National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Identification of biomarkers involved in the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Šimják, Patrik ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Karásek, David (referee) ; Novotný, Zdeněk (referee)
Identification of biomarkers involved in the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus ABSTRACT Gestational diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism that occurs in pregnancy and resolves after delivery. Increasing production of pregnancy-related hormones leads to insulin resistance which is not adequately compensated by increased insulin secretion. Since obesity is an important risk factor for gestational diabetes and is also associated with adipose tissue dysfunction and increased peripheral insulin resistance, the question arises as to what extent is the adipose tissue involved in the development of gestational diabetes. The first part of the thesis focuses on the identification of changes in plasma concentration and mRNA expression of adipokines fetuin A, fetuin B and FGF21. In our study we did not show that the presence of gestational diabetes significantly influenced the plasma concentration of fetuin A, fetuin B and FGF21 during pregnancy. An important finding was that women who had pregnancy complicated with gestational diabetes had a significantly higher concentration of FGF21 several months after delivery in comparison to healthy pregnant women. We have been able to demonstrate the production of fetuin A in the placenta and fetuin B in perineal and subcutaneous tissue. However,...
The influence of high performance sports on pregnancy, delivery and puerperium
Novotná, Adéla ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Přáda, Jan (referee)
The bachelor thesis deals with the impact of high performance sports on pregnancy, delivery and puerperium. Theoretical part is focused on the changes in the organism of a pregnant woman, especially on her diet and the impact of either excessive or deficient physical activity. This part also evaluates the suitability of individual sport activities in terms of intensity and specificity during the period of pregnancy. It also addresses the influence of sport anamnesis on the delivery during each birth periods. The thesis also seeks the theoretical basis for returning to a high performance field or maintaining an adequate physical activity during the period of puerperium and lactating. The purpose of the practical part is to compare the population of professional athletes with the average population in both qualitative and quantitative features. Data from Obstetrics-gynecology clinic are used for the quantitative part of the research and are compared with a control group of the average population. The qualitative part is processed in the form of semi-structured interviews. Interwiews were conducted eith respondents who performer top-level sport and with respondents who had never pursued top-level sport. The respondents were acquainted with the topic of bachelor thesis and using their data. They were...
Prediction of spontaneous preterm labor - role of midwife
Plojharová, Tereza ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Přáda, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis focuses on the issue of premature birth prediction. Premature delivery is one of the most serious problems in obstetrics and the cause of many perinatal complications. The incidence in the Czech Republic today is around 7,2 %. The problem of prediction of this serious pathology is false negativity or converselyfalse positivity. Regarding the latter, women are unnecessarily hospitalized and treated. It is very important to find a method that could detect as many impending premature births as possible and at the same time show the lowest possible false positivity. However, this is very difficult. Premature birth is caused multifactorial effects. The aim of the study was to determine the premature birth prediction using vaginal ultrasound cervicometry in combination with the examination of fetal fibronectin levels in the transvaginal fluid and the effectiveness of the QUIPP algorithm in predicting the premature birth. These goals were accompanied by 6 hypotheses that helped to fulfill the goals. From January 2019 to March 2020, asymptomatic women with a high risk of premature birth in the week of pregnancy 22+0 to 25+6 were examined. Also, women who then gave birth at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the First Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital in...
Effect of epidural analgesia on duration of the first and second stages of labour.
Kuklová, Dagmar ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Šimják, Patrik (referee)
Effect of Epidural Analgesia on Duration of the First and Second Stages of Labour Abstract: This bachelor's thesis deals with the topic of epidural analgesia. Nowadays, epidural analgesia is considered to be the most effective method of relieving labour pain. The thesis is both theoretical and practical. The aim of the theoretical part is to summarize knowledge about labour pain and the methods of relieving it. The thesis offers a comprehensive review of both non-pharmacological and pharmacological techniques. The method of epidural analgesia is described in more detail. The thesis describes the indications and contraindications of administering epidural analgesia. It also studies it's impact on the course of labour. The practical part of this thesis consists of results of a prospective study concerning epidural analgesia. A group of women with administered epidural analgesia during labour were compared to a group of women without administration of epidural analgesia. Then it was looked at whether this method of analgesia has any effect on the length of the first and second stages of labour. It was ascertained by statistical methods that epidural analgesia has no effect on the duration of the first and second stages of labour. Keywords: Epidural Analgesia, Labour, Childbirth, Delivery, Parturition, First...
Midwife, member of obstetric team in peripartum haemorrhage.
Soukupová, Adéla ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Sosna, Ondřej (referee)
The bachelor thesis deals with postpartum hemorrhage which is the leading cause of maternal mortality in developing countries as well as in economically developed countries of the world. The thesis consists of two parts - a theoretical one and a practical one. The aim of the theoretical part is present published information about prevention, causes, risk factors, diagnosis and therapy of postpartum hemorrhage and especially to show the important role of midwife in all these aspects. The theoretical part includes a chapter focusing on simulation postpartum hemorrhage especially the question of effectiveness of simulations and repetition frequency. Studies that deal with simulations suggest that midwives are not often included in simulations. For this reason, the bachelor thesis contains a video created by midwifery students, midwives and doctors. The video shows urgent action of a midwife in the case of postpartum hemorrhage. The video should serve as an educational material for midwives and midwifery students. This video should also facilitate the preparation for their future profession. The practical part, case study, shows especially the midwife's care of a woman with postpartum hemorrhage.
