National Repository of Grey Literature 28 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Botany in Czech lands at the turn of the 20th century: theoretical aspects of the work of Josef Velenovský
Kaiprová, Sofie ; Čermáková, Lucie (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
The work is a literary research on the theoretical and evolutionary concepts in botany in the Czech environment at the turn of the 19th and 20th century with a focus on the work of Josef Velenovský (1858-1949). The work maps the historical context of Velenovský's work, deals with the transformations of Velenovský's vision of evolution and the most interesting aspects of his theoretical thinking about biology. At the beginning he fully acknowledges Darwin's theory, in the late age he holds a completely contradictory theory. Key words: history of botany, Josef Velenovský, evolutionary theory, natural selection, altruism
A study of Emanuel Rádl's works in biology and his Consolation from Philosophy
Hermann, Tomáš ; Michálek, Jiří (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee) ; Sokol, Jan (referee)
Faculý ď Sclence oÍthe Charles Universitylin Prague Mgr.TomášHermann Consolation from Life A studyofEmanuelRádl'sworksinbiology and his Consolation from Philosophy Summary of PhD thesis 2008 The subject of this thesis is the scientific and philosophicď work of Emanuel Ráll (1873- t942), Cze,h biologist, philosopher,and publicly active intellectual, with focus on the first period of his work, datedbeforethe WWI, andthe last phaseof his work, culminating in his last boolg Consolationfrom Philosophy. The main aim ofthe thesis is a historical analysis and account;it is a contributionboth to the history ofbiology andbiological though! andto the history of philosophy in the Czech lands in the fint half of the 20úcennrry. Emanuel Rrídl'sintellectualbiographycan ďso be seenas an introspectivestudyofthe intellectuallife of the Czech society during some of its inportant and as yet insufficiently sfudiedpďods. The presentthesiswas written as a partof a broadly conceived researchproject,otherresults of which include: 1. The orderingandinventoryof recentlyďscovered partsof Rríď's worlg which have been made available to researchen as an archive unit under the name of Collection and DocumentationFund of EmanuelRódl. 2. A publication of an unabridgedCzech translďon of Rírll's TheHistory of Modern Biological Theodes,Volume...
The history and development of imaging and illustration insect entomology
Chobot, Karel ; Stibral, Karel (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee) ; Komárek, Stanislav (referee)
The depictionof insectsis a remarkableportion of the historyof science,historyof entomologyandthehistoryof art,too.The thesisfollowsthehistoryof visual representation of insectswith emphasison the realistic depiction,thenthe style variationof entomology illustrationin scientific works. Next to that,the role of insectsin human culture is also followed,becauseof theinfluenceof,sucha rolein thedepictions. Analogicallyto thearthistoryis necessaryto refusethesimply positivisticapproachof regularprogÍess.The effortof preciserepresentationof tiny details,insectsor detailsof their bodies,is pursuablevery early. Relatively precise,determinabledepictionsof insectsare knownin ancientEgypt or ancientGreece,or in latemedievalbook illuminations.Precision, aftertoday'scriteria,is reachedby artistsof laterenaissanceandbeginningof baroque,artists of flower still life, expertson detailedrepresentationof shapesoshinesand surfacesof tiny natural objects,incl. insects.In the same time the entomologyis established,thank to publicationof Aldrovandi'sDe AnimalibusInsectisitt 1602. ThethesisestablisheŠin thehistoryof theinsectdepictiontwo phases'In thefirst,pre- Aldrovandian,is it requiredto follow the developmentof the insect depictionin arts in particular.The role of illustrationsin thattime scientiťrcproductionis minor...
Creatures of Science, Living Models and the Construction of Scientific Communities
Stella, Marco ; Hermann, Tomáš (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
Creatures of Science. Living Models and the Construction of Scientific Communities. Marco Stella The present thesis, which is to be understood as a contribution both to history and anthropology of science, deals with the relationship of the construction and emergence of scientific communities and the use of models in science, or construction of new forms of knowledge. We deal primary with the history of life sciences, especially behavioral sciences, which formed in the beginning of the 20th century as a relatively independent a scientific field and a rather heterogeneous platform for a common research of life utterances and cognition of man and other animals. The thesis focuses mainly on living models, often used biological and psychological research. Using Latour's concepts of modernity and hybridity, the thesis points at the hybridizing effect of behavioral sciences (the model always shapes and creates the modelled) and also at their ways of human and animal images. The second often serve as a basis for constructing the second. I also discuss some the ways how implicit model properties, which influence the (seemingly) isolated sphere of science, affect the chances of a community for becoming a discipline. On three examples from the history of life sciences, i.e. the unsuccessful institutionalization of...
"Lost Ideas of Middle Age and Lify Cycle of Idea in Middle Age"
Koutský, Karel ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Pinc, Zdeněk (referee) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
1 ABSTRACT This work consists of two parts. The first one, "Lost Ideas of Middle Age" has a character of an auxiliary study and does not hold any particular scientific ambitions. It serves as a reservoir for monitored case out of history of science in its widest meaning. Good deal of attention is dedicated to so called blind alleys of science, too (therefore "Lost Ideas"), as they are considered an important source. This wide scope was necessary due to the task of the second part of the work, i.e. tracking and identification of evolutionary processes of ideas/"memes" in medieval natural philosophy. Even those ideas, that do not directly share on "pedigree" of thesis claimed by modern science, were subject to evolution and in effect, even their death or degeneration should be of an interest. Another reason for chosen wide scope was a question of proper context. Medieval philosophers were interested in general questions and any particular problematic they were interested in was related to the "big picture". Medieval universe felt a bit like a living organism where every single part played its specific role in supporting harmony of the whole - in contrast to modern science which disintegrates into number of ever more specialised branches with increasing tendency to lose ability to communicate among themselves....
