National Repository of Grey Literature 57 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Soft drinks and their effects on health
Ramstad, Gunnar Alexander Wilson ; Anděl, Michal (advisor)
The consumption of soft drinks has increased manifold over the last decades. In parallel to this increase it has been noticed an increase in health problems, especially obesity. Dentists continue to urge their patients not to drink soft drinks, and there has also been suggested a link between soft drink consumption and osteoporosis, hypokalemia and diabetes mellitus 2. Other additives, like caffeine, have been associated with headaches, restlessness and trouble with sleeping. Although more research is needed to confirm these relationships, many scientists suggest that we should start taking action to prevent children from developing the habits of large soft drink consumption we witness today. This could be accomplished by cooperation between parents, health practitioners, school system and government.
Lifestyle diseases, their causes and prevention.
Horáková, Aneta ; Raisová, Miloslava (advisor) ; Anděl, Michal (referee)
My bachelor thesis dealt with the issues of lifestyle diseases. The objective of this work was to use a questionnaire survey to find out whether and how the people are informed about these diseases. If they know causes related to them and how they try to prevent from them. I also was wondering whether the people on the basis of their age and their maximal attained educational are differently informed about these diseases. Aims of this work were completed fulfilled and the results showed that the respondents who were used in my questionnaire are sufficiently informed about these diseases and their prevention which they predominantly respect. As emerged from the work it would be appropriate to ensure that the society continues to be well - informed about these diseases. I personally would wish that people of all ages to regularly and consciously pay primarily attention to precautions of a healthy lifestyle which is the basis of prevention of lifestyle diseases.
Effect of GLP-1 on liver metabolism in experiment
Fontana, Josef ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Lotková, Halka (referee) ; Vištejnová, Lucie (referee)
1 Summary GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) is a peptide hormone belonging to the group of incretins that is secreted postprandially from enteroendocrine L-cells. Number of studies described its effects to lower blood glucose level and to positively affect the B-cells of the islets of Langerhans (reducing apoptosis and accelerating their differentiation). The relationship of GLP-1 to liver cells is intensively studied. Studies described that GLP-1, its analogues or inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 have a wide range of effects in the liver. For our work was crucial that effects on lipid and saccharide metabolism in the liver were described, as well as modulation of processes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and formation of inflammatory mediators. These processes play an essential role in both: pathological conditions (eg. liver diseases NAFLD/NASH) and in the process of liver regeneration. Works describing the potential effect of incretin-based therapies in the treatment of liver diseases (especially NAFLD and NASH) were available prior to the start of our work. In contrast, results of studies on the effect of GLP-1 on the process of liver regeneration and proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes were very limited in the literature. The aim of our work was to elucidate the...
Nutritional Factors in Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Development
Gojda, Jan ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Saudek, František (referee) ; Prázný, Martin (referee)
Nutritional Factors in Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Development Jan Gojda Abstract Background. Diet composition ranks among etiological factors of insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Vegans, people consuming exclusively plant-based diet, have significantly lower prevalence of IR and thus represent a suitable model population for study of nutritional factors on IR development. Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) ranks among these factors. Aims and hypothesis. Aim of the observational study was to prove that vegans have better glucoregulatory functions and thus to validate "vegan vs. omnivore" model. Aim of the consecutive interventional study was to prove in this model that dietary intervention with BCAA leads to a group sepcific changes in the insulin function mesures. Methods. 11 vegans and 10 omnivorous controls were recruited in the observational study. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) and muscle (SM) biopsies (amount of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), mtDNA and the activity of citrate synthase (CS)) were performed. 8 vegans and 8 omnivores were consequently subjected to the intervention with 15 or 20 g of BCAA respectively. The examination was performed at the baseline, after the intervention and after 6 months wash-out period: anthropometry, HEC, arginine test, SM biopsy (CS, activity of...
Quantification of insulin secretion after administration of whey proteins in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes
Wildová, Elena ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Pelikánová, Terezie (referee) ; Škrha, Jan (referee)
INTRODUCTION: Milk and milk proteins have higher insulinogenic index than glycemic index. This feature is mainly attributed to whey proteins. The main goal of this thesis was to evaluate a C-peptide response after administration of whey proteins in healthy individuals (study 1) and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (study 2) in comparison to other experimental stimulation tests. METHODS: Eight young, healthy (7 males, 1 female; aged 20-26 years), non-obese (BMI: 17 - 25.9 kg/mš) participants with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled for study 1. Each individual underwent six C-peptide secretion tests in total. Three secretion tests measured C-peptide response to orally administered substances: whey proteins only (OWT), whey proteins with glucose (OWGT) and glucose only (OGTT, reference); while the other three secretion tests measured C-peptide response to intravenously administered substances: arginine (AST), glucagon (GST) and glucose (IVGTT, reference). Sixteen overweight (BMI 26,4 - 29,8 kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, good glycemic control and with preserved fasting serum C-peptide levels (0,94 ± 0, 07 nmol/l) were enrolled for study 2. Two oral stimulation tests - one with 75 g of glucose (OGTT) and the other with 75 g of whey proteins (OWIST) - were used for assessing...
