of schizophrenia from the point of view of semiotics. The goal is to find common features of otherwise heterogeneous manifestations of schizophrenia and the features that make them abnormal. The method of the thesis is semiotic reduction, i.e. approach to phenomena as to sings and significations, which approach is based on the semiotic theory of Charles Peirce. The proposed thesis characterises symptoms of schizophrenia as a disorder of indexical relation between a sign-object and the group of signs of the Self. An object can be a voice or an image in the case of hallucinations, a proposition in the case of delusions, a rule of communication in the case of disorganization of speech or behaviour or a habitus in the case of negative symptoms. Abnormality of the manifestations of schizophrenia is due to a disorder of indexical relation between signs of the Self, which have features as indisprovability or basis for interpreting the world, and these objects. The author compares conclusions of the thesis with clinical studies and so called unifying theories of schizophrenia.
Histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral profile of animal models of schizophrenia
Kubešová, Anna ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Druga, Rastislav (referee)
The presented work focuses on the animal models of schizophrenia. The general part is dedicated to describing histomorphological and biochemical changes in patients with schizophrenia and basic classification and description of animal models of schizophrenia. The results of 3 studies that deal with histomorphological, biochemical and behavioral abnormalities in the neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia and in the pharmacological model of schizophrenia induced by the administration of substances that affect the serotonergic system are presented in the special part. In the study No. 1 we demonstrated that the early immune stimulation in rats leads in adulthood to changes in the brain and plasma levels of neurotransmitters and their metabolites, activation of kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism, hypertrophy of astrocytes, reduction of hippocampal volume and decrease of tyrosinhydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The findings of this study support the hypothesis of an important pathophysiological role of the early immune stimulation in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. In the study No. 2 we verified the application of tryptamine (psilocin) and phenylethylamine (mescaline) hallucinogen as phenomenologically valid animal model of schizophrenia....
Changes in Brain Metabolism in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders Revealed by Quantitative Electroencephalography and Positron Emission Tomography
Kohútová, Barbora ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Libiger, Jan (referee) ; Syka, Josef (referee)
Low Resolution Brain Elecromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) is a method of quantitative EEG (QEEG), which permits 3D tomography of electrical brain activity. Positron emission tomography (PET) reflects changes of brain metabolism and regional blood flow. The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the neurobiological correlates of changes in psychopathology during treatment of schizophrenia and depression, revealed by QEEG and PET, subsequently to evaluate the applicability of these two methods, and third to compare the mechanism of two therapeutic tools, antipsychotics and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) from QEEG point of view. The first part contains the theoretical information about disorders and therapeutic tools and the review of QEEG and PET findings. The empirical part is based on four articles (Tislerova et al., 2008; Horacek et al., 2007; Kopecek et al., 2011; Kopecek et al., 2008) and a common discussion constitutes the end part. In the study 1, we compared schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine or clozapine with antipsychotic-naive patients. We found changes of electrical activity in anterior cingulate and in temporo-limbic structures. In the study 2 we studied schizophrenic patients with auditory hallucinations treated by LF-rTMS. The clinical improvement was...
Role of NMDA NR1 subunit in pathophysiology of schizophrenia
Vrajová, Monika ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Blahoš, Jaroslav (referee) ; Vyklický, Ladislav (referee)
Our work is focused on the role of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In animal model using separately or in combination, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (aODN) for NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunit of NMDAR, we affected expression of these proteins in rat hippocampus. We assessed prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reaction (PPI) in rats and protein expression of NMDAR subunits and expression of PSD proteins. There were significant differences in expression of PSD-95 and NR1 between groups. Application of aODN (NR2A, NR2B) was associated with a significant decrease of PSD-95. PPI and expression of NR2A, NR2B and PSD-93 were not changed after aODN application.The next part of the work concentrates on a human post mortem study. To assess actual changes in the expression of the NR1 subunit and its isoforms, we measured absolute differences in the levels of mRNA/protein for panNR1, as well as the individual mRNA/protein isoforms in the post mortem left/right hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia in comparison with non-psychiatric subjects. There were no significant differences in the panNR1 subunit mRNA expression, but the absolute left/right differences were much more pronounced in the patients with schizophrenia. The expression of splice variants in the...
Functional-imaging and electrophysiological correlates of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their potential use in neurofeedback intervention
Kopřivová, Jana ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Papežová, Hana (referee) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee)
Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common mental disorder that may seriously affect quality of life and even the ability to work. Despite advanced medical care there are still patients who do not respond or do not respond sufficiently to treatment. Recently proposed treatment strategies such as deep brain stimulation or repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation have targeted several levels of fronto-striatal circuits which dysfunction underlies OCD pathophysiology. Likewise, neurofeedback (NFB) could target dysfunctional fronto-striatal networks by providing almost real- time feedback about their activity. As the success of these methods critically depends on good knowledge of dysfunctional loops in OCD, a more detailed investigation of neurobiological basis of this disorder is highly needed. Aims: The aim of the first part of this dissertation was to provide an overview of the current literature related to OCD and NFB. The second section of the thesis is based on five original studies of the author that were conceived to 1) explore anatomical correlate of OCD in our patients, 2) to verify its functional relevance and specificity in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies, and 3) to test the utility of the findings in NFB treatment of OCD. Methods: In our studies we included...
Animal models of psychosis - the assessment of EEG and the levels of monoamines in the CNS of the rat
Lipski, Michaela ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Šulcová, Alexandra (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
The present work describes animal models of psychosis with the aim on monoamine levels and behavioral/EEG findings. The general part is focused on reporting biochemical and EEG findings in patients with schizophrenia, followed by animal models of schizophrenia and their EEG findings. In the special part, results of behavioral and EEG parameters in three animal models of psychosis are presented. A study by Palenicek et al, 2013 described serotoninergic animal model and showed that 4-bromo-2,5-dimetoxyfenyletylaminu (2C-B) induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of startle reaction and produced dose related biphasic changes in the locomotion (i.e. hypolocomotion was followed by the hyperlocomotion). Low doses of 2C-B decreased EEG power and coherence, while high doses had a temporary biphasic effect with an initial decline followed by an increase in power - a similar effect was also observed in the coherence. In microdialysis study, increased levels of dopamine and its metabolites homovanilic acid and 3-methoxytyramine and decreased levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid in the nucleus accumbens are described. The increase in the EEG power and coherence after the 2C-B application was associated with an increase in locomotion and congruently with elevated dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens....
Neuroimmune and endocrine correlates of stress response and dissociation in affective disorders
Bízik, Gustáv ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Yamamotová, Anna (referee)
Depression and other mental disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and their burden has increased considerably over past decades. However, advances in psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders are not in measure with this negativ trend. As a result, a large body of researchinpsychiatryandneurosciencestries to furtherourunderstanding of pathophysiologicalmechanismsunderlyingmooddisorders andothermentalillnesses in order to improve the efficacy of current treatments and to identify new therapeutic agents. According to current evidence, stress-related pathways and inflammation processes are directly involved in thedevelopment of depressive disorder andseveral other psychiatric conditions.Thestudy of the effects and consequences of stress exposure requires an interdisciplinary approach,taking into account specific aspects of the "inputs", such as chronic stress and traumatic experiences, and related psychological processes, with the crucial role of dissociation. Following these theoretical findings, the empirical research performed in two cohorts of inpatients with depressive disorder focused on immune and endocrine responses to stress and their relationship to psychopathological symptoms, specifically trauma-related symptoms, psychic and somatoform dissociation and depressive...

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