National Repository of Grey Literature 43 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders in patients with esophageal achalasia
Jerie, Martin ; Vojtěch, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee) ; Bronský, Jiří (referee)
Introduction: Achalasia is a primary motility disorder of the esophagus due to degeneration neurons in myenteric plexus. Although the exact pathogenesis is unknown, autoimmune and neurodegenerative processes seem to be involved. We thus hypothesized that the prevalence of neurodegenerative and/or neuroinflammatory disorders (NDD) with autoimmune component could be higher among patients with achalasia and vice versa as the background pathogenetic mechanisms might be similar. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, comparative questionnaire-based study. Patients with achalasia from a gastroenterology center and patients with NDD from neurology centers in the Czech Republic were enrolled. Patients from achalasia group were then examined by neurologist and neurological patients by gastroenterologist, including further testing to confirm or rule out either NDD and achalasia, respectively. We assessed the prevalence of both achalasia and NDD and compared them with prevalences in general population. Results: A total of 150 patients with achalasia and 112 patients with NDD were enrolled. We observed an increased prevalence of NDD among patients with achalasia (6.0 % (9/150) as compared to the estimated 2.0 % prevalence of NDD in general population, p=0.003). In the NDD group, 32 out of 112 patients...
Sleep variability and sleep behavior of two selected homogeneous groups of aduls
Tomašovská, Jana ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee)
Nowadays, frequency of so called civilization diseases is raising and current life style of an industrial society brings increased number of sleep disorders. Various non-physiological and pathological phenomena, for which humans do not have and cannot have any adaptation mechanisms created, can be seen in our culture and society. The purpose of this thesis is to examine sleep habits of two groups of healthy adult persons (young adults and seniors) and determine factors having an influence on sleep quality. Three hypotheses were stated (Hypothesis No. 1: Sleep length and quality are changing throughout the life. Hypothesis No. 2: Sleep length has an influence on BMI. Hypothesis No. 3: Sleep length is dependent on a life style). Validity of these hypotheses was verified. The sample consisted of a group of young adults (76 women, 51 men) and of a group of active seniors (50 women, 40 men). Sleep behavior was investigated by a questionnaire form. Every person answered to 50 questions. Their answers were statistically processed. Basic somatic characteristics as body height, body weight and Body Mass Index were measured during the contact with respondents. Statistically significant difference (p < 0,05) in sleep behavior of young adults and seniors in weekdays and weekend was found out. Young adults were...
Craniofacial Abnormalities in Sleep Apnoea Syndrome
Dostálová, Simona ; Šonka, Karel (advisor) ; Čáp, Jan (referee) ; Peterka, Miroslav (referee)
The thesis is based on a series of cephalometric studies of patients with SAS, acromegalic patients with or without SAS as well as control groups. The studies presented in this thesis produce following results: There are important differences in orofacial skeleton and soft tissue of nasopharynx measured by cephalometry in the patients with sleep apnoea compared to the control group of women and men. Proved skeleton changes (increased lower gonion angle, increased anterior facial heights, decreased depth of the upper face) and elongated soft palate predisposes patients to narrowing of upper airways in oropharyngx, which significantly contributes to development of SAS. Cephalometric differences in the size of the soft palate, the rotation of the mandible and the size of lower gonion angle can be found in men with mild and severe sleep apnoea. We conclude that the severity of the SAS depends on the degree of changes in the orofacial skeleton and adjacent soft tissues. The results, which reveal a significant differences in BMI and in the circumference of the neck between groups with mild and severe SAS, confirm the idea that the most important predisposing factor for SAS is obesity, in particular deposition of adipose tissue in the posteriolateral parapharyngeal space. Patients with acromegaly (of both sexes)...
