National Repository of Grey Literature 102 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Geometric-morphometric approach to age and sex variability of the acetabulum
Cibulková, Simona ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Bejdová, Šárka (referee)
6 Abstract This thesis compared age and sex differences in lunate surface morphology using a 3D geometric-morphometric approach. The acetabulum of 240 individuals was compared using landmarks and semilandmarks placed along the edge of the lunate surface. The individuals ranged in age from 20 to 90 and came from three geographic areas. This thesis was based on the study of San-Millán et al. (2017a) that used a 2D geometric-morphometric approach to investigate the shape of the acetabulum. Analyses in this thesis showed that size, sex, and age significantly affect the acetabular shape. The differences between both sexes can be observed in the size and depth of the acetabulum, the width of the acetabular notch, and the amount of bone growth at the acetabular horns and along the edges of the lunate surface. Both sexes exhibit age- related changes, which are linked to gradual deposits of bone along the edge of the lunate surface, the acetabular horns, and the acetabular fossa, which tends to lose the 3-lobed cloverleaf shape. According to the geometric-morphometric analysis conducted in this thesis, the acetabulum provides more accurate age estimates for individuals younger than 65 years of age. Keywords: Bioarchaeology, forensic anthropology, age estimation, sex estimation, acetabulum, lunate surface of hip...
On the limits and possibilities of the stature estimating from hand and foot measurements (hand stencils and foot impressions).
Havránková, Jiřina ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Dobisíková, Miluše (referee)
This bachelor essay explains view of methods for stature estimation based on hand and foot dimensions. It appears from this view that regression functions are population specific. I have assessed this fact on the collection of 100 French students and I have applicated specific chosen regression equations on the exact group. For stature estimation the most suitable regression equation was the one created by Agnihotri and col. (2008). It provides the best results in an interval 11 up to 12 cms regarding the actual height. For one of the equations, which is using the length of the left hand and the breadth of the right hand of men, the results of the estimation is even 6 cms regarding the actual height. At the end, I tried to calculate my own equations, which offers the estimation results between 6 - 7 cms for the formulas working with the hand length, the estimation results is between 12 - 13 cms for the formulas using the breadth of the arm.
Sexual differences and sex assessment from 3D computed tomography models of the mandible
Piskačová, Kateřina ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Bejdová, Šárka (referee)
This master thesis deals with sex estimation from 3D models of mandible and validity of published discriminant functions. Although discriminant functions are known to be population specific, authors pursue to design a discriminant function that will be least affected by population specificity and for which a wider use could be envisaged for sex estimation. Such discriminant functions have been suggested by Tunis et al. (2017) in a very heterogenous population of Israel and more recently (Gillet et al., 2020) in the French population. The basic question of our work was whether these discriminant functions are usable and reliable even in the Czech population. In the first part of the thesis, 61 (30 female and 31 male) 3D models of the mandible of adult of recent Czech population were used for the validation study of discriminant functions for five different states of mandibular completeness (Tunis et al., 2017) and one discriminant function for the complete mandible (Gillet et al., 2020). Total 28 measurements were taken on the mandibles in the program Viewbox 4. In the Czech population, we achieved a correct classification of 60-93.3 % depending on the completeness of the mandible, after using the Israeli functions. For the French fiction, we achieved the correct classification of 83.3 %. To find...
The deficit of children skeletal remains in European cemeteries
Vejnarová, Rebeka ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Brzobohatá, Hana (referee)
This bachelor thesis seeks explanations for the deficit of juvenile skeletons on cemeteries of past populations. First we briefly describe the process of extinction of human populations in which the distinction between today's developed and developing countries is made. It is the age-specific mortality rate in developing countries, in particular the level of child mortality, which is very close to the mortality pattern of past pre-industrial populations. Then the research methods of child mortality in the past are outlined including their problems and obstacles. Subsequently, the causes which led to higher child mortality rate in the past are stated and the probable values of child mortality are found out from the available literature which uses the above mentioned methods. Particular attention is paid to the representation of children skeletal remains in cemeteries. Comparing the empirical number of children from twelve Central European cemeteries with theoretical values indicated that especially the youngest children are under-represented. Therefore, the thesis focuses on the explanation of this phenomenon by biological, cultural and methodological factors. On the basis of available data we conclude that the biological and physicochemical properties of child bones lead to poorer preservation of these...
Cribra orbitalia - prevalence and coincidence with another signs of diseases on skeleton. Medieval findings from the Czech Republic territory.
