National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Prevention of postural defects in the population
Langmajerová, Jana ; Müllerová, Dana (advisor) ; Novák, Jaroslav (referee) ; Dlouhý, Pavel (referee)
This dissertation aims at verifying methodology used for somatographic evaluation of the shape and statics of the spine. The potential of the methodology verified lies in increased objectivity of upright body posture evaluation and thereby contributes to the specification of preventative measures for postural defects, and their consequences. Under a cross-sectional pilot study, a non-invasive somatographic method-a diagnostic DPT-3 system designated for spine shape diagnostics-was used to examine selected biomechanical parameters (spinal curves and statics in the sagittal plane in the upright position) in a total of 508 probands. Of this, 326 were school-age children and 182 adults. Among the key parameters monitored were: Cl (depth of cervical lordosis); LI (depth of lumbar lordosis); the sagittal balance of Cl/Ll, and VThk (distance of the peak of the thoracic kyphosis from the ideal verticals-IV). A questionnaire was used to evaluate the level of movement activity in probands and the relation between the occurrence of painful back and headaches and the measurement of biomechanical parameters and movement activity. A total of 81.3 % of children and 94.5 % of adults were found to have deviations from the biomechanically ideal posture model, which signals a postural defect. The values of the Cl (p...
Study of genetic and infectious risk factors in the pathogenesis of obesity in Czech adolescents.
Dušátková, Lenka ; Zamrazilová, Hana (advisor) ; Zapletalová, Jiřina (referee) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee)
4 Abstract The prevalence of obesity and its related cardiometabolic complications in children remains high across the world. Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by interaction between genes and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies have discovered several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with obesity. A causal role of infection in the pathogenesis of obesity has also been considered, particularly the role of adenovirus 36 (Adv36). The aim of the Ph.D. thesis was to investigate the associations of obesity susceptibility loci (TMEM18, SH2B1, KCTD15, PCSK1, BDNF, SEC16B, MC4R, FTO) and Adv36 infection with obesity-related characteristics and complications in the Czech adolescent population. The results are described in eight publications, of which six are original papers and two are reviews. Studies were performed on a cohort of Czech adolescents recruited either from the general population (1,533 individuals from the epidemiological study) and from in-patient or outpatient weight management clinics (562 overweight/obese individuals underwent an intervention). The results demonstrated an association of TMEM18, SEC16B and FTO gene variants with obesity. Some variants of the genes involved in hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis − MC4R, BDNF, PCSK1 − were related to...
Effect of fatty acids on lipid metabolism and weight reduction
Hlavatý, Petr ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Flachs, Pavel (referee)
Fat tissue plays a main role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Many components of the metabolic syndrome may be improved by dietary arrangements, including an increased intake of n-3 PUFA. In addition to the positive effect of n-3 PUFA, a possible effect of a higher calcium intake on influencing weight loss and energy metabolism has also been discussed for a long time. In addition to nutritional factors, genetic factors significantly contribute to influencing weight and lipid and glucose metabolism. In study A, 40 obese women were observed during three weeks of weight reduction management. Women were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received yogurt enriched with n-3 PUFA, and the second group consumed yoghurt without the supplementation. The results show that low-dose supplementation with n-3 PUFA in yogurt in combination with a reduced energy intake increases n-3 PUFA content in serum lipids and prevents adverse changes in the composition of FA in serum after a short-term low-calorie diet. In study B, we monitored the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on short-term weight management with VLCD in 20 women with severe obesity, who were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received VLCD enriched with n-3 PUFA, the second group VLCD with a placebo. The addition of...
Influence of nutritional factors on the outcome of weight reduction program -predictors of weight loss
Hlavatá, Karolína ; Hainer, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Sucharda, Petr (referee)
How far will be a weight reduction successful depends on numerous factors. We focused on genetic, nutritional, hormonal and psychobehavioral factors which may significantly affect weight loss. Among nutritional factors a special attention was paid to the role of intakes of dietary calcium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In subsequent studies the predictors of weight reduction. In a pilot study (study 1) the effects of dietary calcium intake in 208 overweight or obese subjects who underwent comprehensive weight management programme on weight loss were evaluated. The results of the pilot study showed that the weight loss significantly correlated with the changes in calcium intake - with increasing calcium intake higher weight loss was achieved. In the second study we investigated the effect of various forms of calcium supplementation on anthropometric, biochemical, hormonal and psychobehavioral parameters in a cohort of 67 overweight or obese perimenopausal women. We did not find any effect of calcium intake on weight loss. However, groups with calcium supplementation exhibited smaller decline in fat-free mass (FFM) compared with the placebo group. Calcium supplemented groups also demonstrated significant reductions in hunger scores. In the studies 3, 4 and 5 predictors of weight reduction were...
