National Repository of Grey Literature 25 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Role of adiponectin and B-type natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis
Wedellová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Obesity is a most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Prevalence of obesity is consistently growing in all continents during last years. Primarily the increase of incidence of obesity in children is alarming. Obesity is linked to elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers and disorders of musculoskeletal system. The cost of the treatment of diseases linked to obesity is annually increasing and obesity represents very important part of costs of health system in developed - and recently also developing - countries. This fact shows the necessity of research in the area of preventive and therapeutic procedures. The development of metabolic disturbances linked to obesity is associated with dysfunction of adipose tissue. Its two main features are: 1) altered secretion of specific substance with hormonal or paracrinne charakter (called adipokines) and 2) elevated mobilization of non- esterified fatty acids (NEMK) from adipose tissue and subsequently their increased release into the circulation (1). In our studies we paid attention to the study of lipolysis. The rate of lipolysis is the primary factor that determines the release of NEFA from adipose tissue. We focused to a role of adiponectin and natriuretic peptid type B (BNP) in the regulation of lipolysis in...
Molecular adaptations of adipose tissue in relation to dietary treatment of obesity in human
Tencerová, Michaela ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Flachs, Pavel (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee)
The general goal of this work was to investigate the molecular adaptations of human AT in relation to DIs with respect to its secretory activity as well as cellular composition focused on macrophages population. Specifically, we studied the role of novel adipokines, such as visfatin and RBP4, related to insulin resistance and AT metabolism. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the effect of the dietary-induced changes on the content of ATM together with metabolic amelioration. In our studies, we found that lifestyle modifications had a beneficial effect on metabolic and biochemical parameters depending on the duration and type of DI. Regarding both of the investigated adipokines, visfatin and RBP4, we revealed modifications at the transcriptional and cirulating levels during DI. However, we did not find any association with the pattern of evolution of insulin resistance. Our findings do not support a clear hypothesis on the role of these adipokines in the diet-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity and other obesity-related metabolic disturbances. In respect to the changes of ATM content during long-term DI, we demonstrated using flow cytometry that the AT composition was changed at the end of the whole dietary intervention (i.e. after WM phase). This diet-induced AT remodelling was expressed by a...
Effect of fatty acids on lipid metabolism and weight reduction
Hlavatý, Petr ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Flachs, Pavel (referee)
Fat tissue plays a main role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Many components of the metabolic syndrome may be improved by dietary arrangements, including an increased intake of n-3 PUFA. In addition to the positive effect of n-3 PUFA, a possible effect of a higher calcium intake on influencing weight loss and energy metabolism has also been discussed for a long time. In addition to nutritional factors, genetic factors significantly contribute to influencing weight and lipid and glucose metabolism. In study A, 40 obese women were observed during three weeks of weight reduction management. Women were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received yogurt enriched with n-3 PUFA, and the second group consumed yoghurt without the supplementation. The results show that low-dose supplementation with n-3 PUFA in yogurt in combination with a reduced energy intake increases n-3 PUFA content in serum lipids and prevents adverse changes in the composition of FA in serum after a short-term low-calorie diet. In study B, we monitored the influence of n-3 PUFA supplementation on short-term weight management with VLCD in 20 women with severe obesity, who were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received VLCD enriched with n-3 PUFA, the second group VLCD with a placebo. The addition of...
Underweight in the Czech seven year old children - comparison with overweight and obesity prevalence
Malechová, Anežka ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Pařízková, Jana (referee)
This diploma thesis is based on the fifth round of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). This study is lead by World Health Organisation and on this study cooperate European countries including the Czech republic. In the Czech republic the study lead by Institute of Endocrinology in collaboration with practical paediatricians since the year 2008. The fifth round of this study took place in the Czech republic in 2019. We collected anthropometric data and characteristic of family and school enviroment from 2289 children 6,5-7,99 years old. Prevalence of underweight according to cut offs of WHO was 2,88% (2,74-3,02), according to National Anthropological Survey (NAS) was 2,27% (1,84- 2,7) and according to International Obesity Task Force was 1,35% (1,13-1,57). Prevalence of underweight was compared with prevalence of underweight in the last rounds of this study and with prevalence of overweight and obesity. Decrease of prevalence of underweight (WHO) in comparsion with last round of COSI study (2016) was significant in boys. We found non- significant increase in underweight prevalence in girls. A mild non-significant decrease of underweight in all children.. Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to cut offs of WHO was 22,24% (22,16-22,32), according to NAS was 18,92%...
Relationship between circadian rhythms and selected biopsychosocial phenomena in healthy and clinical population
Fárková, Eva ; Kopřivová, Jana (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Sumová, Alena (referee)
Introduction: Circadian rhythms are typically manifested by individual timing of the sleep-wake cycle, expressed as a specific chronotype. Social jet-lag (SJL) is a phenomenon related to circadian preference as it reflects the phase misalignment of internal biological and external social time. SJL occurs when a person does not have the opportunity to fall asleep and get up in accordance with chronotype. Chronotype and SJL are phenomena that have recently been increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of sleep disorders and many civilization diseases, especially diseases of metabolic system. Aims and objectives: The aims of the thesis were: 1/ To determine chronotype and social jet-lag and observe further links between sex, age, BMI and other parameters in a selected sample of the Czech population across socio-demographic categories. 2/ To find out whether chronotype and the SJL play a role in the treatment of obesity. 3/ To revise the commonly used methods for chronotype assessment (questionnaires and actigraphy) for their future use in the Czech environment. Material and methods: The thesis consists of three follow-up studies (questionnaire, actigraphic and combined). Both subjective and objective methods of chronotype and SJL assessment were used in the thesis. 1) The first study was a...
