National Repository of Grey Literature 26 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Metabolic Effects of L-Carnitine Supplementation in Hemodialyzed Patients
Cibulka, Roman ; Racek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Zima, Tomáš (referee) ; Eiselt, Jaromír (referee)
Chronic kidney failure is associated with many kinds of metabolic disorders caused by the kidney disease and also attributable to dialysis treatment. Phenomena such as accumulation or deficit of various substances and dysregulation of metabolic pathways participate in the pathogenesis of these changes. One of these disorders, which we studied in more detail, is a deficit of carnitine. Carnitine is a substance which plays an essential role in beta-oxidation of fatty acids by catalyzing their transport into the mitochondrial matrix. It enables obtaining of energy, namely in muscle cells including myocardium. Patients with chronic kidney failure treated by hemodialysis are known to have decreased carnitine concentration in plasma and tissues due to its impaired synthesis in kidneys and the great loss across the hemodialysis membrane during dialysis sessions. A single hemodialysis session reduces plasma free-carnitine concentrations to about one-third of their predialysis values because of small molecule of free-carnitine. On the other hand, renal elimination of acylcarnitine, which is physiologically ineffective, may be impaired in chronic kidney failure, leading to increased blood concentrations of acylcarnitine. Considerable evidence suggests that carnitine deficiency and abnormalities of carnitine...
Changes in the iron metabolism and its regulation in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by hemodialysis and kidney transplantion
Turková Sedláčková, Terezie ; Racek, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Zima, Tomáš (referee) ; Teplan, Vladimír (referee)
Iron is a very important biogenous trace element, which is involved in many of cell processes in organism. For its character iron can be also involved in Fenton reaction, where a toxic hydroxyl radical is produced. The iron metabolism is very carefully regulated in order to avoid formation of hydroxyl radical. Iron Responsive Proteins-Iron Responsive Elements (IRPs-IREs) system is involved in the regulation of iron metabolism on cell level, small peptide hormon hepcidin is involved in the regulation on systemic level. Hepcidin was discovered in 2000 as a peptide with antimicrobial properties. It is a key regulator of iron metabolism, as was discovered later. The target of hepcidin is ferroportin-the only known iron cell exporter. The expression of hepcidin is downregulated by hypoxia and anemia and upregulated by iron overload and inflammation. Hemodialyzed patients suffer from anemia very often. This anemia is caused by many factors, e.g. inadequate production of erythropoietin, chronic inflammation, chronic oxidative stress, blood loss during hemodialysis process or lower lifetime of red blood cells. We realized three studies on the patients with end-stage renal disease in our laboratories. Our aim was to find a relationship of hepcidin and other parameters of iron metabolism, inflammation and...
Effects of obesity on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
Brima, Wunnie ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šimánek, Vilím (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
Obesity is very widespread and detrimental to health. Obesity brings with it many changes including heightened immune function, and a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Obesity is also associated with shortened lifespan. The detrimental effects of obesity are linked to the "metabolic syndrome", a broad range of changes in metabolic processes and immune function. As a first approximation, we agree with this formulation but we will then proceed to document some of its weaknesses. (i) Crude mortality rates increase with increasing body mass index (BMI) but as the BMI approaches the normal range, mortality rates reverse (the now classic "J-shaped curve") so that individuals with reduced BMI have elevated mortality. (ii) A multiplicity of medical and surgical conditions have been reported where short term and medium term outcomes are better for overweight patients. These conditions are placed under the heading of "obesity paradox". (iii) The medical community has introduced a binary system for the metabolic syndrome ---- yes, patient has it or no, the patient does not have it, despite the fact that all of the changes that are considered components of the metabolic syndrome are continuous variables. Our work is focused on sharpening focus and improving...
Study of protein changes in patients with nephrotic syndrome and Anderson-Fabry disease
Vojtová, Lucie ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Teplan, Vladimír (referee) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
Background: Heavy proteinuria may be caused by either increased glomerulal basement membrane permeability or membrane or podocyte structural damage, and also by impairment of secretion-reabsorption tubular processes. In this study, 60 patients with nephrotic proteinuria and other diagnoses (lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, Wegener's granulomatosis) and 20 patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD),which is an X-linked genetic disorder with deficient a-galactosidase A activity, were analysed by the 2D electrophoresis method. The main aim of this work was to investigate possible differences in urine proteins in nephropaties, between healthy controls and AFD patients and to identify abnormal proteins as potential biomarkers of disease. Methods: The urine proteins were devided by isoelectric focusing method using polyacrylamide strips (pH 3-10 linear). The second dimensional SDS electrophoresis was performed in 12 % polyacrylamide gel. The proteins were visualized by silver method and selected proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The gels were evaluated by Phoretix 2D expression software 2005. Results: We found out that without adding protease inhibitors we can detect proteolysis, with increased quantity of proteins manifested in the area about 10 kDa and decreased quantity...
