National Repository of Grey Literature 304 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Mozkový systém odměny u hmyzu
Animal behavior is not random; rather, it is primarily determined by the biological significance of environmental stimuli: stimuli essential for a survival are marked by the brain reward system, with a positive hedonic value and their achievement is associated with the pleasure (reward). The concept of the reward system emerged from research of the mammalian brain; early theories held that it was a system present only in the brains of higher animals (the mesolimbic dopaminergic system), and that reward was a manifestation of more complex neural networks and higher brain functions. The brain reward has evolved from a solitary phenomenon to a complex function that is divided into the components of ´liking´, ´wanting´, and ´learning´, and from the predominate role of dopamine to a more sophisticated idea that assigns important functions to other neurochemical systems. While dopamine still plays a significant part in the ´wanting´ function, the opioid system likely plays a larger role in the ´liking´ function. The distinction of stimuli into pleasant/unpleasant (attractive/aversive) has been described in insects, and it is widely believed that this principle applies throughout the animal kingdom. Mushroom bodies have been identified as the critical regions of reward functions in the brains of insects. The exact descriptions of the implicated neurotransmitters and modulators, as well as specific cellular and network structures, were also provided. Although the complexity of the brain networks in mammalian and insect reward systems differs, the general principles are the similar in both. The fly Drosophila melanogaster is a frequent laboratory model for investigating the principles of neural network functioning. When studying the brain reward system, it is not only appealing because it is a relatively simple organism with a transparent brain and a described genome, but it may also have the benefit for us that when thinking about its brain, we do not apply relatively old, complex concepts with unlimited meanings, which are a problem in interpreting the human brain study. In the case of the fruit fly, we can highlight that 1) the brain regions involved in associative learning and brain reward functions are surprisingly complex, despite the fact that it is a relatively simple and short-lived organism, 2) its brain almost certainly has a system that creates a motivational drive (´wanting´), and 3) there are indications of the potential existence of a hedonic component of pleasure or its evolutionary predecessor, based not on endogenous opioids. It is inspiring in many ways to compare the brain structures of two evolutionary distinct animal groupsinsects and mammals/humans. This comparison has several implications for a broad paradigm of animal reward, including: Reward principles are universal, and all species are likely fundamentally motivated by the need for rewards. The brain reward mechanisms appear to be hierarchically structured; rather than being centrally organized, they are distributed among other brain networks and mechanisms. The components of these mechanisms can operate independently of one another and concurrently. While the function of neuropeptides in the reward system is flexible, the function of monoamines in the reward system is likely to be conservative in evolutionary terms (the function of endogenous opioids in mammals may be at least partially regulated by another neuropeptide in insects). The neurotransmitter identity of dopaminergic neurons in the reward system is likely to be very context-dependent. Two other interesting concepts can be found in the bee: the sublimation of reward functions in individuals in favor of collective pleasure, and the implied integrated function connecting reward functions and social behavior into one continuum. The comparative study gives new scope for understanding disorders of the reward system, especially addiction, and may also have significant philosophical consequences.
A Voltage Support Schemes of Asymmetrically controlled Three-Phase Inverter-Based Generating Units
Dvořáček, Jiří ; Drápela, Jiří
Paper provides insight into possibility of asymmetrical three-phase inverter high-level control as additional grid support in low voltage networks. The asymmetrical control may assist with lowering asymmetry in areas with large single-phase load/generation penetration. Proposed and implemented control schemes are tested with laboratory equipment utilizing artificial network. Results are evaluated based on their effect on voltage asymmetry reduction and neutral conductor current magnitude.