Poláková, Veronika ; Likovský, Jakub (advisor) ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (referee)
Cribra orbitalia represents one of the most frequent bone pathologies in skeletal remains of past populations. This lesion is characterised by porous, furrowed even trabecular disruption on the outer table of the compact bone on the orbital roof. Although the origin of cribra orbitalia is linked to marrow hyperplasia as a consequence of iron deficiency anemia, even other causes are not ruled out. Both occurences cribra orbitalia alone and coincidence with other signs of diseases have been recorded. Research of this study applies to cribra orbitalia as a long- term stress indicator on the skeleton and a symptom of specific diseases or anemic syndroms. Skeletal remains from Czech medieval sites with presence of cribra orbitalia as well as whole graveyard from Oškobrh were analysed. Macroscopical investigation did not demonstrate periodic coincidence of cribra orbitalia and specific bone signs of the diseases. However, the following bone changes have been observed: hyperostosis porotica, increased vascularization, supranasal porosity, inflammatory- hemorrhagic reaction on the endocranium which can in terms of differential diagnosis help to clarify the nature and/or cause of the origin of cribra orbitalia. Comparison of the population from Oškobrh with other medieval graveyards showed that frequency of...
Evolution of Human chin
Cvrčková, Lucie ; Velemínská, Jana (advisor) ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (referee)
Chin is one of the most distinctive features of anatomically modern humans, neither archaic nor Neanderthals had it. The chin is part of symphyseal part of mandibular symphysis and so that represents anatomical structure, it's meaning is not yet fully explained. The goal of the thesis was to summarize evolution of the chin including the importance od the most unique fossil findings. It also aims to explain different types of theories of the chin evolution, that have been formed so far. Among the most recognized present theories belongs dynamic and functional concept and concept of speech development impact on the formation of the chin. The first one takes into account mainly the biomechanical point of view and the development of the chin connects with the resistance of the whole jaw to chewing stress. The development of the chin during evolution was in connection with verticalizing of the symphysis, which is likely associated with non-functional factors such as the gracilization of jaw apparatus including reduction of the protrusion of both jaws as well as the space for tongue. The biomechanic "in vivo" experiments of the human mandible have not yet produced clear results. There are still needed to be addressed in the context of modern methodology. However, it is likely that the chin, as well as other...
Evolutionary aspects of bipedalism in hominins
Pinterová, Nikola ; Sládek, Vladimír (advisor) ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (referee)
The work deals with the human bipedality, the previous locomotor behavior and possible reasons for its occurrence. For help finding Ardipithecus ramidus, who is dating close to the split of chimpanzees and humans, is studied prebipedal pattern of locomotor behavior. Emphasis is also placed on the way the movement of A. ramidus itself. On the basis of literary sources are in this thesis for an overview summarized the locomotor patterns of representatives Catarrhini and listed important adaptations to bipedality of the human skeleton. The adaptations then are the criterion for the evaluation of bipedalism in fossil bones of A. ramidus. Furthermore, we deal with evolutionary hypotheses about the origin of bipedalism. Key words Bipedalism, locomotion, human, chimpanzee, Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus, hominins, evolution
Co-evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity: milk production and lactase persistence
Priehodová, Edita ; Černý, Viktor (advisor) ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (referee) ; Macholán, Miloš (referee)
Lactase persistence (LP) is genetically determined ability to digest lactose (milk sugar) in adulthood. Lactose is digested by the intestinal enzyme - lactase. In mammals, production of lactase declines after the weaning period. In case of the LP, the lactase is produced during whole life and thus it is possible to drink larger amounts of fresh milk without digestive problems. However, LP is documented only in some human populations. Its worldwide distribution is unequal, the highest rates are found in northern Europe and in pastoralists living in arid regions of Africa and Arabia. The origin of this trait is related to the emergence of agriculture 10,000 years ago, and the beginnings of milk production. In some populations, there is a strong signal of positive selection for the LP caused by various factors depending on various living conditions. The LP is associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located approximately 14 kb upstream from lactase gene. Nowadays we know five different SNPs which cause the LP and they have probably different origin and have expanded independently. One of the possible centres of the LP origin is the Arabian Peninsula, where the LP variant -13,915*G probably first appeared and spread. In this thesis, occurrences of different LP mutations were investigated...
Biological characteristics of individuals from the baroque level of St. Benedict cemetery in Prague - an analysis of the demographical crisis
Pinkr, Tomáš ; Brůžek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Černý, Viktor (referee)
The target of this thesis was to identify mass graves of the burial phase V. in the cemetery around the former St. Benedict Church in Prague and to determine, by means of dental epigenetic traits, if there is a biological relation among selected groups of mass graves and if they belong to one demographic crisis. The analysis of the archaeology-anthropologic documentation was the essential part of this thesis. By this analysis the identification of mass graves and their combination to higher groups according to the following criteria: a locating the mass grave at the cemetery, a position of individual burials in the mass graves, the burial way and artefacts found was possible. The previous research made by the French- Czech team, namely radiocarbon dating of several graves, was also supportive. The actual investigation of the biological relation (similarity) of individuals from mass graves was carried out by means of dental epigenetic traits. These traits were evaluated according to verbal description and plaster casts of teeth (Turner at al. 1991). The following statistical methods were used for the evaluation: a measure of divergence and the mean measure of divergence stating the unlikeness of probability occurrence of corresponding features. The result of this work was the identification of 19 mass graves...

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See also: similar author names
3 Brůžek, Jan
1 Brůžek, Jindřich
2 Brůžek, Josef
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