National Repository of Grey Literature 125 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Production and characterization of protein isolates from different kinds of bran
Vybíral, Lukáš ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Pořízka, Jaromír (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with the use of various types of bran as a by-product in the milling of cereals. Mills create a huge amount of this material per year. The most common way of processing bran is mostly incineration and to a lesser extent it is used as feed for livestock. Depending on the type of cereal, bran contains 10-20% of protein, which disappears from the food chain due to combustion. Within the framework of sustainability and valorisation of waste, which has recently been largely discussed, great emphasis is placed on waste minimization whether in the field of its production or further processing. Due to the relatively high protein content, bran appears to be a suitable starting material to produce protein supplements. Proteins can be extracted from bran based on their different solubility at different pH. In the alkaline method, the proteins are first dissolved in an alkaline pH and then precipitated in an acidic medium. Lyophilization is followed by characterization of the extract in terms of yield, protein content, moisture, amino acid profile and digestibility. The highest yield was obtained with the oat bran isolate (13,5 ± 0,6 g of isolate per 100 g of bran). In terms of protein content, the best protein isolate was also obtained from oat bran (95,2 ± 0,4% protein in the isolate). Another determination was the analysis of the amino acid profile, in which a high content of arginine was found in all analyzed protein isolates from bran. Determination of digestibility showed very good digestibility of all produced protein extracts from bran.
Isolation of pure aminoacids from wheat bran
Sloupová, Klára ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Pořízka, Jaromír (advisor)
Wheat bran is a promising material containing a wide range of useful components, including proteins. In addition, it is produced in significant volumes. Currently, wheat bran is used for the production of energy by combustion and for feed purposes. Gradually, new methods of valorization of this material are being sought. One of the possibilities of using wheat bran is the isolation of proteins, hydrolysis, and separation of selected amino acids. This diploma thesis deals with this issue, it is focused on the recovery of arginine and leucine from a protein isolate. Proteins were extracted from wheat bran by changing the pH. Thanks to the subsequent lyophilization a protein isolate was gained. Prior to hydrolysis of the resulting isolate, a stability test of arginine and leucine amino acid standards was first performed, to which various hydrolysis methods were applied. Acid hydrolysis using a mineralizer, which was applied to the protein isolate, was proved to be the most effective. This was followed by the derivatization of the hydrolysates with OPA and analysis of the resulting hydrolysates by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-VIS detection. Then, suitable adsorption and desorption conditions were optimized. It was found that the time dependence does not affect the amount of adsorbed material on the sorbent. Therefore, an application time of 15 minutes was chosen. While optimizing the amount of used standard, it was found that the optimal weight was 0.25 g of sorbent. The selected conditions were applied to the protein hydrolyzate. Two fractions were obtained by the separation of selected amino acids due to the change in the pH of the citrate buffer. After the application of this procedure, 0.26 g of arginine and 0.82 g of leucine were obtained from one kilogram after evaporation. From evaporation two, 1.01 g of arginine and 0.25 g of leucine were obtained after evaporation.
Extraction of arabinoxylans from wheat bran
Koblasová, Dana ; Kouřilová, Xenie (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
This diploma thesis is focused on the use of wheat bran as a raw material for extraction of arabinoxylans. Wheat bran is a waste product of mill processing of wheat into flour and is mainly used as a livestock feed. However, the amount of bran produced significantly exceeds its consumption as feed, which opens up space for research into their further use. Polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin are mainly present in the bran. The most common type of hemicelluloses are arabinoxylans, which form the main structural component of wheat bran. Alkaline extraction disrupts hydrogen and covalent bonds and releases polysaccharides of various molar weights from the crosslinked cell wall structure. Hydrolysis is required to obtain arabinose and xylose. Trifluoroacetic acid was chosen for the hydrolysis. The acid breaks down glycosidic bonds of the poly- and oligosaccharides to give the corresponding monosaccharides. The experiments made during this thesis have shown that the yield of multi stage extraction is twice as high as the yield of single stage extraction. Hydrolysis of the solid fractions after alkaline extraction revealed that a relatively large amount of arabinoxylans and other carbohydrates still remain bound in the complex matrix of the bran cell wall. Thus, alkaline extraction alone may not be the best option for obtaining arabinoxylans on a larger scale, or process optimization must be considered. Extraction with the addition of hydrogen peroxide appears to be effective for large-scale extraction processes.
