National Repository of Grey Literature 142 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Use of plasma jet for biomedical application
Doubravová, Anna ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor)
This master´s thesis is focused on the utilization of the sterilization effects of low temperature plasma towards the bacterial microorganisms that occur mainly on the human skin. The plasma sterilization process is fast efficient, non-toxic, environmentally friendly, cost-effective and safe for the operating staff as well as for the patient. Another advantage of using low temperature plasma is to support cell proliferation and wound healing. By combining these advantages, an effective method can be obtained, which would sterilize the wounds sparingly with regard to the surrounding healthy tissue and support the regeneration of the damaged tissue at the same time. In the experimental part, gram positive and gram negative bacteria were used to prove the sterilization effects with respect to different cell wall structure. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes, which cause purulent skin inflammations, were used as gram-positive microorganisms. Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli were selected from gram positive bacteria. These model organisms were inoculated at various concentrations on culture broths and treated by plasma at a distance of 1 mm from the agar surface. The microwave discharge was generated in argon at a power of 9 W, a gas flow rate of 5 l / min and water cooling to avoid thermal effects on the treated surface. Subsequently, model skin cells of HaCaT were exposed to low temperature plasma and tested for plasma cytotoxicity to demonstrate its healing effects. The obtained results make it possible to state that the sterilizing effects of low-temperature plasma in all tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains are verified in this work. Finally, tests were demonstrated using a suitable method of the treatment on human skin cells, where the safety and usefulness of the tested low-temperature plasma was demonstrated when applied to shorten the healing process.
Preparation and characterization of wound dressings
Dzurická, Lucia ; Márová, Ivana (referee) ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor)
The diploma thesis if focused on the study of bioactive hydrogél and nanofiber wound dressings composed of natural biopolymers, which were functionalized by active compounds in the form of analgesic, antibiotics and enzymes. Hydrogél wound dressings were constituted from alginate and chitosan and nanofibers were created from polyhydroxybutyrate. The following 7 active compounds were selected to be added to the wound dressings: ampicillin, streptomycin, ibuprofen, papain, bromelain, collagenase and trypsin. In the theoretical part the structure of the skin and types of wound injuries were described. This part also talks about types of wound dressing and their applications, as well as treatment of skin wounds using enzymes and compounds with analgesic and antimicrobial properties. In addition, this section describes safety assays, in particular cytotoxicity assays on human cells. At the beginning of the experimental part, the process of preparation of hydrogél wound dressing was optimised. Subsequently, the dressings were enriched with active compounds and the rate of gradual releasing of the substances into model environment was monitored. In the case of enzymes, their proteolytic activity was also tested after their incorporation to the wound dressings. Furthermore, the prepared bioactive wound dressings were analyzed for possible cytotoxic effect on human keratinocytes. Finally, the wound dressing with combined content of active substances was created and also characterized for the rate of substance release, proteolytic activity and cytotoxicity. Antimicrobial activity of this wound dressings, against two selected strains of microorganisms: Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis, was also evaluated.
Characterization and application of microwave plasma on wound healing
Smejkalová, Kateřina ; Matoušková, Petra (referee) ; Krčma, František (advisor)
The aim of the Master thesis is the investigation of the influence of microwave discharge for skin wound healing. Microwave discharge used for this work was argon microwave plasma generated by the surface wave and direct vortex torch. The theoretical part is focused on basic information about plasma and processes that occur in plasma discharge under specific conditions. Plasma generates various active particles such as hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide radicals, excited nitrogen molecules, atomic nitrogen, argon and oxygen. All of these particles together with plasma generated photons are usable in biomedical applications and summary of them is shown in the theoretical part. The experimental part is focused on the comparison of torch discharge and microwave plasma generated surface wave in skin wound healing. The model wounds on laboratory mousses were treated by plasma and wound healing was examined during 3 weeks after the plasma treatment. Both plasma systems showed healing acceleration. Application of torch discharge was proved to be the most effective method in the healing of skin defects. Additionally, determination of active particles was taken by optical emission spectroscopy. Based on these measurements, plasma parameters were determined: electron temparutare, rotational and vibrational temperatures. To determine role of different plasma active species, the treatment of indigo coloured artificial skin model was treated under various conditions by both plasma systems. Results show that the direct interaction between plasma particles is the main effect, role of radiation, only, is more or less negligible. Finally, the plasma vortex system was visualized using fast camera at selected powers and gas flows.
The changes in expression of long non-coding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma
Krhutová, Magdaléna ; Pávek, Petr (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Bc. Magdaléna Krhutová Supervisor: prof. PharmDr. Petr Pávek, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: The changes in expression of long non-coding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the highly prevalent cancers globally. A number of new cases of HCC and deaths rises every year. Molecular mechanisms of HCC are being intensively studied, yet they are not still fully understood. In addition to genetic alterations, epigenetics also plays an important role in HCC pathogenesis. Long non- coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules that are not capable of coding proteins, and their length is 200 nucleotides or more. Various studies have already revealed lncRNAs involved in tumorigenesis through binding to DNA, RNA and proteins. New studies also demonstrate significant changes in the expression of biotransformation enzymes in HCC, and interactions with microRNAs (miRNAs) and lncRNAs. This diploma thesis deals with the issue of long non-coding RNAs in relation to HCC. It summarizes the epidemiological situation, risk factors, and current possibilities of diagnosis and therapy of this disease. It also summarizes recently described genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contributing...