Cardiotocography in midwifery practice
Bartusková, Simona ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Přáda, Jan (referee)
The subject matter of this bachelor thesis has been to create a research identifying the knowledge of the CTG interpretation according to FIGO 2015, both in the theoretical field as well as in the framework of practical skills. Cardiotocography is an integral part of midwife daily routine and a useful method to identify and interpret the lack of oxygenation of the fetus. Therefore, it is a great benefit in terms of reducing the prenatal morbidity and mortality. The work aims at the employment of this method in a deeper and more complex way. The theoretical part focuses on the relevant knowledge up to now, the analysis of CTG, on the recommended processes in the evaluation of the antepartal and intrapartal fetal heart rate monitoring (as it puts emphasis mainly on the changes introduced by the new FIGO 2015 recommendations), on the pathophysiology of fetal hypoxia and last but not least on the nursing care of the midwives in pursuance of FHR monitoring. Using the anonymous questionnaires we tested the theoretical knowledge and practical techniques in the interpretation of CTG by the new guidelines at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Three groups of respondents were addressed, female students of 3rd year bachelor studies (Midwife branch of study), midwives working in delivery rooms and young...
Midwifery of Period Called Pobelohorska Infanticide
Surá, Alexandra ; Říhová, Milada (advisor) ; Čechura, Jaroslav (referee) ; Pařízek, Antonín (referee)
I initially explored historic figures of European accoucheur of the 17. and 18. century. Beyond this I focused on a period called "Pobělohorská" in Czech countries. I summarized the health conditions of the population during this period, and described medical professions, midwifery and emergency Christening ceremonies. One chapter discusses partnerships and considers women who hid their pregnancy to avoid the prospect of caring for their children in the future. For this reason I present questions relating to how women hid their pregnancy during the Early Modern period. In the next chapter I discuss aspects of the process of giving birth, the locations where women gave birth and the moments thereafter. I present the circumstances of the death of the baby and the possible causes of death. The process of investigation of the scene, an assessment of the body and the search for the mother of the baby (as a potential murderer) are all considered. The assessment of the body was in the hands of the regional physiciusurgeon and a midwife. In my work I describe how the body was assessed, how they judged the maturity of the newborn baby and if the baby was born dead or alive. Further chapters explain the treatment of the umbilical cord, the inquisition of the witnesses and the suspect, and the next steps of...
Changes of lipid metabolism caused by pregnancy
Kokrdová, Zuzana ; Košťál, Milan (advisor) ; Měchurová, Alena (referee) ; Pařízek, Antonín (referee)
As evidenced by recent literature, adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and intrauterine growth restriction are risk factors for maternal metabolic and vascular diseases in later life. The second half of a normal pregnancy is accompanied by glucose intolerance, hyperlipidaemia and an increase in coagulation factors. This physiological response to pregnancy represents a transient excursion into a metabolic syndrome. Approximately 3-4% of all pregnant women are diagnosed with gestational diabetes that usually reverts to normal after delivery. However, gestational diabetes may predict the development of type 2 diabetes later in life. It is not yet known if changes similar to carbohydrate metabolism occur in the lipid metabolism and weather a certain degree of hyperlipidaemia in the last trimester could predict the appearance of an overt non-gestational hyperlipidaemia in the future. Our study describes antepartum and postpartum changes of lipoprotein lipids in 26 healthy pregnant women, 11 women with gestational diabetes, 10 women with type 1 diabetes, and in 9 women with metabolic syndrome in gestation weeks 12, 32 - 34 and 6 and 24 months postpartum. The results are compared to measurements in 30 nonpregnant controls not taking oral contraceptives,...
The role of neuroactive steroids in pregnancy and their importance in prenatal diagnosticsSteroidogenesis in the third trimester of pregnancy and mechanisms leading to the start of labor
Pašková, Andrea ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Procházka, Martin (referee) ; Tošner, Jindřich (referee)
Steroid hormones act through two mechanisms. The first is the classical genomic level, which acts at a relatively slow pace from hours to days. The second non-genomic mechanism of steroid activity can influence cellular function during seconds or even milliseconds. During pregnancy both mechanisms take place. Steroid hormones that act non-genomically and influence neuronal excitability are called neuroactive steroids. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of steroid hormones and examine their relationship to the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The physiological importance of increased placental progesterone production, lowered production of 5B-pregnanone steroids and increased activity of steroid sulfotransferase with gestational age have been intensely discussed. On the basis of our results, we have proposed an alternative mechanism of maternal progesterone synthesis during pregnancy (progesterone, or the gestagen stabilizing activity of the myometrium = continuation of pregnancy). In contrast to previous results our observations indicate that gestagens arise from precursors in the fetus (from pregnenolone sulfate). This mechanism is closely connected with the distribution of placental oxido-reductase. Data from this study show an increasing trend in the conversion of...

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