National Repository of Grey Literature 62 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Regulation of human adipose tissue gene expression in relation to obesity and insulin resistance
Klimčáková, Eva ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Vidal, Hubert (referee)
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Among possible mechanisms leading to IR are increased plasma levels of free fatty acids and Alfred levels of adipokines secreted from adipose tissue (AT). In the first part of the work, we studied obese patients during different nutritional and physical activity interventions. Phenotypic data were related to the expression of AT genes potentially involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity (IS) and/or low-grade inflammation. We confirmed that aerobic and dynamic strength training improved IS and demonstrated that these interventions do not promote changes in subcutaneous AT gene expression or in plasma levels of adiponectin, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but decrease circulating leptin level. Very low calorie diet followed by low calorie diet and weight maintenance period enhanced IS in obese women and diminished retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in plasma, but RBP4 mRNA levels were reduced only after very low calorie diet. Our findings indicate that the investigated adipokines, except potentially leptin, might not be mediators of changes in IS induced by lifestyle interventions. In the second part of the work, we investigated the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors...
Association of fatty acid composition in serum and / or adipose tissue lipids with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in obese subjects of different age categories
Metelcová, Tereza ; Kunešová, Marie (advisor) ; Müllerová, Dana (referee) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee)
Obesity is a chronic disease that is caused by many factors. Excessive adipose tissue is involved in the development of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Prevention of cardiometabolic risks includes lifestyle arrangement, including an increased intake of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In additional to lifestyle factors, genetics factors also significantly contribute to influencing carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In study A, we monitored 670 subjects (336 girls and 334 boys). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FADS1 gene (rs174546, rs174537) was assessed using real-time PCR and then we determined the spectrum of fatty acids (FAs). The results show that SNPs in the FADS1 affect the efficiency of synthesis by affecting the activity of delta 5 desaturase. Abnormal FAs composition can affect cardiometabolic health. Study B examined a cohort of 215 individuals (131 women and 84 men) who participated in both rounds of the Childhood Obesity Prevalence And Treatment (COPAT) project. The individuals were divided into two groups: BMI≤25 kg/mš and BMI≥25 kg/mš. This model was evaluated regardless of sex because the variable sex did not correlate significantly with the variable weight status. The percentage of adipose tissue was used as the second parameter. The second parameter...
Is the volume of the visceral adipose tissue related to degree of insulin resistance in human
Semerák, David ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor)
The topic of his thesis "The amount of visceral adipose tissue associated the degree of insulin resistance in humans "I chose based on their interest in the issue of obesity and its clinical implications. When thinking I prefer the focus of the topic in some way interfering in the internal medicine, which I have after graduation he wanted to pursue. Although obesity in the Czech Republic is the most common metabolic diseases such as human disease is underestimated, since it usually does not endanger the health obese individuals. Many problems and complications associated with obesity can be prevent early diagnosis and subsequent lifestyle modification, dietary and exercising habits. Therefore I believe that the context described in this work in the future, not only are when preventive action in their medical practice.
Relation of adipokines to whole body nutrient utilisation during fasting and after oral high-fat meal stimulation (NUGENOB study,
Martínková, Jindřiška ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor)
Obesity or obesity is defined by increased body fat. share fat in the body depends on the age, sex and ethnic group. For women a greater proportion of fat than men. For women, therefore, represents 28-30% of body fat weight, while in men, it is only 23-25%. The proportion of body fat increases also with age. To assess the degree of overweight tables are used to indicate the given height and sex permissible weight range. The most commonly used are Table Metropolitan Insurance Company of America. Much more important the evaluation of overweight and obesity, however the body mass index BMI (body mass index). BMI is calculated by dividing weight in kilograms is divided by the second square of height in meters.
Influence of visceral adipose tissue mass on energy expenditure
Alexandrová, Pavla ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor)
Obesity represents a serious chronic metabolic disorder that is characterized by an increased proportion of fat on the body composition of the current weight gain above the normal range. Obesity is to be understood as a disease, while an important risk factor contributing to the emergence of a number other diseases. Android (abdominal, visceral) obesity is characterized by increased Visceral fat plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of non-communicable diseases mass occurrence, which are included under the term metabolic syndrome - insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, stroke, gout, dyslipidemia, in a broader sense also hyperuricaemia, coagulation disorders, and others. Gynoid (gluteofemorální) Obesity is a metabolic point of view to give less risk of complications.
The relationship between plasma values of cytokines and insulin resistance during diet-induced weight loss
Polášková, Pavlína ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor)
The theme of my thesis I have chosen with regard to its long-term interest in the field of diabetology and related diseases lifestyle. The increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes II. typeleads to study their pathogenetic relations. As the prospective in this regard, research shows adipocytokines, ie substancesproduced white adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is growing even after thephysical growth and as one of the largest endocrine organs and adipocytokinesreleased into the circulation can have serious systemic effects. It also appears that obese adipose tissue is in a state of chronic mild inflammation and weight reduction, this inflammatory condition and its complications (mainly CVS) accordingly. Relationship adipocytokines and insulin resistance Thus the development of diabetes II. type with emphasis onchanges in their levels occur during weight loss, is the subject of this work.
Insulin resistance as a predictor of weight loss during weight reduction regimes
Šigutová, Iva ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor)
The issue of insulin resistance is currently widely discussed issues, particularly with regard to the relationship to obesity. This is a topic of much current, since it is obesity with its complications are one of the typical effects changes in contemporary lifestyles. Generally known fact is the increase of insulin resistance due to obesity. On the contrary, the reduction of body weight involves a reduction in insulin resistance. The issue, however, can be seen from the other side: it can be insulin resistance predictor of weight loss in reducing mechanisms? Examination of the mechanism is one of the objectives of this work. Another objective is examining the issue of obesity, izulinové resistance in general. One of the proponents of the theory as a predictor of insulin resistance is For example, E. Ravussin, the results of this work will be confronted with research on this issue in the Czech Republic.
Regulation of adiponectin and its isoforms production in human obesity
Kováčová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Rossmeisl, Martin (referee)
It is apparent that the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure coming hand-to-hand with the "westernisation" of our lifestyle leads to an elevated number of overweight and obese individuals that are commonly in a greater risk of developing chronic complications (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) with increased mortality. The development of obesity-related complications closely relate with dysfunction of adipose tissue leading to the peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic disruption of insulin sensitive organs (e.g. muscle, liver) subsequently inducing whole body insulin resistance. Since adipose tissue is the biggest endocrine organ in the human body producing many hormones influencing functions of adipose tissue itself or other organs, alteration of their spectrum has been revealed as one of the possible inductors or contributors disturbing body energy homeostasis. Adipose tissue serves as a major site for storage of surplus nutritions, however, long-term positive energy imbalance and high dose calorie intake lead not only to expansion of fat mass but mainly to the pathological changes of the tissue. In states of obesity, adipose tissue is under constant metabolic stress, resulting in the activation of the stress and inflammatory response. It leads to...

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