National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Quantification of insulin secretion after administration of whey proteins in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes
Wildová, Elena ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Pelikánová, Terezie (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
INTRODUCTION: Milk and milk proteins have higher insulinogenic index than glycemic index. This feature is mainly attributed to whey proteins. The main goal of this thesis was to evaluate a C-peptide response after administration of whey proteins in healthy individuals (study 1) and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (study 2) in comparison to other experimental stimulation tests. METHODS: Eight young, healthy (7 males, 1 female; aged 20-26 years), non-obese (BMI: 17 - 25.9 kg/mš) participants with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled for study 1. Each individual underwent six C-peptide secretion tests in total. Three secretion tests measured C-peptide response to orally administered substances: whey proteins only (OWT), whey proteins with glucose (OWGT) and glucose only (OGTT, reference); while the other three secretion tests measured C-peptide response to intravenously administered substances: arginine (AST), glucagon (GST) and glucose (IVGTT, reference). Sixteen overweight (BMI 26,4 - 29,8 kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, good glycemic control and with preserved fasting serum C-peptide levels (0,94 ± 0, 07 nmol/l) were enrolled for study 2. Two oral stimulation tests - one with 75 g of glucose (OGTT) and the other with 75 g of whey proteins (OWIST) - were used for assessing...
The comparison of drinking regime of obese and non-obese type 2 diabetics
Görnerová, Lucie ; Vařeka, Tomáš (advisor) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on topics of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and drinking regime from the point of view of nutritional therapist. Objective of the bachelor thesis: Comparison of drinking regime in obese and non-obese type 2 diabetics. Methodology: The practical part of the bachelor thesis compares the drinking regime of obese and non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes. It monitors the quality and quantity of the proband drinking regime. There were 16 patients with type 2 diabetes approached in Diabetic Outpatient IV. of the VFN's internal clinic. 8 probands completed the research and their results are presented in the bachelor thesis. The participants filled out a form for seven days before and after the training seminar. They wrote down the quantity and type of drunk drinks. Prior to the training seminar, they filled out questionnaire number 1 focused on the patients' awareness about drinking regime in type 2 diabetes. After this seminar, they completed questionnaire number 2 examining the difficulty of monitoring compliance with this drinking regime. Questionnaire no. 2 tried to find out whether probands had thought about their drinking regime when putting it down and how they were motivated to take part in an educational seminar. Results: probands were divided into obese and...
Pathobiochemistry of diabetes mellitus and its complications - oxidative stress, microinflammation and genetic predisposition.
Škrha, Jan ; Kalousová, Marta (advisor) ; Rybka, Jaroslav (referee) ; Bendlová, Běla (referee)
Diabetes is a chronic disease with high prevalence and significant morbidity. Chronic changes in the wall of small and large vessels lead to main diabetes complications. Apart from long- term hyperglycemia, several factors are involved in the development of diabetes vasculopathy. The aim of this work was to describe new early biomarkers of these vascular changes, to identify risky patients. Alongside, gene polymorphisms involved in protective pathways of glucose metabolism were studied. In three human studies with Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 (T2D) diabetes patients special biochemical parameters of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and its ligands, deglycation enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and fructosamine 3-kinase (FN3K) gene polymorphisms were analyzed. Non-invasive measurement of glycation by skin autofluorescence (SAF) was assessed in all subjects. Soluble RAGE, HMGB1 and endothelial dysfunction markers were increased in patients with diabetes as compared with controls, however the differences between T1D and T2D were not significant. For the first time, an association between FN3K (rs1056534) and (rs3848403) polymorphism and sRAGE concentration in diabetes was shown. GLO1 (rs4746) polymorphism was associated with changes in endothelial dysfunction. Patients with diabetes had higher...
Nutritional of patients with diabetes mellitus of the second type
Vlášková, Lenka ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on nutritional of patients with diabetes mellitus of the second type. The theoretical part defines type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been increasing in our country and all over the world. Although the genetic predisposition is necessary for the development of diabetes, we can prevent this disease. The obesity as well as the other components of the metabolic syndrome prevention is very important in type 2 diabetes prevention. Physical activity is also very important, as it has a significant effect on insulin sensitivity and the dietary influences, which this bachelor thesis particularly deals with. The practical part is based on the survey, which contains the results of a questionnaire survey carried out at the 13rd International day of diabetes mellitus on Charles square in Prague. This part of the work shows how are their eating habits and activities. Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic syndrome, dietary prevention
Effects of obesity on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
Brima, Wunnie ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šimánek, Vilím (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
Obesity is very widespread and detrimental to health. Obesity brings with it many changes including heightened immune function, and a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Obesity is also associated with shortened lifespan. The detrimental effects of obesity are linked to the "metabolic syndrome", a broad range of changes in metabolic processes and immune function. As a first approximation, we agree with this formulation but we will then proceed to document some of its weaknesses. (i) Crude mortality rates increase with increasing body mass index (BMI) but as the BMI approaches the normal range, mortality rates reverse (the now classic "J-shaped curve") so that individuals with reduced BMI have elevated mortality. (ii) A multiplicity of medical and surgical conditions have been reported where short term and medium term outcomes are better for overweight patients. These conditions are placed under the heading of "obesity paradox". (iii) The medical community has introduced a binary system for the metabolic syndrome ---- yes, patient has it or no, the patient does not have it, despite the fact that all of the changes that are considered components of the metabolic syndrome are continuous variables. Our work is focused on sharpening focus and improving...
