National Repository of Grey Literature 33 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Facial attractiveness and its correlates in cross-culture perspective
Fiala, Vojtěch ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Tureček, Petr (referee)
Past studies, that studied facial attractiveness, focus mainly on fluctuating asymmetry, averageness, masculinity, femininity, and skin coloration influences on attractiveness assessment. Their findings have been used by intercultural studies. They have revealed that people from diverse areas prefer differential development of sexually dimorphic cues, according to, e.g. local health and economic situation. We have done an online questionnaire survey. We included Czech (N = 100), Iranian (N = 87) and Turkish (N = 185) facial stimuli and raters of both sexes. We have studied whether members of all the populations would utilize the facial colouration and sexual dimorphism cues in a similar way. We have also tested whether there were differences in the facial width to height ratio (fWHR) between the sexes in all the populations. We have also wondered if the populations differed in the variance of facial skin colouration. Raters from all the populations saw feminine women as attractive. Turks and Czechs found masculine men as attractive, while Iranian women found more average Iranian men as attractive. Averageness positively predicted the attractiveness of the Czech and Turkish faces of both sexes. Older and more average Czech men were considered more masculine by Czech women. More average and younger Czech...
Morphological disparity and its evolutionary and ecological causes
Mráz, Jakub ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Tureček, Petr (referee)
Diversity of body shapes of all organisms belongs to the most interesting problems of biology. The explanation of the big number of different forms by the theory of evolution revolutionized biology as a whole. Therefore, the influences of the size of morphological diversity are very important and they are going to be discussed in this thesis. Focusing only on evolutionary and ecological influences at every taxonomical level. The first part of the thesis is going to discuss problems of definitions of several key terms, like diversity, disparity variance and more. Part of the thesis will also be granted to morphometry, as its terminology is necessary for explaining the causes of disparity. Keywords: Morphometry, Disparity, Diversity, Modularity
Are there any temperature related changes in morphological integration of Micrasterias cells?
Buchtová, Edith ; Neustupa, Jiří (advisor) ; Kleisner, Karel (referee)
Micrasterias rotata is a phylogenetically and morphologically well defined species that is widely distributed in Central Europe in a broad temperature gradient. For its complex cell shape Micrasterias rotata is a suitable model organism for cell morphogenesis research. This thesis investigated whether there could be a different pattern in morphological integration resulting from the temperature stress in Micrasterias rotata cells cultivated on a temperature gradient. The optimum and a limits of growth on the temperature gradient were related to the sampling locations of the studied strains isolated from a lowland wetland and an high alpine lake. Differences in the growth rates among the strains suggested a local adaptation to the climatic conditions of the original locations but relatively high values of the assumed optimum growth temperature suggested an intra- species evolutionary adaptation. The temperature-related size reduction rule was not confirmed; however, a similar pattern of variation in shape occurred in both strains. The morphological integration analysis has basically confirmed that the Micrasterias cell is composed of a number of morphological modules related to its differentiation into the lobes and sublobes. Integration between the lobes of the opposite semicell was primarily...
The relation between hair characteristics and personality in humans
Sýkorová, Kateřina ; Flegr, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Kleisner, Karel (referee)
Numerous studies have described that physical traits correlate with psychological personal characteristics. However, associations between congenital hair characteristics and personality have not been studied yet. Such studies have focused only on the association of hair color with a few specific psychological characteristics or emotions. The aim of this study was to reveal whether people with different hair darkness, redheadedness or curliness vary in personality and sexual traits. We have found significant connection of these traits with hair darkness and especially with redheadedness and curliness for men and women. These hair characteristics were associated with self-rated personality characteristics, Big Five personality traits and sexual orientation and preferences. We have excluded the mediating role of some physical and psychological factors for many associations. However, in many cases the connections disappeared when controlling for these factors, thus there is a possibility of a mediating role of these factors in observed associations. The hypothesis concerning the effect of stereotypes based on different types of hair and self-fulfilling prophecy was also considered.
Cross-cultural perception of attractiveness and its correlates: the role of visual modalities
Fiala, Vojtěch ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Třebický, Vít (referee)
This work reviews the literature on the topic of intercultural perception of human attractiveness with special focus on recent videostimuli-using research. The first section introduces several basic perspectives on ecological-evolutionary view of attractiveness. The next section deals with intercultural differences in attractiveness perception dicussing possible explanations of these differences. The third chapter focuses on faces of people of cross-culture origin and usage of composite stimuli and artificially manipulated stimuli in inter-cultural research. The fourth chapter examines the usage of videostimuli in attractiveness research. I also add information about intercultural usage of videostimuli as far as these are available. Finally, I discuss a possible source of result ambiguity and highlight the potential use of videostimuli in intercultural research of attractiveness perception. Keywords Attractiveness, intercultural perception, videostimuli, cross-culture origin, composite images, averageness, masculinity, feminity
Imprinting-like effects and homogamy as factor affecting the evolution of eye and hair colour
Joudal, Lukáš ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Bártová, Klára (referee)
Existing studies have demonstrated that choosing a partner is strongly determined by physical and personal characteristics of a parent of the opposite sex. This influence is affected by the quality of the relationship with the parent during one's childhood. There are many studies focused on choosing a partner in relation to self-similarity. They show that many characteristics are shared between partners. The partner self-similarity has a positive impact on one's satisfaction in and stability of a relationship. Previous research also shows consistency in choosing a partner, meaning there exists a resemblance among ex-partners. The main objective of this thesis is to make a contribution to understanding the mechanisms of choosing a partner based on similarity (colour of eyes and hair) with the parent of the opposite sex and/or based on self-similarity. Next aim is to explore consistency in choosing a partner according to phenotype characteristics (eye and hair colour). The online survey involved overall 1 266 participants, 942 women and 324 men. The survey provided following results. Women choose self-similar partners in terms of eye colour; they also choose their partners depending on the eye colour of their father. Those women with hair colour similar to their partner's show higher relationship...
The role of minority type preference in human sexual selection
Pokorný, Šimon ; Kleisner, Karel (advisor) ; Třebický, Vít (referee)
Minority phenotype preference, or the negative frequency-dependent selection is a type of selection, where a feature is more preferred, the lower it's frequency is in the population. Even a weak effect in other-preference based sexual selection can result in a sustainable polymorphism. This study reviews the phenomenon in the context of human visual facial features. Common trends in attractiveness shape the morphology of the human face towards uniformity. Individual recognition however, as a condition for most social relations, uses the wast variability of different features. This variability could be formed and maintained by minority phenotype preference. In our study we tested the effect of minority phenotype preference in the selection for rare hair and eye colors. In 120 unique sets, each containing six photographs, we experimentally manipulated the frequency of each color type. These sets were then shown to 226 human raters. We tested whether the relative frequency of each color type affected the rating of individual stimuli. In hair color, significant effect of minority phenotype preference was detected when females rated the photographs of men. When males rated the photographs of females, the effect was significant in eye color only. Key words: face perception, sexual selection,...

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