National Repository of Grey Literature 87 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Neuroimmune and endocrine correlates of stress response and dissociation in affective disorders
Bízik, Gustáv ; Bob, Petr (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Yamamotová, Anna (referee)
Depression and other mental disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide and their burden has increased considerably over past decades. However, advances in psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders are not in measure with this negativ trend. As a result, a large body of researchinpsychiatryandneurosciencestries to furtherourunderstanding of pathophysiologicalmechanismsunderlyingmooddisorders andothermentalillnesses in order to improve the efficacy of current treatments and to identify new therapeutic agents. According to current evidence, stress-related pathways and inflammation processes are directly involved in thedevelopment of depressive disorder andseveral other psychiatric conditions.Thestudy of the effects and consequences of stress exposure requires an interdisciplinary approach,taking into account specific aspects of the "inputs", such as chronic stress and traumatic experiences, and related psychological processes, with the crucial role of dissociation. Following these theoretical findings, the empirical research performed in two cohorts of inpatients with depressive disorder focused on immune and endocrine responses to stress and their relationship to psychopathological symptoms, specifically trauma-related symptoms, psychic and somatoform dissociation and depressive...
Psychosocial aspects of hallucinogen use and an approximately 40-years follow-up study on LSD self-experimentation amongst professionals in the mental health fields
Winkler, Petr ; Šiklová, Jiřina (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee)
PETR WINKLER PSYCHOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF HALLUCINOGEN USE AND AN APPROXIMATELY 40- YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY ON LSD SELF-EXPERIMENTATION AMONGST PROFESSIONALS IN THE MENTAL HEALTH FIELDS (Study Program: Master Social Politics and Social Work) Supervisor: PhDr. Jiřina Šiklová, CSc. Adviser: Doc. MUDr. Miloš Vojtěchovský, CSc. Opponent: Doc. MUDr. Jiří Horáček, PhD Abstract: The renaissance of hallucinogen research and use that has emerged in last two decades, introduces several challenges for the field of social work. Above all, these challenges are concerned with use of hallucinogens among laymen, for therapeutic, educational, autognostic, and heuristic purposes. The other challenge for social work is the conception, construction, and the influencing of drug policies, including programs of social prevention. Last but not least, there is the challenge of understanding and reflecting upon mental health fields' history and history of drug use in general. Hence, the goal of this paper is to provide necessary information, which will aid social workers in orienting themselves and competently handling the challenges mentioned above. This work valuates the problems related to hallucinogens from the perspective of social work. The theoretical portion, based on rigorous analysis of available literature in both - Czech and...
Excitation of molecules by cold electrons
Šulc, Miroslav ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor)
Title: Excitation of molecules by cold electrons Author: Miroslav Šulc Department / Institute: Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: prof. RNDr. Jiří Horáček, DrSc., Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University Abstract: Several methods for low energy collisional processes are investigated. In the first part, attention is especially devoted to examination of applicability of the R-matrix method combined with the Schwinger-Lanczos (SL) variational principle for potential scattering with long-range forces. Next sections deal with the development of the interaction correlation-polarization (CP) potential in the framework of the Dis- crete Momentum Representation (DMR) method on the grounds of the Local Density Approximation in the Density Functional Theory (DFT) context. Obtained results are then utilized in body-frame (BF), static exchange + polarization (SEP), calcula- tions within an analysis of experimental data for e−-N2 scattering comprising a part of a larger project addressing theoretical examination of rotational excitations of small molecules in the gas phase induced by electron impact. For N2, a new phenomenon consisting in suppression of backward cross-section below 95 meV is observed and con- sequently attributed to...
The effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on emotional and motivational processing in Parkinson's disease patients
Serranová, Tereza ; Růžička, Evžen (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Mareš, Jan (referee)
Summary: The mechanisms of weight gain or behavioral and affective changes known to occur in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) treated with deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) are incompletely understood. We hypothesize that some of these non-motor side-effects may be related to changes in motivational processing due to STN DBS. Motivational processing to appetitive and aversive stimuli can be assessed using subjective evaluation of emotional relevance (i.e. incentive salience attribution) or affective modulation of the auditory blink reflex (ABR). The latter provides an objective measure of changes in emotional reactivity: ABRs are physiologically potentiated by unpleasant and inhibited by pleasant stimuli, reflecting activation of the aversive and appetitive motivational systems. Our aim was to assess the effects of STN DBS on motivational processing of pictures from 4 categories, two representing primary rewards, erotica and food, one aversive fearful and one neutral, using the subjective evaluation of motivational relevance (Study 1.) and the modulation of the ABR reactivity (Study 2.) in off-medicated PD patients with DBS switched ON and OFF. The results were compared with those obtained in healthy controls using the same paradigms. Study 1. Twenty PD patients in bilateral...
Lived experience of an artwork as a scientific and methodological problem: new challenges of "the science of subjectivity" based on neuroscience and phenomenology
Grygarová, Dominika ; Rakušanová, Marie (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Hampejs, Tomáš (referee)
The presented dissertation deals with the topic of scientific research of experience/lived experience of works of art, using the methods of cognitive sciences and phenomenology. The work selectively summarizes the current research of such experiences in the field of history and theory of art, but especially in the field of cognitive neuroscience of art. The work identifies a fundamental reduction of experiencing art works caused by the epistemology, methodology and concepts of cognitive sciences embedded in cognitivism. Furthermore, the dissertation theoretically considers the possibilities of interdisciplinary collaboration with phenomenology, which, in turn, describes the experience non-reductively, from a first-person perspective. The dissertation identifies the basic conceptual problems of this interdisciplinary project and proposes a solution using neurophenomenology. In its experimental part, the dissertation presents some results of my own neuroimaging studies, which examined the experiences of viewers while viewing art works, both in terms of specific results and in terms of methodology. Finally, I will present a proposal for a new neuroimaging experiment inspired by neurophenomenology, which will use phenomenological introspective and interviewing methods in combination with objective...
Impact of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Therapy Using Radioactive Iodine 131 on Salivary Gland Functional Performance
Krčálová, Eva ; Horáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Límanová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Kraft, Otakar (referee)
Background: Although radioactive iodine 131 (RAI) has been successfully used in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients therapy for more than 70 years, thus far published data regarding RAI- induced salivary glands functional impairment have been inconsistent. Due to the trend towards using lower activities or even RRA omission, the possible RAI untoward effects have been widely discussed. Aim: To evaluate and quantify salivary gland function in thyroidectomised DTC patients before and after RRA using activity of 3.7 GBq and to compare salivary gland functional changes in DTC patients after single or repeated RAI treatment (using activities  5.5 GBq) with their age- and sex-matched RAI-naive counterparts using salivary gland scintigraphy with 99m Tc- pertechnetate. In addition, we performed subjective symptoms evaluation. Patients and Methods: Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) was performed in 31 RAI-naive patients (6 men, 25 women, median age 52 years) before and 4.6 months after RRA. Salivary gland function was measured also in 23 patients (7 men, 16 women, median age 60 years) with RAI administration history and compared with their age- and sex-matched counterparts. Non-parametric Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used (due to non-normal data distribution) for statistical analysis. A p...
Neurosonological markers of cognitive decline progression in patients with dementia
Soukupová Urbanová, Barbora ; Hort, Jakub (advisor) ; Školoudík, David (referee) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee)
Alzheimer's disease represents an important socio-economic problem worldwide. Its complex and not entirely clear pathophysiological mechanisms are subject of intensive research with the aim to identify the affected individuals very soon in the disease process and to find efficacious prevention or treatment. According to recent knowledge, a multifactorial microangiopathy plays a role in the disease development. Probably both traditional vascular risk factors as well as mechanisms linked to neurodegeneration with amyloid accumulation are the factors involved. This work presents a summary of up to date knowledge about Alzheimer's disease vascular risk factors, signs of vascular impairment on brain imaging and possible interactions of vascular and neurodegenerative pathophysiological pathways. It focuses on the neurosonological signs of brain vascular impairment and presents own outcomes in this research area. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal design, the study demonstrates functional impairment of brain microcirculation in patients with various cerebrovascular burdens and various degrees of cognitive decline and it identifies the most appropriate neurosonological parameter in the prediction of cognitive decline progression. On the same study sample it explores the association of other vascular...