Laboratory diagnostics of micrometastases in breast cancer patients
Mikulová, Veronika ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Svoboda, Marek (referee) ; Průša, Richard (referee)
Introduction: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood has been associated with worse prognosis and early relapse in breast cancer patients. CTC determination in the peripheral blood has been considered as a liquid biopsy. The aim of this project was to analyze the presence of CTC followed by their molecular characterization with the potential use not only as a new biomarker for real-time monitoring of therapy efficacy but also as a suitable tool for patient's stratification and individualization of treatment for breast cancer. Methods: A total of 54 patients with diagnosed early breast cancer were enrolled into a prospective study. Ten millilitres of peripheral blood were sequentially collected to test for the presence and characterization of CTC during the follow-up of patients. CTC isolation and detection was performed by AdnaTest BreastCancer™ (AdnaGen AG, Germany), which is based on the detection of EpCAM, HER2 and MUC1 specific transcripts in enriched CTC- lysates. cDNA from isolated CTC has been further used for newly optimized qPCR assays for breast tumor and therapy resistance associated genes: TOP1, TOP2A, CSTD, ST6GAL, KRT19 and reference gene actin. qPCR results have been analyzed by Genex software (MultiD Analysis). Results: 195 blood samples have been...
Research of vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in microvascular retinal disorders focussed on eye complications of diabetes mellitus
Křížová, Libuše ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Sosna, Tomáš (referee)
In this work I present conclusions of clinical-laboratory research focused on the patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We performed biochemical and immunochemical analyses of vitreous samples that were collected during the pars plana vitrectomy. Moreover, at patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) we assessed morphological characteristics of DME using optical coherence tomography (OCT). According to our findings, the vitreous and serum concentrations of uric acid and glucose were significantly higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and DME compared to controls. Also total ratio (serum/ vitreous concentration) of uric acid and glucose was in diabetics significantly higher than in controls. The most important determinant of increasing concentration of both uric acid and glucose in the vitreous was the grade of diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, we demonstrated significant correlation between vitreous concentration of uric acid and concentration of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with DME and NPDR. We found further, that the volume of the macula (cube volume - CV) computed with the software of Cirrus HD-OCT correlates in diabetics significantly with the vitreous VEGF concentration, but not with uric acid. This OCT parameter could be used to...
Individualization of the treatment of prostate cancer patients based on the immunocytochemical detection of circulating tumor cells
Škereňová, Markéta ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Svoboda, Marek (referee)
Introduction: Together with the introduction of new therapeutic options in castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), an advance in individual disease characterization is required. Since common biopsy methods are not suitable for the majority of CRPC patients, one possible solution is the liquid biopsy that is, the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) isolated from the cancer patients' blood. Methods: A method based on the immunomagnetic enrichment of CTCs and subsequent PCR detection of tumor-associated genes (AdnaTest, Qiagen) was characterized and used for the detection of CTCs in 41 CRPC patients. Each patient was screened at the time of CRPC diagnosis and after the 3rd cycle of docetaxel therapy. A panel of genes associated with therapeutic decision-making was established and validated. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) method on a BioMark platform (Fluidigm, USA) was used to determine the expression of the gene panel in the CTC-enriched and primary tumor samples and the results were analyzed. Results: CTCs were found in 85% and 45% of CRPC patients before and during the therapy, respectively. The presence of CTCs, as well as EGFR and AR PCR fragments, was associated with a decreased sPSA response and lower survival. The gene expression of the CTC- enriched and primary tumor samples differed...
Effects of obesity on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection
Brima, Wunnie ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šimánek, Vilím (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
Obesity is very widespread and detrimental to health. Obesity brings with it many changes including heightened immune function, and a higher prevalence of major cardiovascular disorders, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. Obesity is also associated with shortened lifespan. The detrimental effects of obesity are linked to the "metabolic syndrome", a broad range of changes in metabolic processes and immune function. As a first approximation, we agree with this formulation but we will then proceed to document some of its weaknesses. (i) Crude mortality rates increase with increasing body mass index (BMI) but as the BMI approaches the normal range, mortality rates reverse (the now classic "J-shaped curve") so that individuals with reduced BMI have elevated mortality. (ii) A multiplicity of medical and surgical conditions have been reported where short term and medium term outcomes are better for overweight patients. These conditions are placed under the heading of "obesity paradox". (iii) The medical community has introduced a binary system for the metabolic syndrome ---- yes, patient has it or no, the patient does not have it, despite the fact that all of the changes that are considered components of the metabolic syndrome are continuous variables. Our work is focused on sharpening focus and improving...
Research of vitreous and vitreoretinal interface in microvascular retinal disorders focussed on eye complications of diabetes mellitus
Křížová, Libuše ; Zima, Tomáš (advisor) ; Průša, Richard (referee) ; Sosna, Tomáš (referee)
In this work I present conclusions of clinical-laboratory research focused on the patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). We performed biochemical and immunochemical analyses of vitreous samples that were collected during the pars plana vitrectomy. Moreover, at patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) we assessed morphological characteristics of DME using optical coherence tomography (OCT). According to our findings, the vitreous and serum concentrations of uric acid and glucose were significantly higher in patients with diabetic retinopathy and DME compared to controls. Also total ratio (serum/ vitreous concentration) of uric acid and glucose was in diabetics significantly higher than in controls. The most important determinant of increasing concentration of both uric acid and glucose in the vitreous was the grade of diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, we demonstrated significant correlation between vitreous concentration of uric acid and concentration of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with DME and NPDR. We found further, that the volume of the macula (cube volume - CV) computed with the software of Cirrus HD-OCT correlates in diabetics significantly with the vitreous VEGF concentration, but not with uric acid. This OCT parameter could be used to...

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