Signalling of protein kinase B and expression of cyclooxygenase in early phases of diabetic nephropathy
Ždychová, Jana ; Komers, Radko (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Matoušovic, Karel (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
Introduction: Renal hypertrophy, extracellular matrix accumulation, aItered apoptosis as well as changes in regional hemodynamics have been implicated in the pathophysiology of nephropathy in diabetes mellitus (DM). On the molecular level the detailed mechanisms for development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) have becn intensively studied. Insulin induces a variety of biologicaI effects in a number of cell types via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt kinase signaling pathway. Considering multiple function of Akt that incIude potentiaIly hannful pro-growth effects mediated by mTOR and cyclooxygenas-2 (COX-2), as well as protective effects mediated by endotheliaI nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), it is possible that aIterations in activities of Akt may play role in the pathophysiology ofDN. Renal corticaI activity and expression of Akt, its down-strearn effectors mTOR, eNOS, and "C<JIX-:Z. as well as PTEN, an endogenous Akt inhibitor, were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ): diabetic rats as a model of Type 1 DM with different levels of glycenůc control, and in Zucker ~d.iabetic fatty rats, a model ofDM2, and in nondiabetic rats as controls. Methods: Akt activity was measured by kinase assay. Protein expressions were measured by .immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry in renal cortex of 4- and 12- week old...
Gene polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes and diabetes mellitus
Flekač, Milan ; Škrha, Jan (advisor) ; Bendlová, Běla (referee) ; Rybka, Jaroslav (referee)
Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an antioxidant enzyme closely associated with HDL(high-density lipoproteins), preserves LDL (low density lipoproteins) against oxidation. Less protection may be therefore supposed by decreased PON1 activity.This study was undertaken to investigate the association of PON1 gene polymorphisms with diabetic angiopathy and to evaluate the relationship of these polymorphisms with PON1 activity. Total of 86 Type 1 (T1DM) and 246 Type 2 (T2DM) diabetic patients together with 110 healthy subjects were examined. DNA isolated from leukocytes was amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme digestion. The products were analyzed for L55M and Q192R polymorphisms in coding region and for -107 C/T and -907 G/C in promotor sequence of PON1. Serum enzyme activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Significant differences were found between T1DM or T2DM and control persons in L55M polymorphism (allele M more frequent in T1DM and T2DM vs. controls, p<0,05) and Q192R polymorphism (R allele less frequent in T1DM and T2DM vs. controls, p<0,01) of the PON1 gene. Serum PON1 activity was significantly decreased in T1DM (110±68 nmol/ml/min) and T2DM patients (118±69 nmol/ml/min) compared to the control persons (203±58 nmol/ml/min), both p<0,01. The presence of MM and QQ...
název v anglickém jazyce není uveden
Kasalová, Zdislava ; Škrha, Jan (advisor) ; Piťha, Jan (referee) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee)
Diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia and arterial hypertension are the best known risk factors of atherosclerosis- the most common macrovascular disease. The aim of our work was to asses influence of this risk factors on microcirculation. We supposed, that the smallest vessels are the most sensitive to the noxious influence and that microvascular disorder will be early indicator of vascular impairment. Our work has shown, that risk factors influence on microcirculation is completely different, in the contrast with relatively uniform influence on macrovaslular level. Diabetes mellitus presents two completely different entities, from the microvascular point of view. Pathogenesis of microvascular and macrovascular complications in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the same- it is the long- term hyperglycaemia, but it's influence on microvascular reactivity is completelly different. In Type 1 diabetic patients, microvascular reactivity impairment develops later, and it is in correlation with presence and severity of the most common microvascular complication- peripheral neuropathy. On the contrary, in Type 2 diabetes mellitus microvascular reactivity impairment occures in early stage of this dissease and is not connected with presence and severity of peripheral neuropathy. In patients with...

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