Hypercapnia impact on vascular and neuronal reactivity in patients before and after carotid endarterectomy
Ostrý, Svatopluk ; Stejskal, Lubor (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee) ; Zvěřina, Eduard (referee)
Indications for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) of symptomatic and asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were based on numerous randomised studies. The benefit was rated relative to the lowered risk of ipsilateral stroke relapse. There is evidence that rCBF correlates with brain electrical activity (EEG, SEPs). Somatosensory function is represented by evoked neuronal activity in central region. Can the neuronal activity in primary somatosensory cortex be influenced by hypercapnia-induced increased rCBF or CEA in patients with ICA stenosis or is a change such as that permanent? The aim of the present study was to determine whether CEA in unilateral symptomatic stenosis in the extracranial vascular system had a bearing on neuronal activity in the central region of the cerebral cortex. Material and methods The criteria for enrollment in the study were a history of ischaemic insult (TIA, RIND, minor stroke) less than six weeks before admission and unilateral stenosis of the ICA of 70-99 % measured on the DSA with the NASCET method. Patients were divided inti two groups: Group A (28 men and 13 women) with their initial NIHSS ≤ 2. Group B consisted of 12 men and 5 women, starting NIHSS was from 3 to 8. All patients were examined before CEA, on post-operative days 3-7 and 3 months after CEA. SEPs ans...
Cognitive and psychosocial sequelae following hypoxic brain injury.
Dostálová, Veronika ; Bezdíček, Ondřej (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee) ; Feketeová, Eva (referee)
Cognitive and psychosocial sequelae following hypoxic brain injury Abstract in English Hypoxic brain injury leads to neuronal necrosis and to other cerebral changes which may affect psychosocial functioning. Although the pathophysiology of cerebral hypoxia is multifactorial, and it is not possible to reliably describe the unified clinical picture of hypoxia patients, the most commonly described psychosocial consequences of cerebral hypoxia are cognitive impairment, increased anxiety and depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study is to characterize cognitive functioning and psychosocial changes of the patients exposing mild intermittent cerebral hypoxia (=chronic form of hypoxia, model of obstructive sleep apnea diagnosed by neurologist) and patients after severe one-time cerebral hypoxia (=acute form of hypoxia, model of cardiac arrest diagnosed by cardiologist). Regardless of the different etiology of particular hypoxia forms described in the theoretical part of the thesis, both forms may lead to neuronal death. In the experimental part we test a hypothesis comparing healthy individuals to patients with acute or chronic form of hypoxia in cognitive performance or anxiety and depressive symptoms. We document a decreased cognitive performance and higher level of state anxiety in a group of patients...
REM sleep behavior disorder:Characteristics of polysomnographic and behavioral manifestations.
Nepožitek, Jiří ; Šonka, Karel (advisor) ; Bušková, Jitka (referee) ; Marusič, Petr (referee)
REM sleep behavior disorder: Characteristics of polysomnographic and behavioral manifestations Abstract REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a disease characterized by abnormal motor activity corresponding to the dream content. REM sleep without atonia (RWA) and behavioral manifestations are the main features registered by video-polysomnography (PSG). Because idiopathic RBD (iRBD) is considered as prodromal stage of synucleinopathies, the direction of current research is the search for markers of early conversion. The goal of this study was to observe the group of patients with iRBD with regard to the development of manifest neurodegenerative disease, to find and test a new polysomnographic marker of phenoconversion, to perform analysis of the movements registered by video and to quantify excessive fragmentary myoclonus (EFM), which is a frequent finding in neurodegenerative processes. A total of 55 patients with iRBD were observed for 2.3±0.7 years. The annual conversion rate was 5.5%. Mixed RWA, representing simultaneous occurrence of phasic and tonic RWA, was suggested as a new marker of phenoconversion. Converted patients showed a higher mixed RWA (p=0.009) and the ROC analysis confirmed that mixed RWA is the best predictive marker of conversion among other RWA types (AUC 0.778). An average of...
Treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and noninvasive ventilation (BiPAP) during sleep
Jantosová, Nikola ; Šonka, Karel (advisor) ; Pretl, Martin (referee)
(AJ): The thesis focuses on the topic of treatment of sleep apnea with noninvasive ventilation. The research deals with problems of sleep apnea and its role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This work describes sleep laboratory methodology from baseline until completion of treatment which is ensured by two methods, with the help of sustained pressure. The goal of the research is to highlight the importance of sleep laboratory methodology in the treatment of sleep apnea. The research results confirm that the factors previously known, such as age weight and sex of the patient are responsible for the emergence of apnea. To improve the outcome of the treatment and its tolerance it is important to set the correct pressure.The results do not clearly point to the factor which results in insufficient use of noninvasive ventilation during sleep.