Characterization of the genus Plectrantus for use in the food industry
Chmelová, Nikola ; Diviš, Pavel (referee) ; Vítová, Eva (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to determine the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining an extract from the plant Plectranthus amboinicus. Plectranthus amboinicus is an aromatic herb of the Lamiaceae family containing a large number of bioactive compounds. Because of this, it has a number of biological effects – antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, etc. To maintain the maximum of sensory and nutritionally valuable components of P. amboinicus, a simple maceration of fresh chopped herb was chosen. Maceration was performed under the following conditions: 40 minutes at 40 ° C, solvent 40% ethanol, weight 20 g of herb per 100 ml of solvent. The extract prepared under these optimal conditions was comprehensively characterized in terms of the content of total polyphenols, their concentration was determined to 0,08 ± 0,02 mgGEA·ml-1, which corresponds to 0,40 ± 0,07 mgGEA·g-1 of the plant. The antioxidant activity of the extract was 241,24 ± 29,24 µgTEAC·ml-1 and the radical scavenging activity of ABTS•+ was determined to be 49,29 ± 5,97 %. The antimicrobial activity was verified by the agar well diffusion method. Two types of bacteria were selected for the determination – gram-positive Bacillus cereus, gram-negative Escherichia coli and yeast Candida glabrata. The results showed that the extracts have the highest antimicrobial activity against B. cereus. There were 64 volatile aromatic compounds identified in the extract, with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes dominating. The obtained results confirm that P. amboinicus, or its prepared extract, has a good potential for use as a new and non-traditional flavor in various foods and delicacies, which can also increase their nutritional value.
Application of spectral and non-spectral analytical methods for monitoring the quality of ketchups
Havlíčková, Barbora ; Vítová, Eva (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
The aim of the master´s thesis was to verify the applicability of elemental analysis and molecular spectrometry for examining the authenticity of ketchup. For verify of share refractometric dry matter introduced into ketchup from tomatoes was used analysis of potassium and lycopene content. Ketchups with different tomato contents were prepared and subsequently models were created, which were used to verify the proportion of refractometric dry matter introduced into tomato ketchup in ketchups from the store. The results of the work showed that the amount of lycopene is a problematic marker for verifying the authenticity of ketchup, because during the production of ketchup, lycopene is degraded.In contrast, the amount of potassium in ketchup has been shown to be a good marker for monitoring the authenticity of ketchup. The model based on the potassium content of ketchup worked reliably, the deviations obtained from the quantity of tomatoes used for the production of ketchup indicated on the packaging were less than 10%. Higher deviations were achieved in ketchups with a minimum permitted tomato content of up to 20%. The concentration of potassium in ketchup with a lower content of used tomatoes can be significantly affected by the addition of other ingredients to the ketchup (onion, garlic, carrot, apple, etc.). In addition to the ketchup production technology used, the ripeness of tomatoes also has a significant effect on the model for verifying the authenticity of ketchup.
Monitoring of mercury and methylmercury content in fish meat and evaluation of risks associated with the consumption of this meat
Křížová, Lucie ; Pořízka, Jaromír (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
Mercury and its compounds are one of the most toxic global pollutants in the environment. It occurs in all segments of the environment, and it attains the food chain ang human body by people consuming fish. The theoretical part of this thesis examines the characteristics of mercury, its occurrence, the roots of its pollution, and the toxicity of various forms of mercury. Consequently, the thesis delineates analytical methodologies applied to determine the overall level of mercury and chemical forms of mercury. The practical part focuses on monitoring the level of mercury and methylmercury in 12 extracts of fish meat. The analyzer AMA 254 has been used to determine the level of mercury and methylmercury in these extracts. Based on the level that resulted from the measurements, the thesis concludes a risk that correlates with consuming this type of meat.