The Son of David in Mathew's Gospel in the Light of the Solomon as Excorcist Tradition
Dvořáček, Jiří ; Mrázek, Jiří (advisor) ; Luz, Ulrich (referee) ; Mareček, Petr (referee)
The dissertation focuses on usage of the Son od David title in Matthew's Gospel. The thesis is based on the presumption that the image of the healing Son of David, as presented by Matthew, is not simply a result of Matthew's redaction of Mark 10,46-52 but is explicable against the background of contemporary Jewish concepts - in praticular in the light of the Solomon as exorcist tradition. Powered by TCPDF (
Development of the Juvenile Deliquency in the CR, Analysis of the Roor Causesand Corrective Measures
Stuchlík, Josef ; Dvořáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Novotná, Jiřina (referee)
SUMMARY: The thesis with the title " Development of the Juvenile Deliquency in the CR, Analysis of the Root Causesand Corrective Measures" analyses the development of the four following kinds of deliquencies - theft, robbery, riotous conduct and growth of drug addiction aminy adolescents in years 2000 - 2009. The thesis also focuses on the analisis of deliquency causes at this group and compares preventive measures in terms of various departments.
Prevention of socially pathological effects in Elementary school
Vamberský, Radim ; Dvořáček, Jiří (advisor) ; Novotná, Jiřina (referee)
The thesis is focused on sphere of the prevention of socially pathological effects in elementary school because only her has a great influence on teenagers. The main point of the study was to examine the level of prevention of socially pathological effects in individual schools. For comparison was made on Forcomparison, was made an research on a chosen sample of primary schools of urban and village type. According to methodological terms, was used substandard questionnaire used for personnel of selected primary schools. The research part was expanded to include the author's own practical experience in the implementation of prevention for children from 1 to 9th class of primary school.
Sexual and partner relationships in the therapeutic community for drug addicts
Namyslovová, Michaela ; Kalina, Kamil (advisor) ; Dvořáček, Jiří (referee)
One of the "cardinal rules" in the therapeutic communities for drug addicts (TC's) is a ban of building a very close relationship, usually erotic or sexual, which is interpreted different ways (for instance as "a choice between the treatment and above standard relationship" in TC Podcestný mlýn). It's sanctioned individually in every particular TC. Violation of this rule is likely to occur from the beginning of gender-mixed groups in TCs for drug addicts. The aim of this paper is to describe how clients having experience with relationship in TC perceive the rule, of relationship non- establishment, what above mentioned rule means for them and whether and on what basis has changed their opinion during the treatment. The methods used were: semi-structured interview, my own notes, 1st rank reduction, text coloring, cluster and method of simple enumeration. Research group consisted of 8 clients and 3 psychotherapists of an anonymous TC. All respondents who agreed with the research participation were of legal age and have related experience with relationship in the TC. It was found that respondents understood the rule, and they are aware of the consequences for individual and the group in case of its breaking. To answer was more difficult question about its meaning, therefore another question was used....
Bases of establishing and maintaing authority in education from the perspective of student teachers in the international context
Šaroch, Jaroslav ; Bendl, Stanislav (advisor) ; Syřiště, Ivo (referee) ; Dvořáček, Jiří (referee)
The dissertation thesis deals with bases of establishing and maintaining authority in education from the perspective of student teachers in the international context. The thesis is divided into six chapters, the first three of which lay down its theoretical groundwork. In the first chapter the term authority is defined both generally and from the point of view of education, then it is classified and categorized, which is followed by an outline of possible dilemmas authority may cause in education. The second chapter charts both internal and external determinants of establishing and maintaining authority in education, i.e. it deals with the influence of teacher's personality and expertise, pupil, interaction of a teacher and a pupil, official pedagogical documents, as well as social and cultural factors. The theoretical part is concluded by the review of the contemporary research of authority in education. The fourth chapter presents the research question and characterizes bases of the selected research methodology - grounded theory. Also, it describes the research plan and utilized qualitative and quantitative research methods, which include free word associations, sentence completion, mind mapping, short written narratives, focus group, and adapted QTI. The chapter also concerns itself with...

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See also: similar author names
2 DVOŘÁČEK, Jaroslav
4 Dvořáček, Jakub
20 Dvořáček, Jan
2 Dvořáček, Jaroslav
2 Dvořáček, Josef
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