Brain Activation Sequences
Šusta, Marek ; Šonka, Karel (advisor) ; Krajča, Vladimír (referee) ; Zach, Petr (referee)
Brain Activation Sequences Abstract INTRODUCTION: This research goes beyond the EEG source localization up to the field of brain connectivity in an attempt to create software tool that eases diagnostic procedures in selected nosologic units by discriminating between patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Experiment 1 - a group of 26 adult patients (14 male, 12 female) suffering from NC and 10 adult controls (5 male, 5 female) participated in the experiment. The experiment contained audio recordings designed to trigger laughter in participants during the EEG recording. Experiment 2 - twenty eight female inpatients diagnosed with ED and ten healthy controls were selected and presented with various stimuli while the EEG was recorded. The Brain Activation Sequences method, applied to all recordings, utilizes nonlinear differential model structure to calculate final output sequence of the brain locations involved substantially in the stimulus processing. RESULTS: Experiment 1 - the BAS results show statistically significant differences in activity between patients and controls namely in gyrus orbitalis, rectus, occipitalis inferior (right), occipitalis medius (right), paracentralis, cinguli, cuneus (right) and parahippocampalis (left). Experiment 2 - the results confirm significant differences in processing the...
Pineal lesions: clinical presentation, hormone secretion, sleep quality and effect of surgical treatment
Májovský, Martin ; Netuka, David (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee) ; Lipina, Radim (referee)
Introduction: Pineal region is a deep-seated part of the brain surrounded by highly eloquent structures. Differential diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in this region encompasses pineal gland cysts, pineal gland tumours, metastases, germ cell tumours, meningiomas, gliomas, hemangioblastomas and neuroectodermal tumours. In this thesis, I focused mainly on patients with pineal cysts, which is a benign affection of the human pineal gland on the borderline between pathology and normality. The clinical management of patients with a pineal cyst remains controversial, especially when patients present with non-specific symptoms. A melatonin secretion in patients with a pineal cyst before and after a pineal cyst resection has not been studied yet and the effect of surgery on human metabolism is unknown. Materials and Methods: We performed a prospective study between 2000 and 2016. All patients with a pineal cyst larger than 7 mm were included. Epidemiological data, presenting symptoms, surgical results and radiographic and clinical follow-up were documented. We examined melatonin, cortisol and blood glucose secretion profiles perioperatively in a subgroup of 4 patients. The control group was represented by 3 asymptomatic patients with a pineal cyst. For each patient, 24-h circadian secretion curves of...
Functional imaging of cortical evoked potentials following painful and nonpainful stimulation in healthy volunteers and chronic pain patients
Poláček, Hubert ; Stančák, Andrej (advisor) ; Šonka, Karel (referee) ; Kuba, Miroslav (referee)
A close relationship between painful and non-painful (somatosensory) percepction was noticed already in the past centuries and led into development of many analgesic methods. Only basic neuroanatomical and neurophysiological research using animal models of nociception was able to shed more light on their proper mechanisms until the era of modern non- invasive imaging methods. The main aim of this thesis was to analyze non-invasively, in human volunteers and patients with chronic pain, spatiotemporal relations between brain evoked responses to painful (or aversive) and non-painful stimuli. In next step, to discuss the roles of different engaged mechanisms in found interactions and suggest recommendations for further research of pain. 4 experimental studies (3 in healthy volunteers and 1 in patients with failed back surgery syndrome) are presented. Using high-resolution EEG, phasic electrical stimulation of median, tibial or sural nerve(s), and source analysis of recorded data, modulations of all repersentative components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) by several interfering conditions were analyzed. In healthy volunteers, effects of heterotopic repetitive heat pain administered to the right side of the body (ipsilateral to electrically stimulated nerve) were tested in Experiment 1 (compared to the...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 43 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.