Use of analytical methods and chemometry to verify the geographical authenticity of honey
Marková, Lucie ; Křikala, Jakub (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
The teoretical part of this bachelor thesis is focused on the process of producing the honey by bees, its composition and means of its adulteration or ways to detect substandard products. The experimental part describes methodes, which were used to observe the samples. Sacharides, organic acids, mineral content, the amount of dry matter, titration acidity and conductivity were meassured. Obtained data were used for differentiation the Czech and foreign honey. The result of the statistical analysis shows the calcium, copper and glucose content are suitable paramteres to differentiate the Czech honey from that externals. Theese parameters could be used to distinguish the two different geographical origin of honey. Nevertheless, the total evaluation seems to be insufficient for differentiation these two groups. The efficiency could be icreased by the including more samples for analysis, or meassuring more parameters. Finally, some of the parameters were used for quality control of honey.
Determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in honey
Dohnalová, Barbora ; Slavíková, Zuzana (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
Honey is a valuable food of a natural nature that can be subject to adulteration for higher profits. One method of detecting this adulteration may be to determine hydroxymethylfurfural, the formation of which is promoted by heating. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the types of honey, their origin, and the possibilities of their falsification. HMF, its occurrence and use and methods for its determination are also described. The practical part is devoted to the description of the experiment such as sample preparation, measurement and evaluation. The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) method was used to determine HMF in honey, which can be used to determine even very low concentrations. There were five samples for the experiment, four of them directly from the beekeeper and one from the retail chain. All samples were compared for HMF content. The highest concentration of HMF was determined in a sample of commercially available honey. In domestic honeys, the HMF content increased with the age of the honey. The content of HMF in all honeys complied with Decree No. 76/2003 Coll.
Study of changes in the chemical composition of coffee during roasting
Kohoutová, Lenka ; Vítová, Eva (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with monitoring of changes in acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural levels in coffee during the process of roasting. Green coffee was roasted using two separate roasting modes (medium roast: temperature 210 °C for duration of 14 minutes, City roast: temperature 220 °C for 17 minutes). Concentration of acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural for various roasting durations was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For the determination of acrylamide, linear growth of the concentration was observed. The final levels of acrylamide corresponded with levels given by the literature, although the characteristic trend of acrylamide formation was not observed. Typical trend of hydroxymethylfurfural formation was observed in samples roasted with City roast mode, while the first part of the trend was also apparent in samples roasted with medium roast mode. Final levels of hydroxymethylfurfural in roasted coffee were within the limits given by the literature.
Study of the authenticity of spices and condiments
Štursa, Václav ; Golian, Jozef (referee) ; Urík, Martin (referee) ; Diviš, Pavel (advisor)
This disertation deals with geographical authentification of different types of spices and spice preparations. Investigated spice species were garlic (Allium sativum), ground pepper (Capsicum anuum), and dried carrot (Daucus carota). Theoretical part of the disertation describes main qualitative parameters of the examined species and production technology, means of food adulteration and statistic methods used in chemometrics. The aim of this dissertation was to verify the hypothesis whether it is possible to use targeted analytical techniques commonly used in quality control of spices and condiments, and statistical processing of measured data to distinguish samples of spices and condiments of different geographical origin. The use of non-targeted analysis was also investigated. Samples of garlic and ground pepper were used for targeted analysis. The examined parameters were dry matter and moisture of the sample, ash content, total phenolic content according to Folin-Ciocaulteu, carbohydrate content, alliin concentration, total nitrogen content, total color pigment (ASTA), pH of aqueous extract, total fat content, and concentration of selected elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, Na, P, Zn). The instrumental techniques used were molecular absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The obtained data were statistically processed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Using statistical analysis significant differences between samples that came from more distant areas were found. However, samples from closer areas could not be distinguished. The researched hypothesis could not be unequivocally confirmed or refuted. Metabolic fingerprint of carrot samples was determined using non-targeted analysis. Metabolic analysis was performed using the tandem LC-TOF-MS technique. The data were processed by recursive peak extraction (BRE) and subsequently uvaluated with PCA. The samples were divided into clusters according to their origin. Targeted and non-targeted techniques have great potential in verifying the geographical authenticity of different types of spices. However, the main condition is consistent and sufficient sampling, guaranteed information on the origin of the sample and obtaining a sufficient amount of input data for statistical analysis.

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2 Diviš, Patrick
3 Diviš, Petr
1 Diviš, Přemysl
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