The role of perception in knowing and description of living nature in renaissance
Čermáková, Lucie ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee) ; Horský, Jan (referee)
This work focuses on the use of senses and sense perceptible qualities in cognition and description of nature in the Renaissance. The development of natural history as a discipline started in that time. Brian Ogilvie even defined this period as a period of "The Science of Describing". The core of Renaissance natural history is the study of plants - Res herbaria. There were various motivations for studying plants during the sixteenth century - from the philological interest in plant descriptions of ancient texts, across their use as medical remedies, up to the study and observation of living plants in nature. This transformation of goals and interests in natural history brings different use of senses and different appreciation of sensory perceptible qualities of plants. First, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic effects of plants. Medicinal properties are based on the primary composition and are closely linked to sensory perceptible qualities. Another motivation for the study and description is the determination of the plant itself. First, it is mainly the identification of plants of the texts of ancient authors - Dioscorides, Galen, Pliny and Theophrastus. Descriptions of these texts then naturalists compared with their knowledge and experience with living plants. Observing and describing...
Ernst Haeckel in the Czech lands. Traces of Haeckel's Monism in the Czech culture during the late 19th and early 20th century.
Ovčáčková, Lenka ; Breidbach, Olaf (advisor) ; Janko, Jan (referee) ; Šimůnek, Michal (referee)
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), Professor für Zoologie an der Universität in Jena, war der bedeutendste Vertreter des deutschen Darwinismus und wurde zum Wegbereiter einer neuen naturwissenschaftlich-monistischen Weltanschauung. Vor allem beeinflusst durch Goethes pantheistische Ideen und Darwins Entwicklungslehre betonte Haeckel die Beseeltheit der Natur, die Einheit von Gott und Welt, Geist und Materie, und anorganischer und organischer Natur. Im ersten Teil dieser Arbeit werden das Leben und Werk Haeckels mit einem besonderen Bezug zu denjenigen monistischen Themenbereichen, die auch in Tschechien Resonanz gefunden haben, vorgestellt. Im zweiten Teil wird die Rezeption des Haeckelschen Monismus im tschechischen Kulturraum am Ende des 19. und am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts präsentiert. Ausgehend von den tschechischen "Vordenkern" einer monistischen ganzheitlichen und einheitlichen Weltbezogenheit wird der Zeitgeist vor allem in Bezug auf die Tendenzen zur Entwicklung einer eigenständigen tschechischen nationalen Wissenschaftlichkeit und die durch diese Aspekte bestimmte Rezeption des Darwinismus charakterisiert. Der offensichtliche Mangel an tschechischen Übersetzungen von Schriften Darwins und Haeckels wird insbesondere durch die an Haeckel gerichtete Korrespondenz belegt. Vor allem Josef Bulova...
Goethe's Science of Living Nature
de Vries, Wiert-Sebastiaan Bavo ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Bouzek, Jan (referee) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
Goethe's science of living nature - About the implicit Philosophical basics in the scientific studies of J.W. von Goethe This study explains and elaborates the basic philosophical concepts in Goethe's biological scientific studies. To explain the implicit philosophical concepts of Goethe's biological research, his ideas in the field of botany and zoology are presented. Important concepts like the Urpflanze (the idea of plant) and the Urtier (the idea of animal), and the concepts of the growing process of annual plants as shown in Goethe's the Metamorphosis of Plants (1790) are discussed. Also the method of Goethe's natural science is considered. To understand Goethe's position in the tradition of Western Philosophy and the Natural Sciences, the main steps in their history and development are described. These moments in the history tend to another view on nature than his. Goethe's scientific studies could be seen as an answer to the two questions of the literary figure of Faust (a request for essential knowledge of nature and for a qualitative method of research). Goethe's way of thinking about nature is also closely linked with the classic Greek philosophers. In Goethe's view of nature we can thus see a synthesis of main thoughts of Plato and Aristotle. At the end of the study the fundaments of a...
Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) and his Influence on the Natural Philosophy in the Czech Lands
Lelková, Iva ; Horský, Jan (advisor) ; Hermann, Tomáš (referee) ; Janko, Jan (referee)
Resumé: The dissertation deals with various layers of influence that Athanasius Kircher and his work had on the development of natural philosophy in the Czech lands around the half of the seventeenth century. It is possible to observe one such layer of this influence in his correspondence with the Czech lands, which often had patronage seeking character but was also a source of natural philosophic knowledge, observations and interests. Besides the correspondence influence, a diachronic influence and changing evaluation of Athnasius Kircher's work in the course of time is explored in one chapter. Another chapter introduces his own autobiography, which provides evidence of Kircher's conscious effort to shape the opinion of his person and his work to be made by his contemporaries and next generation of scholars. The last layer of influence being in focus of this work regards the influence of ideas based on an analogy between the movement of sea waters and movement of fluids in human body. Kircher's ideas on geocosmos expressed in his Mundus subterraneus (1664-1665) and Iter extaticum II (1657) are compared with the work of his correspondent, physician from Wroclaw and editor of the first medicine journal, Philipp Jacob Sachs von Löwenheim's Oceanus macro-microcosmicus (1664). Sachs reflects William Harvey's...

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