Bariatric Surgery and its Influence on the Development of Weight and Some Metabolic Parameters
Laštovičková, Jitka ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee)
(teze): Úvod: Bariatrické výkony se řadí k chirurgické léčbě těžké obezity, v současné době je dokládán i jejich příznivý vliv na kompenzaci diabetu mellitu 2. typu. Metody: Shromáždili jsme data týkající se hmotnosti a kompenzace diabetu mellitu 2. typu u 45 pacientů, kteří absolvovali jeden ze tří typů bariatrických výkonů (adjustabilní gastrickou bandáž (AB), sleeve gastrektomii (SG) nebo Roux-Y gastrický bypass (RYGB)). Data jsme statisticky zpracovali a vyhodnotili jsme vývoj hmotnosti a změnu kompenzace diabetu mellitu 2. typu rok po absolvování výkonu. Výsledky: U všech typů výkonů došlo rok po provedení výkonu k poklesu hmotnosti, nejvyšší hodnota EWL (Excess Weight Loss) byla zaznamenána u sleeve gastrektomie (49,55 %), nejnižší u adjustabilní bandáže (22,846 %). Hodnota EWL u Roux-Y gastrického bypassu se blížila hodnotám dosaženým u sleeve gastrektomie (41,42 %). Porovnali jsme také redukci hmotnosti u pacientů s diabetem mellitem 2. typu a bez tohoto onemocnění - pacienti s diabetem mellitem 2. typu redukovali hmotnost méně (změna hmotnosti 20,297 kg, EWL 34,962 %) než pacienti bez diabetu mellitu 2. typu (změna hmotnosti 32,633 kg, EWL 52,873 %). U pacientů s diabetem mellitem 2. typu došlo rok po provedení výkonu ke změně hodnot glykovaného hemoglobinu - v rámci celého souboru (6,586...
Integrating Role of Adipose Tissue Secretory Functions in Response to Dietary and Pharmacological Treatments
Macek Jílková, Zuzana ; Kopecký, Jan (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee)
Obesity represents a predominant risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus and it is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy. The size of adipocytes influences the adipocytes biology and secretory functions of adipose tissue in general. Understanding the mechanisms regulating growth and secretory activity of adipose tissue is of paramount importance. Moreover, obesity represents a chronic subclinical inflammatory state linking obesity to insulin resistance and hypertrophic adipocytes contribute to this phenomenon. An improvement of strategies used in the prevention and treatment of inflammation associated with obesity is therefore urgently needed. The four studies described in this thesis address several topics related to adipose tissue biology, and thus contributing to the understanding of the integrating role of adipose tissue secretory functions in response to dietary and pharmacological treatments. This thesis demonstrates a possible role of white adipose tissue thyroid hormones (TH) metabolism in the modulation of its function under conditions of changing adiposity (Publication A); a unique role of leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, in the complex control of energy homeostasis of the organism (Publication B); beneficial effects of the combination treatment of...
Effectivenes of cognitive-behavioural treatment applied in courses of weight reduction related to cognitive and behaviolal factors
Moravcová, Lucie ; Schneidrová, Dagmar (advisor) ; Derflerová Brázdová, Zuzana (referee) ; Fraňková, Slávka (referee) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee)
The Czech Republic is from the early 90 years, reducing rates of overweight in CBT applications, which the company operates STOB Mgr. Iva Malkova. According to available information has not been done until now no research in these courses chartedabove the influence of selected cognitive factors on changes in body weight and also to monitor the change in energy intake (behavioral factor). The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between selected cognitive factors (self-efficacy - and with respect to the general dining behavior and physical activity, self-esteem, personal causal orientation restrictive way of eating behavior) and changes in body weight. At the same time the respondents will track changes in energy intakeduring therapy. The study is to verify the reliability of the Czech version of the WELquestionnaire (Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire), PSQ (Physical Self-Efficacy Questionnaire) and extended range of restrictive behaviors related to food, based on a questionnaire TFEQ (Three Factor Eating Questionnaire).
The role of GH/IGF-1 axis components in the etiopathogenesis of metabolic disturbances in type 2 diabetes mellitus and acromegaly
Toušková, Věra ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Saudek, František (referee)
(EN) GH/IGF-1 axis components (GH, growth hormone receptor (GH-R), IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)) participate in the control of glucose metabolism, inflammatory processes as well as cell proliferation and differentiation, including adipocytes and monocytes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of local mRNA expression of GH/IGF-1 axis components in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) in the development of insulin resistance and differences of adipose tissue mass in following groups of patients: obese females with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus and subjects with active untreated acromegaly. A total number of 66 subjects were included in the study: obese females without type 2 diabetes mellitus (OB), obese females with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), acromegalic patients (AC) and healthy lean control subjects (C). T2DM underwent 2 weeks of very-low- calorie diet (VLCD - energy content 2500 kJ/day). According to our results we suggest that decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-1R, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in adipose tissue of T2DM subjects may contribute to changes of fat differentiation capacity and the increased IGF-1R mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes in these patients may play a role in the regulation of...

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