National Repository of Grey Literature 172 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The effects of topoisomerase II beta on the sensitivity of the cancer cells to the antineoplastics
Jaščevská, Nikola ; Jirkovská, Anna (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Nikola Jaščevská Supervisor: PharmDr. Anna Jirkovská, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: The effects of topoisomerase II beta on the sensitivity of the cancer cells to the antineoplastics Topoisomerase II (TOP II) is a cellular enzyme responsible for solving topological problems of double-stranded DNA. Alpha and beta isoforms of TOP II are different gene products having similar catalytic activities. The expression of TOP IIα is cell-cycle dependent, peaking in G2/M phase, while TOP II isoform is expressed constitutively throughout the cell cycle. It is therefore present also in non-proliferating differentiated cells. Anthracycline antibiotics are an old class of anticancer drugs, belonging to TOP II poisons. Although their clinical usefulness is high, the incidence of side effects (especially myelotoxicity and cardiotoxicity) may limit the therapy. The key role of TOP II inhibition, which is present also in cardiomyocytes, has been increasingly discussed. Dexrazoxane, the only clinically used cardioprotective, leads to depletion of TOP II in cardiomyocytes, which may explain its cardioprotection. Although TOP II was previously shown to be dispensable for cellular proliferation, its possible...
Plasmid constuction for expression of selected reductase from Haemonchus contortus
Rychlá, Nikola ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Zemanová, Lucie (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Nikola Rychla Supervisor: Doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Plasmid constuction for expression of selected reductase from Haemonchus contortus Barber's pole worm (Haemonchus contortus) is a pathogenic, gastroinstetinal, blood- sucking nematode. Drug resistance in H. contortus, and the associated haemonchosis of small ruminants such as sheep and goats, remain a major problem, and their biological and economic impacts are extensive. Given the fact that anthelmintics are still the gold standard of treatment, their reaserch is crucial, not only for farm animals but also for people. Carbonyl-reducing enzymes, such as aldoketoreductases and short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases, belong to the enzymes of the first phase of xenobiotics biotransformation and thus participate in drug metabolism and their increased elimination. Increased elimination leads to decreased toxicity in H. contortus and reduced efficacy of drugs in ruminants. Research of these enzymes can help tackle with drug resistance in H. contortus and contribute to the development of new drugs in the future. The aim of this diploma thesis is based on the construction of plasmid, which will be used for...
The effect of fern extracts on cell line SW480
Zacharská, Andrea ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Skálová, Lenka (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Student: Andrea Zacharská Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Effect of fern extracts on the SW480 cell line Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Although we have several drugs available for the treatment of cancer, none of them are completely effective and safe. The fundamental problem is toxicity, which experts try to eliminate by looking for other treatment alternatives like plants and their secondary metabolites with antiproliferative and antioxidant effects against free radicals, that can cause cancer. Our work is focused on the antioxidant, as well as the prooxidant effect of 4 species of ferns (Athyrium filix - femina, Dryopteris dilatata, Dryopteris borreri, Blechnum spicant), whose extracts of different concentrations were studied as potentially beneficial substances against oxidative stress on the SW480 cell line. We used the fluorescent probe H2DCF-DA to detect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In the initial setup the potential prooxidant effect was monitored alongside with the terc- butyl hydroperoxide solution as a positive control. The results demonstrated that these test substances did not induce the ROS...
Use of plasma jet for wound healing
Dvořáková, Eva ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor)
This diploma thesis was focused on the possibility of using a plasma nozzle to accelerate the wound healing process. The benefits of using low-temperature plasma in medicine or biomedical applications are known from many studies, and low-temperature plasma is already used to sterilize medical devices, materials or surgical instruments. Some studies also report a high potential of usinh plasma nozzle in the treatment of skin wounds. In the experimental part of this work, an in vitro wound healing test was performed using two different low-temperature plasma sources. Source No. 1 was a surface wave microwave discharge and source No. 2 was a torch microwave discharge. An in vitro scratch healing test was performed on a monolayer of HaCaT keratinocytes and testing was performed using various parameters. The influence of the plasma treatment time was monitored, as well as the influence of the plasma discharge power and also the influence of the argon working gas flow. Especially when using a torch microwave discharge, faster wound healing was recorded at most of the parameters used compared to the control. Thus, it can be said that this source appears to be potentially suitable for faster wound healing. Furthermore, in the work using the MTT cytotoxicity test, the viability of skin cells after their plasmination was also monitored using the same conditions as in the in vitro wound healing test. When performed in the standard MTT assay, none of the settings or sources used showed any cytotoxic effects on keratinocytes. LDH cytotoxicity tests were also performed concurrently to verify the accuracy of the MTT assays. The results of both tests agreed and the use of low-temperature plasma in skin treatment can be considered as safe. Overall, the results show that the plasma nozzle can find use in medicine in the healing of skin wounds and chronic defects as a potentially fast, inexpensive and effective method.
Isolation and characterization of natural active components and their application in food supplements
Šmídová, Veronika ; Němcová, Andrea (referee) ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor)
The diploma thesis is focused on the characterisation and isolation of naturally occurred active compounds, especially on lipophilic compounds. The next part of the thesis deals with enzymes and their encapsulation into alginate particles to suggest new enzymatic dietary supplement for children with optimal nutrient composition. The theoretical part is focused on the issue of child nutrition, accordingly the necessary nutrients that children need to grow without any health difficulties. It is also focused on the availability of enzymatic food supplements for children. Finally, the theoretical part deals with the lack of chosen natural substances and their effects in connection with cancer. In the experimental part, four types of oils obtained from seeds were characterized. The oils were obtained by two methods: cold pressing with a Yoda kitchen press and extraction in an organic solvent with Soxtherm. Seeds were linseed, sesame, pumpkin, and cumin. With these oils were characterized natural active substances, polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidants, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and fatty acids. Liposomes were also prepared from selected extracts, in which an effect on intestinal tumour cells were observed. Furthermore, some enzymes were selected, and they were encapsulated into alginate particles with average size 450 µm. In these particles was specified encapsulation efficiency as well as the proteolytic activity after testing in digest juices. The last part of this thesis was focused on the optimization of a complete enzymatic food supplement with addition of alginate particles as enzyme carriers. Samples of these supplements were finally subjected to a sensory analysis.