DNA methylation changes in oropharyngeal carcinoma
Birknerová, Natália ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Pávek, Petr (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Natália Birknerová Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: DNA methylation changes in oropharyngeal cancer Oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) is a type of head and neck cancer (HNC) that represents the seventh most common malignancy worldwide. The vast majority (more than 90%) of cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). OPC develops in the tissue of the tongue, tonsils, soft palate, and pharynx. In addition to traditional risk factors, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an additional independent risk factor for the development of these tumors. Epigenetic alterations refer to heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in the underlying DNA sequence and can contribute to carcinogenesis. They include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs effecting gene expression. This study aimed to investigate methylation levels of selected tumor-suppressor genes in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in comparison to normal oropharyngeal tissue. DNA methylation levels of selected tumor-suppressor genes were analyzed using Methylation- Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA) in metastatic tumor...
Metabolism of ivermectine in selected plants
Štumbauerová, Kateřina ; Raisová Stuchlíková, Lucie (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
1 Abstract Charles University in Prague Fakulty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Author: Kateřina Štumbauerová Leader: RNDr. Lucie Raisová Stuchlíková Title of diploma thesis: Metabolism of ivermectin in selected plants Ivermectin can enter the environment through the excrement of treated animals like other anthelmintics and it can cause a large number of side effects in the ecosystem, accumulate in plants and affect invertebrates. Due to these causes, resistance of individual parasites can occur. In this work we focused on the study of the biotransformation of ivermectin in common meadow flowers which include thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and soybean (Glycine max). Plants were able to metabolize ivermectin by first phase biotransformation enzymes, producing metabolites that were identified by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). Cross-species differences were noticeable, especially in terms of the number of metabolites found in individual plants. The unmetabolized parent compound ivermectin was also detected in plants.
MicroRNA regulation of glutathion peroxidases
Boučková, Karolína ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Skarková, Veronika (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Science Candidate: Bc. Karolína Boučková Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: MicroRNA regulation of glutathion peroxidases Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the formation of free radicals and the organism's ability to remove those radicals naturally. There can be cell and DNA damage, premature aging, the emergence of various diseases if there is an excessive production of free radicals in the body and they are not scavenged. However, free radicals are also beneficial for the body, as it uses them to remove dead cells and bacteria. Normally, the organism has enough mechanisms to compensate for the activity of free radicals and prevent oxidative stress. Antioxidants can inhibit the activity of free radicals. They are divided into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The most important enzymatic antioxidants are glutathione peroxidases (GPx). Eight genes encoding GPx have been discovered in the human genome. GPx is a cytosol enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, as well as it catalyzes the reduction of peroxide radicals to alcohols and oxygen. The reduction of expression or inactivation of enzymes may pose danger to the organism....
Selection and validation of reference genes for relative mRNA quantification in human liver slices
Studenovská, Petra ; Boušová, Iva (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Petra Studenovská Supervisor: doc. PharmDr. Boušová Iva, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Selection and validation of reference genes for relative mRNA quantification in human liver slices The use of precision-cut liver slices is often employed in vitro system in the biochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies. This is mainly due to the preservation of the cellular tissue architecture and therefore its functions. The aim of this diploma thesis was to select and validate reference genes for the relative quantification of mRNA in human liver slices. Liver tissues obtained from 3 patients of different age, diagnosis and pharmacotherapy were used as samples. Liver slices, prepared from samples of liver tissue, were exposed to dimethyl sulfoxide (control) or known inducers of cytochrome P450, rifampicin (10 µM) and β-naphthoflavone (10 µM). Subsequently, the stability of the expression of reference genes was verified using RefFinder program, which integrates the programs of the geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and comparative ΔCT method. The optimal number of reference genes that should be used to evaluate the relative gene expression of target genes was determined using the geNorm program....
Regulation of glutathione peroxidase 7 by microRNAs
Vávrová, Gabriela ; Matoušková, Petra (advisor) ; Boušová, Iva (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Gabriela Vávrová Supervisor: doc. Ing. Petra Matoušková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Regulation of glutathione peroxidase 7 by microRNA Glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) are considered to be key antioxidant enzymes. A total of 8 human genes encoding GPxs are known. The main task of these enzymes is protecting biomolecules from oxidative damage due to oxidative stress, which arises from the imbalance between the generation and removal of free radicals. These enzymes catalyze the reduction of free hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols. This work is focused on influencing gene expression of monomeric enzyme GPx7 by microRNA. GPx7 is involved in the correct composition of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, in the proper course of adipogenesis, and suppresses development of cancer. Short single-stranded non-coding microRNA molecules are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. These molecules negatively influence the translation process, ie the translation of mRNA into the protein. MicroRNAs bind to the binding region predominantly inside of the 3'UTR mRNA of the target gene. The aim of this study was to experimentally...
Examination of MPL in myeloproliferative diseases
Vitásková, Liana ; Beránek, Martin (advisor) ; Matoušková, Petra (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of biochemical science Study program: Medical bioanalytics Author: Liana Vitásková, DiS. Supervisor: prof. PharmDr. Martin Beránek, PhD. Title: Examination of MPL in myeloproliferative diseases This bachelor thesis is focused on the myeloproliferative diseases related to mutations in the MPL gene. By identifying a specific mutation, it is possible to determine the diagnosis of patients with myeloproliferative diseases and thus set appropriate treatment. This thesis, therefore, aimed to introduce new diagnostic procedure at the Department of Molecular Genetics at the Regional Hospital Liberec. The aims of the work: The first objective was to get acquainted with the myeloproliferative diseases and their essential characteristics. The second objective was to study the role of mutations in the MPL gene in myeloproliferative diseases. The main aim was then to introduce a method for the determination of MPL gene mutations at the Department of Molecular Genetics at the Regional Hospital Liberec. Methods: The methodological part describes the protocol that I established for the diagnosis of mutations in the MPL gene: 1. Isolation of granulocytes from whole non-coagulated blood by gradient centrifugation 2. DNA column isolation 3....

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