Energy metabolism of skeletal muscle
Elkalaf, Moustafa GamalEldin Mahmoud Mohamed ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Drahota, Zdeněk (referee) ; Žurmanová, Jitka (referee)
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body and plays a marked role in the homeostasis of the body metabolic state. Mitochondria have been proven to contribute to the pathophysiology of various metabolic diseases, either due to defects in their bioenergetic properties or the production of reactive oxygen species. In this work murine myoblasts C2C12 were used as a model of skeletal muscle in vitro, and rat muscle was used to prepare homogenate enriched in the mitochondrial fraction. This work investigates the changes in respiratory parameters in models where mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is induced by changing the available consumable substrates in the culture media, such as replacing glucose by galactose, and the effect of treating the cells with high glucose concentration during the process of differentiation on mitochondrial performance. It also investigates the changes in bioenergetic profiles in samples treated with inactive derivatives of the widely used triphenylphosphonium (TPP+) salts to target mitochondria by various probes and antioxidants. The methods used in this study included evaluating mitochondrial parameters in intact and permeabilized cells by real time measurement of the oxygen consumption rate using the extracellular flux analyzer, measuring the enzymatic...
Nutritional Status of Prague Homeless Population
Hrnčířová, Dana ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Derflerová Brázdová, Zuzana (referee) ; Provazníková, Hana (referee) ; Tláskal, Petr (referee)
Socio-economic, health and hygienic characteristics place the homeless people at risk groups. The higher incidence of health problems may have a multi-faceted etiology, including: smoking, alcohol, drugs, poor hygiene, insufficient food intake, poor quality diets etc. The prevalence of chronic diseases and cardiovascular risk factors is generally significantly higher in the homeless population than in the general population. Nutritional status of the homeless is also often compromised; many studies have reported malnutrition and insufficient intake of micronutrients whose daily turnover is enhanced by heavy smoking and alcohol consumption. The objective of our studies was to (a) define in the Prague homeless population the prevalence of protein-energetic malnutrition and (b) describe some of the major cardiovascular risk factors and to make comparisons between this group and the general Czech population, (c) to assess levels of selected vitamins (A, E, C, B1, B2, B6) and trace elements (Zn, Se, Cu) in blood and (d) exposition to Pb and Cd and to compare the results with individuals representing the general Czech population, (e) to assess the nutrient intake of main nutrients and compare it with the daily recommendations.
Effects of acute starvation and of type 2 diabetes mellitus upon insulin resistance and substrate utilization in obese subjects
Duška, František ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Mourek, Jindřich (referee) ; Stárka, Luboslav (referee)
Very-low calorie diet or even total short-term fasting is widely used in clinical practice in order to improve metabolic compensation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although benefits of weight reduction are well proven in T2DM, much less is known about effects of acute starvation, during which the interruption of the afflux of energy substrates is not followed by a major change of body composition. We hypothesize the improvement of insulin effects on glucose metabolism in T2DM as these patients may lack the key metabolic responses which impair insulin sensitivity in lean, non-diabetic subjects. Moreover, we assume according to "thrifty genotype hypothesis" that protein wasting during starvation will be positively related to insulin effects on glucose disposal and negatively related to insulin antilipolytic and antiketogenic effects. In the light of this we designed an observational, prospective, in-hospital study, comparing the effects of 60 hours fast on various aspects of insulin resistance, endocrine regulation and metabolism in 10 patients with T2DM and 10 obese controls without diabetes (OB).
The influence of central serotoninergic and dopaminergic activity on nutritional and metabolic parameters
Brunerová, Ludmila ; Anděl, Michal (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Yamamotová, Anna (referee)
THE INFLUENCE OF CENTRAL SEROTONINERGIC AND DOPAMINERGIC ACTIVITY ON NUTRITIONAL AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS MUDr. Ludmila Brunerová SUMMARY Introduction: Neuromediators dopamine and serotonin play a significant role in homeostatic and hedonic regulation of food intake, may exert direct metabolic effects and particularly serotonin influences affectivity. Their central activity could be quantified by functional tests. Common regulatory mediators of metabolism and affectivity represent an interesting research goal. Aims of study: The first aim was to describe the relationship between central serotoninergic activity measured by citalopram challenge test, affectivity, preference of macronutrients in food and metabolic profile in healthy men. The second aim was to confirm the use of sublingual apomorphine test as a functional test for assessment of central dopaminergic activity. The third aim was to reveal the relationship between central dopaminergic activity measured by sublingual apomorphine test, preference of macronutrients and metabolic profile. Methods: The study was performed on 42 healthy men (average age 43.5 ± 7.4 years and average BMI 27.4 ± 5.7 kg/mš) within 4 days with a week interval in between them. Anthropometric and...

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See also: similar author names
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1 Anděl, Miroslav
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