Inhibitory effect of anthocyanidins on hepatic carbonyl reductase
Hlaváčová, Jitka ; Skálová, Lenka (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Jitka Hlaváčová Supervisor: Prof. RNDr. Lenka Skálová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Inhibitory effect of anthocyanidins on hepatic carbonyl reductase Carbonyl reductase (CBR) is a reducing enzyme that plays a significant role in the first phase of biotransformation of both endogenous and exogenous substrates. It participates in detoxification of many xenobiotics, among them important drugs. Differences in expression and activity of hepatic biotransforming enzymes may affect efficiency and safety of treatment. The aim of this work was to compare the activity and expression of CBR in old and young individuals and to define an inhibitory effect of selected anthocyanidins on the activity of CBR in humans and rats and to determine a value of IC50 and a type of inhibition for the strongest inhibitors. Meaningly higher activity of CBR was detected in the senescent rats compared to the young ones and the old rats also showed larger interindividual variability. No significant age- related differences have been identified by measurement of activity CBR in human samples. Anthocyanidins showed a mild to moderate inhibitory effect on CBR. The enzyme was most strongly inhibited by delphinidin (IC50...
The effect of green tea polyphenols on antioxidant enzymes in mice in vivo
Kvita, Vojtěch ; Svobodová, Hana (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Vojtěch Kvita Supervisor: PharmDr. Hana Bártíková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: The effect of green tea polyphenols on antioxidant enzymes in mice in vivo Antioxidant enzymes belong to compounds with proven effects on human organism. Their main purpose is to defend cells against oxidative stress. In order to support this process, we are taking substances called antioxidants either in regular diet or as dietary supplements. Recently there are a lot of companies on the market, offering the supplement, promising wight loss or defence against cancer. Green tea contains many natural substances, such as polyphenolic compounds which include catechins, which have proven effects on our bodies, but the specific way they act on selected antioxidant enzymes is still matter of study. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of green tea polyphenols on antioxidant enzymes in mice. We studied 8 groups (4 normal, obese 4) wherein the two groups were left as a control which means without administration of Polyphenon. Three groups were given a Polyphenon enriched diet and for various period of time (28 days, 3 days) and at different concentrations (0.1%, 0.01%). Activity was studied in liver...
MicroRNA regulation of glutathion peroxidases
Boučková, Karolína ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Skarková, Veronika (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Science Candidate: Bc. Karolína Boučková Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: MicroRNA regulation of glutathion peroxidases Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the formation of free radicals and the organism's ability to remove those radicals naturally. There can be cell and DNA damage, premature aging, the emergence of various diseases if there is an excessive production of free radicals in the body and they are not scavenged. However, free radicals are also beneficial for the body, as it uses them to remove dead cells and bacteria. Normally, the organism has enough mechanisms to compensate for the activity of free radicals and prevent oxidative stress. Antioxidants can inhibit the activity of free radicals. They are divided into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The most important enzymatic antioxidants are glutathione peroxidases (GPx). Eight genes encoding GPx have been discovered in the human genome. GPx is a cytosol enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, as well as it catalyzes the reduction of peroxide radicals to alcohols and oxygen. The reduction of expression or inactivation of enzymes may pose danger to the organism....
Selection and validation of reference genes for relative mRNA quantification in human liver slices
Studenovská, Petra ; Boušová, Iva (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Petra Studenovská Supervisor: doc. PharmDr. Boušová Iva, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Selection and validation of reference genes for relative mRNA quantification in human liver slices The use of precision-cut liver slices is often employed in vitro system in the biochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies. This is mainly due to the preservation of the cellular tissue architecture and therefore its functions. The aim of this diploma thesis was to select and validate reference genes for the relative quantification of mRNA in human liver slices. Liver tissues obtained from 3 patients of different age, diagnosis and pharmacotherapy were used as samples. Liver slices, prepared from samples of liver tissue, were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or known inducers of cytochrome P450, rifampicin (10 µM) and β-naphthoflavone (10 µM). Subsequently, the stability of the expression of reference genes was verified using RefFinder program, which integrates the programs of the geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and comparative ΔCT method. The optimal number of reference genes that should be used to evaluate the relative gene expression of target genes was determined using the geNorm program....
DNA methylation changes in oropharyngeal carcinoma
Birknerová, Natália ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Pávek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Natália Birknerová Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: DNA methylation changes in oropharyngeal cancer Oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is a type of head and neck cancer (HNC) that represents the seventh most common malignancy worldwide. The vast majority (more than 90%) of cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). OPC develops in the tissue of the tongue, tonsils, soft palate, and pharynx. In addition to traditional risk factors, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an additional independent risk factor for the development of these tumors. Epigenetic alterations refer to heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in the underlying DNA sequence and can contribute to carcinogenesis. They include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs effecting gene expression. This study aimed to investigate methylation levels of selected tumor-suppressor genes in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in comparison to normal oropharyngeal tissue. DNA methylation levels of selected tumor-suppressor genes were analyzed using Methylation- Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA) in metastatic tumor...

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