Diagnostic markers in patients in early stage of multiple sclerosis
Hynčicová, Eva ; Laczó, Jan (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee) ; Taláb, Radomír (referee)
The aims of the thesis were to assess diagnostic markers for monitoring of the disease progression in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and laboratory markers of efficacy of the interferon beta (IFNß) therapy. This thesis includes 4 studies. The first study was focused on evaluation of cognitive impairment and its structural correlates in patients with CIS. Using comprehensive neuropsychological testing and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with volumetric analyses we found cognitive impairment in 18-37 % of CIS patients in almost all cognitive domains. Brain volume was reduced predominantly in fronto- temporal regions and the thalamus. Next, visuo-spatial impairment was associated with lower white matter volume in patients with CIS. The two other studies evaluated neuropsychiatric symptoms, life satisfaction, health-related quality of life and their mutual relationships. In addition, one of these two studies evaluated structural correlates of neuropsychiatric symptoms on brain MRI. Using a battery of specific questionnaires, we demonstrated depressive symptoms and anxiety in patients with CIS, lower life satisfaction, lower health-related quality of life and close mutual relationships. The quality of life was associated more with cognitive functioning than with disability in...
Vietnamese Retail as Part of the Non-metropolitan Area in Czechia
Horáček, Jiří ; Čermák, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Freidingerová, Tereza (referee)
Vietnamese food stores are located all over the Czechia and are often the only option for food purchases in non-metropolitan areas. This dissertation is focused on the study of Vietnamese retail in the context of the problems of serviceability of small towns and rural settlements in the Czechia. One of the main goals of this dissertation is to verify whether Vietnamese businesses are one of the ways to save the ever-falling rural service functions. Considering that the issue of rural service provision is an extensive topic, the work only yields partial results that will need to be verified in further studies. The introductory sections analyze the processes of Vietnamese migration into our country and subsequently characterize the development of retail. The next part focuses on the operation of Vietnamese retail where structured interviews conducted within the research serve as a main source of information. The quantitative part of the research focuses on the issue of the distribution of shops, and, in the empirical part, using questionnaire the functioning of the Zásmuky retail trade with a focus on Vietnamese food stores is assessed. The analysis shows that Vietnamese food stores are one of the solutions to maintaining business in rural communities. Due to the efficiency of their operation, which...
Time-Dependent Solution of the Generalized Fano Model
Gedeonová, Hedvika ; Kolorenč, Přemysl (advisor) ; Horáček, Jiří (referee)
In this thesis, the time evolution of Fano model, describing a discrete state embedded in a continuum of states with constant coupling, and generalized ver- sion of Fano model for an energy dependent coupling are investigated. For the time evolution of the generalized system, numerical simulation (Gaussian quadra- ture and numerical integration of a system of differential equations) is used. The system behaves as Fano model predicts when energy-dependent coupling tends to a constant one, and the system exponentially decays into the continuum. For a strongly energy-dependent coupling, the system oscillates between the initial discrete state and the continuum. The thesis provides numerically evaluated time evolution for different parameters of the coupling, brief interpretation of proba- bility oscillation phenomenon and study of the transition between oscillatory and non-oscillatory mode. 1

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See also: similar author names
6 HORÁČEK, Jakub
1 Horáček, J.
6 Horáček, Jakub
14 Horáček, Jan
66 Horáček, Jaromír
9 Horáček, Jaroslav
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