The latent form of obesity in preschool children, secular changes in body composition
Samešová, Daniela ; Sedlak, Petr (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee)
The aim of the diploma thesis is to describe and evaluate the relation of mass proportionality and adiposity in the context of secular changes in body composition of Czech preschool children over the last 25 years. The study was conducted in the form of transversal research between years 2016-2018 at seven kindergartens from Prague and its surroundings and one from Ústí nad Labem. 551 children (271 boys, 280 girls), in age of four to six years, were examined. The data was supplemented by a set of 208 children (101 boys and 107 girls), which were part of a pilot study from 2013-2014. In total, the group comprised 759 children. The actual set of individuals was compared with a representative database of Czech preschool children from the 1990s. There was no significant difference in the parameters describing weight proportionality in current preschool children, however the proportion of the individual components of the body composition has changed. The fat component increased significantly in six-year-old boys, five- year-old and six-year-old girls. At the same time, we observed insufficient development of active body mass in relation to the reference group. These trends are also evidenced by the increase in the percentage of latent forms of obesity over the past 25 years. The lack of active movement...
Overweight and obesity in seven-year children: influence of environmental factors, change since 2008
Metelcová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Vignerová, Jana (referee)
Obesity is defined as excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body. Obesity is measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI). In children, BMI is adjusted according to age. Simple obesity is a multifactorial disease. The aim of my work is to find out the influence of environmental factors (dietary habits, sleeping times, parents' education, lack of physical activity) on overweight and obesity in seven-year-old children in the Czech Republic, prevalence of overweight and obesity in seven years old children in the Czech Republic according to various reference methods (WHO, CAV, IOTF, CDC). The diploma thesis is based on the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI). In 2016, the fourth round of the COSI project in the Czech Republic took place. Measurement of seven-year-old children took place in the framework of preventive examinations with GPs. Part of the project was the completion of questionnaires by the family and the school. In the fourth round, data were obtained from 1,718 children (824 boys, 894 girls) in the age category of 6.5 to 7.99 years. Between 2013 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight of boys increased by 2.16% (from 11.78 % to 13.94) and increased by 0.9 % for girls (from 12.75 % to 13.65 %). The prevalence of obesity between 2013 and 2016 increased by 0.79 % (from...
Overweight and obesity in seven-year children and adipose tissue distribution
Vodrážková, Nicole ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Vignerová, Jana (referee)
This diploma thesis is based on the fourth round of the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. From 1718 children aged 6.5 - 7.99 were collected anthropometric data and characteristics of family and school environment. Prevalence of overweight and obesity, risk distributions of adipose tissue and evaluation of factors affecting abdominal obesity was evaluated. Increase of overweight and obesity was found for boys, increase of overweight and loose of obesity was found for girls. Elevated waist circumference and WHtR were evaluated in both sexes. Year-on-year changes are not statistically significant, overall the stagnating trend of child overweight and obesity has been evaluated. High WHtR was also shown by individuals in normal weight category. Of the rated family characteristics, family anamnesis of obesity, weight of parents, time spent with TV / computers, and mother's education is primarily involved in the risky distribution of fatty tissue. Keywords overweight, obesity, prevalence, nutrition, physical activity, WHtR, waist circumference
The influence of very-low calorie diet and pharmacologic interventions on adipose tissue metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity.
Gregová, Monika ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Žourek, Michal (referee)
(EN) Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are among metabolic disease with increasing incidence and prevalence. Last decade has been devoted to intensive research focused on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying development of these diseases. Besides environmental factors, lifestyle and amount and composition of food, adipose tissue is a key player in the pathogenesis of obesity and its metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR) and T2DM. Primary aim of our work was to evaluate the role of recently discovered adipokine omentin and the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and in peripheral monocytes (PM) in patients with obesity and T2DM with respect to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. A total number of 118 subjects enrolled in the study were divided into three groups: patients with obesity and T2DM (T2DM group), obese non-diabetics (OB) and healthy lean subjects as a control group (KO). Study subjects underwent several types of interventions - 2 to 3 weeks of very-low calorie diet (VLCD, energy intake 600 kcal per day), regular physical activity program or bariatric surgery (laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, LSG). Results indicate that low serum omentin concentrations may contribute to development of obesity-associated...
Insulin resistance and postprandial state in type 2 diabetes. The effect of meal frequency and composition on glucose metabolism and other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome
Thieme, Lenka ; Pelikánová, Terezie (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Šmahelová, Alena (referee)
The project focuses on dietary interventions in type 2 diabetes(T2D). The aim was to investigate how glucose metabolism and other manifestations of insulin resistance should be influenced by a) the composition of macronutrients and b) frequency of meals; and to characterize the possible mechanisms of these dietary interventions in patients with T2D. A. In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients T2D and 50 age-matched healthy subjects underwent in a random order meal tolerance tests with three isocaloric meals (vegan sandwich; V-meal, hamburger; M-meal, or cheese sandwich; S-meal. Blood samples for analysis were taken at time 0 and after 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after meal ingestion. Plasma concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipids, oxidative stress markers and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) were investigated. Both basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were significantly higher in patients with T2D (p<0.001); basal and postprandial concentrations of almost all other GIHs (except for ghrelin) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly increased (p<0.001), while ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in patients with T2D compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). The meal rich...

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4 KUNEŠOVÁ, Martina
1 Kunešová, Magdaléna
2 Kunešová, Marcela
4 Kunešová, Martina
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